Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 827

Search results for: sanitary wastewater

827 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos

Abstract:

This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: food-borne disease, epidemic, sanitary inspection, mathematical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
826 The Proposal of Modification of California Pipe Method for Inclined Pipe

Authors: Wojciech Dąbrowski, Joanna Bąk, Laurent Solliec

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Nowadays technical and technological progress and constant development of methods and devices applied to sanitary engineering is indispensable. Issues related to sanitary engineering involve flow measurements for water and wastewater. The precise measurement is very important and pivotal for further actions, like monitoring. There are many methods and techniques of flow measurement in the area of sanitary engineering. Weirs and flumes are well–known methods and common used. But also there are alternative methods. Some of them are very simple methods, others are solutions using high technique. The old–time method combined with new technique could be more useful than earlier. Paper describes substitute method of flow gauging (California pipe method) and proposal of modification of this method used for inclined pipe. Examination of possibility of improving and developing old–time methods is direction of the investigation.

Keywords: California pipe, sewerage, flow rate measurement, water, wastewater, improve, modification, hydraulic monitoring, stream

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825 Energy Savings with the Use of LED Lights at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kishen Prathivadi

Abstract:

The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) is a Joint Powers Authority formed in 1976 and provides secondary wastewater treatment to an average flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. SAM owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a sanitary sewage collection system that collects sewage from its three member agencies: the City of Half Moon Bay, the Granada Community Services District and Montara Water and Sanitary District. The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) partnered with Pacific Gas & Electric, and its contractor GEL America, to review and replace all inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs at the SAM treatment plant and administrative office. The project focused on replacing old and inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs, reducing annual operating and maintenance costs, and reducing SAM’s carbon footprint. The project resulted in a 55% overall energy reduction, higher light quality and acuity, and a total operational savings of $495,000 over ten years.

Keywords: energy savings, LED, lighting, electrical

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824 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane

Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah

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Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.

Keywords: bioelectricity, COD, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starch

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823 An Application of Geographic Information System to Select Areas for Sanitary Landfill in Bang Nok- Khwaek Municipality

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

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The study of Sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipality consists of two procedures. First, to survey and create the spatial database by using physical factor, environmental factor, economical factor and social factor to follow the method of Geographic information system: GIS, second, to analyze the proper spatial for allocating the sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipality by using Overlay techniques to calculate the weighting linear total in Arc GIS program. The study found that there are 2.49 sq.km. proper spatial for the sanitary landfill in Bang Nok-khwaek municipals city which is 66.76% of the whole area. The highest proper spatial is 0.02 sq.km. which is 0.54%, The high proper spatial is 0.3 sq.km. which is 8.04%, the moderate spatial is 1.62 sq.km. which is 43.43% and the low proper spatial is 0.55 sq.km. which is 14.75%. These results will be used as the guideline to select the sanitary landfill area in accordance with sanitation standard for Subdistrict Administrative Organization and Subbdistrict Municipality in Samut Songkhram provice.

Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), sanitary landfill, Bang Nok-Khwaek municipality, Subdistrict Administrative Organization

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822 Treatment of Sanitary Landfill Leachate by Advanced Oxidation Techniques

Authors: R. Kerbachi , Y. Medkour, F. Sahnoune

Abstract:

The integrated waste management is an important aspect in the implementation of sustainable development. Leachate generated by sanitary landfills is a high-strength wastewater that is likely to contain large amounts of organic and inorganic matter, with humic substances, as well as ammonia nitrogen, heavy metals, chlorinated organic and inorganic salts. Untreated leachates create a great potential for harm to the environment, they can permeate ground water or mix with surface water and contribute to the pollution of soil, ground water, and surface water. In Algeria, the treatment of landfill leachate is the weakest link in the solid waste management. This study focuses on the evaluation of the pollution load carried by leachate produced in a former sanitary landfill located to the west of Algiers and the implementation of advanced oxidation treatment (advanced oxidation process, AOP), Fenton, electro-Fenton etc. The characterization of these leachates shows that they have a high organic load, mineral and nitrogen. Measured COD reaches very high values of the order of 5000 to 20,000 mg O2 / L. On this non-biodegradable leachate, treatment tests have been carried out by the methods of coagulation-flocculation, Fenton oxidation, electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton. The removal efficiencies of pollution obtained for each of these modes of treatment are respectively 69, 80, 84 and 97%. The study shows that advanced oxidation processes are very suitable for the treatment of poorly biodegradable leachate.

