Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17591

Search results for: high strength wastewater

17591 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa


As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
17590 Study of the Anaerobic Degradation Potential of High Strength Molasses Wastewater

Authors: M. Mischopoulou, P. Naidis, S. Kalamaras, T. Kotsopoulos, P. Samaras


The treatment of high strength wastewater by an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor has several benefits, such as high organic removal efficiency, short hydraulic retention time along with low operating costs. In addition, high volumes of biogas are released in these reactors, which can be utilized in several industrial facilities for energy production. This study aims at the examination of the application potential of anaerobic treatment of wastewater, with high molasses content derived from yeast manufacturing