Keywords: advanced oxidation processes, electrocoagulation, electro-Fenton, leachates treatment, sanitary landfill

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821 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki

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Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewater

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820 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

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819 Sanitary Measures in Piggeries, Awareness and Risk Factors of African Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe

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A study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with sanitary measures in piggeries, and awareness and risk factors of African swine fever in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 74 respondents consisting of piggery owners and attendants in different piggeries across 12 LGAs to collect data for this study. Sanitary measures in piggeries were observed to be generally very poor, though respondents admitted being aware of ASF. Piggeries located within a 1 km radius of a slaughter slab (OR=9.2, 95% CI - 3.0-28.8), piggeries near refuse dump sites (OR=3.0, 95% CI - 1.0-9.5) and piggeries where farm workers wear their work clothes outside of the piggery premises (OR=0.2, 95% CI - 0.1-0.7) showed higher chances of ASFV infection and were significantly associated (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.05) and (p < 0.01), and were identified as potential risk factors. The study concluded that pigs in Benue State are still at risk of an ASF outbreak. Proper sanitary and hygienic practices is advocated and emphasized in piggeries, while routine surveillance for ASFV antibodies in pigs in Benue State is strongly recommended to provide a reliable reference data base to plan for the prevention of any devastating ASF outbreak.

Keywords: African swine fever, awareness, piggery, risk factors, sanitary measures

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818 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor

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Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

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817 Menstrual Hygiene Management among Young Unmarried Women in India

Authors: Enu Anand, Jayakant Singh

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Menstruation among women is an integral part and a natural process that starts with menarche and stops at menopause. Women use sanitary pad, clothes and other methods to prevent blood stain from becoming evident. This paper examines the prevalence and discrepancies in use of hygienic method during menstruation among unmarried women in India using nationally representative District Level Household and facility Survey data (2007-08). The findings suggest that only one-third of the study population used hygienic method during menstruation. Rural-urban and poor-non poor disparity persists across all background characteristics in use of hygienic method. Women with high school and above education (OR=8.8, p<0.001), from richest wealth quintile (OR=5.2, p<0.001) and women following Christian religion (OR=3.6, p<0.001) are more likely to use hygienic method as compared to women with no education, poor household and Hindu women respectively. Locally prepared, low-cost sanitary pads can be promoted across the country for easy accessibility and affordability. Efforts should be made to produce locally prepared low-cost sanitary napkins in bulk and supply it through female health workers such as ANM and Anganwadi worker across the country.

Keywords: menstrual hygiene, sanitary pad, unmarried women, India

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816 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim

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This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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815 Development of Model for Effective Sub- District Municipality Wastewater Management

Authors: Vitool Suksankavanich

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This preliminary research aimed to explore the development of wastewater management of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality, Samutprakan Province, in order to establish appropriate model for effective wastewater management that fit to the context of the area. The research posed three questions: [i] to what extent the promotion of social responsibility awareness built among the local community resulted in effectiveness of the local wastewater management; [ii] did the waste disposal management of Bang Pu Industrial Estate contribute to the overall environmental quality of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality; and [iii] did the relationship between the community and the industrial factories have any effect on the wastewater management. The in- depth interview revealed main obstacles occurred in the process of wastewater management in the area. The fieldwork also contributed to a product of an appropriate model of effective wastewater management.

Keywords: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, social responsibility, wastewater management

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814 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai

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This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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813 Quality Characteristics of Treated Wastewater of 'Industrial Area Foggia'

Authors: Grazia Disciglio, Annalisa Tarantino, Emanuele Tarantino

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The production system of Foggia province (Apulia, Southern Italy) is characterized by the presence of numerous agro-food industries whose activities include the processing of vegetables products that release large quantities of wastewater. The reuse in agriculture of these wastewaters offers the opportunity to reduce the costs of their disposal and minimizing their environmental impact. In addition, in this area, which suffers from water shortage, the use of agro-industrial wastewater is essential in the very intensive irrigation cropping systems. The present investigation was carried out in years 2009 and 2010 to monitor the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the industrial wastewater (IWW) from the secondary treatment plant of the 'Industrial Area of Foggia'. The treatment plant released on average about 567,000 m3y-1 of IWW, which distribution was not uniform over the year. The monthly values were about 250,000 m3 from November to June and about 90,000 m3 from July to October. The obtained results revealed that IWW was characterized by low values of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Absorption Rate (SAR). An occasional presence of heavy metal and high concentration of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen and microbial organisms (Escherichia coli and Salmonella) were observed. Due to the presence of this pathogenic microorganisms and sometimes of heavy metals, which may raise sanitary and environmental problems in order to the possible irrigation reuse of this IWW, a tertiary treatment of wastewater based on filtration and disinfection in line are recommended. Researches on the reuse of treated IWW on crops (olive, artichoke, industrial tomatoes, fennel, lettuce etc.) did not show significant differences among the irrigated plots for most of the soil and yield characteristics.

Keywords: agroindustrial wastewater, irrigation, microbiological characteristic, physico-chemical characteristics

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812 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

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The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
811 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin

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This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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810 Functionalization of Sanitary Pads with Probiotic Paste

Authors: O. Sauperl, L. Fras Zemljic

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The textile industry is gaining increasing importance in the field of medical materials. Therefore, presented research is focused on textile materials for external (out-of-body) use. Such materials could be various hygienic textile products (diapers, tampons, sanitary napkins, incontinence products, etc.), protective textiles and various hospital linens (surgical covers, masks, gowns, cloths, bed linens, etc.) wound pillows, bandages, orthopedic socks, etc. Function of tampons and sanitary napkins is not only to provide protection during the menstrual cycle, but their function can be also to take care of physiological or pathological vaginal discharge. In general, women's intimate areas are against infection protected by a low pH value of the vaginal flora. High pH inhibits the development of harmful microorganisms, as it is difficult to be reproduced in an acidic environment. The normal vaginal flora in healthy women is highly colonized by lactobacilli. The lactic acid produced by these organisms maintains the constant acidity of the vagina. If the balance of natural protection breaks, infections can occur. In the market, there exist probiotic tampons as a medical product supplying the vagina with beneficial probiotic lactobacilli. But, many users have concerns about the use of tampons due to the possible dry-out of the vagina as well as the possible toxic shock syndrome, which is the reason that they use mainly sanitary napkins during the menstrual cycle. Functionalization of sanitary napkins with probiotics is, therefore, interesting in regard to maintain a healthy vaginal flora and to offer to users added value of the sanitary napkins in the sense of health- and environmentally-friendly products. For this reason, the presented research is oriented in functionalization of the sanitary napkins with the probiotic paste in order to activate the lactic acid bacteria presented in the core of the functionalized sanitary napkin at the time of the contact with the menstrual fluid. In this way, lactobacilli could penetrate into vagina and by maintaining healthy vaginal flora to reduce the risk of vaginal disorders. In regard to the targeted research problem, the influence of probiotic paste applied onto cotton hygienic napkins on selected properties was studied. The aim of the research was to determine whether the sanitary napkins with the applied probiotic paste may assure suitable vaginal pH to maintain a healthy vaginal flora during the use of this product. Together with this, sorption properties of probiotic functionalized sanitary napkins were evaluated and compared to the untreated one. The research itself was carried out on the basis of tracking and controlling the input parameters, currently defined by Slovenian producer (Tosama d.o.o.) as the most important. Successful functionalization of sanitary pads with the probiotic paste was confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results of the methods used within the presented research show that the absorption of the pads treated with probiotic paste deteriorates compared to non-treated ones. The coating shows a 6-month stability. Functionalization of sanitary pads with probiotic paste is believed to have a commercial potential for lowering the probability of infection during the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: functionalization, probiotic paste, sanitary pads, textile materials

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809 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani

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In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio, treatment

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808 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

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Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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807 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

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As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

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806 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

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This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction

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805 MBR-RO System Operation in Quantitative and Qualitative Promotion of Waste Water Cleaning: Case Study of Shokohieyh Qoms’ Waste Water Cleaning

Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi

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According to population growth and increasing water needs of industrial and agricultural sections and lack of existing water sources, also increases of wastewater and new wastewater treatment plant construction’s high costs, it is inevitable to reuse wastewater with the approach of increasing wastewater treatment capacity and output sewage quality. In this regard, the first sewage reuse plan in industrial uses was designed with the approach of qualitative and quantitative improvement due to the increased organic load of the output sewage of Qom Shokohieh city’s’ in wastewater treatment plant. This research investigated qualitative factors COD, BOD, TSS, TDS, and input and output heavy metal of MBR-RO system and ability of increase wastewater acceptance capacity by existing in wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, experimental results of seven-month navigation system have been used from 07/01/2013 to 02/01/2014. Existing data analysis showed that MBR system is able to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BOD, 13.8% TDS, 98% heavy metals and RO system is able to remove 98.9% TDS. This study showed that MBR-RO integration system is able to increase the capacity of refinery by 30%.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, wastewater reuse, MBR, RO

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804 Kinetic Evaluation of Biodegradability of Paint Shop Wastewater of a Bus Production Factory

Authors: Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy, Emine Ubay Çokgör

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This paper presents a biological treatability study ofpaintshopwastewaterof a bus factory by an anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor.A lab scale 14L SBR system was implementedto investigate carbon and nitrogen removal performance frompaint shop waste streams combined with domestic and process wastewater of a bus production factory in Istanbul (Turkey).The wastewater collected from decanters of the paint boots and pre-treatmentplant was usedforthefeeding of SBR. The reactor was operated with a total hydraulic retention time of 24 hrs, and a total sludge age of 18.7 days. Initially the efficiency and stability of the reactor were studied when fed with main wastewater stream to simulate the current wastewater treatment plant. Removal efficiency of 57% nitrogen and 90% COD were obtained. Once the paint shop wastewater was introduced to mainstream feeding with a ratio of 1:5, nitrification completely, carbon removal were partially inhibited. SBR system was successful to handle even at very high COD concentrations of paint shop wastewater after feeding of 2 months, with an average effluent COD of 100 mg/L. For the determination of kinetic parameters, respirometric analysis was also conducted with/without paint shop wastewater addition. Model simulation indicated lower maximum specific growth and hydrolysis rates when paint shop wastewater was mixed with the mainstream wastewater of the factory.

Keywords: biological treatability, nitrogen removal, paint shop wastewater, sequencing batch reactor

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803 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

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Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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802 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Oman: Samail Case Study

Authors: Azza Mohsin Al-Hashami, Reginald Victor

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Treatment of wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove the pollutants from wastewater. This study evaluates of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (STP) in Samail, Oman. Samail STP has tertiary treatment using conventional activated sludge with surface aeration. The collection of wastewater is through a network with a total length of about 60 km and also by tankers for the areas outside the network. Treated wastewater from this STP is used for the irrigation of vegetation in the STP premises and as a backwash for sand filters. Some treated water is supplied to the Samail municipality, which uses it for the landscaping, road construction, and 'the Million Date Palms' project. In this study, homogenous samples were taken from eight different treatment stages along the treatment continuum for one year, at a frequency of once a month, to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters. All samples were analyzed using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The spatial variations in water quality along the continuum are discussed. Despite these variations, the treated wastewater from Samail STP was of good quality, and most of the parameters are within class A category in Oman Standards for wastewater reuse and discharge.

Keywords: wastewater, STP, treatment, processes

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801 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

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The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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800 Removal of Chloro-Compounds from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation

Authors: Chhaya Sharma, Dushyant Kumar

Abstract:

The present work deals with the treatment of wastewater generated by paper industry by using aluminium as anode material. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of chloropenolics have been carried out by using primary clarifier effluent with the help of gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Sixteen chlorophenolics compounds have been identified and estimated. Results indicated that among 16 identified compounds, 7 are 100% removed and overall 66% reduction in chorophenolics compounds have been detected. Moreover, during the treatment, the biodegradability index of wastewater significantly increases, along with 70 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand and 99 % in color.

Keywords: aluminium anode, chlorophenolics, electrocoagulation, pollution load, wastewater

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799 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

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798 Desodesmus sp.: A Potential Micro Alga to Treat the Textile Wastewater

Authors: Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan, Karpanai Selvan Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Textile industry is the one of the most important industrial sector in India. It accounts for 5% of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the country. A Textile industry consumes large quantities of water (~250 m3/ton of product) and they generate almost ~90% of wastewater from its consumption. The problem is alarming and requires proper treatment process to acquire dual benefit of Zero Liquid Discharge and no contamination to the environment. Here we describe the process by which the textile wastewater can be reused. We have collected the textile wastewater in and around Ayyampettai area of Tamilnadu, India. Among different microalgal strains used, Desodesmus sp. collected at Manali, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India was able to lessen the colour of the waste water in 12-15 hrs of its growth, COD around 81.7%, Dissolved solid reduction was 28 ± 0.5 %, Suspended solid was reduced to 40.5 ± 0.3 %, Dye degradation was 50-78%. Further, Desodesmus sp. able to achieve the biomass of 0.9 ± 0.2 g/L (dry weight) in two weeks’ time, the Chl a content was 11 mg/L. It infers that this algal strain able to utilize the textile wastewater as source for growth and algal biomass production.

Keywords: Desodesmus sp., microalgae, textile, treatment, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 87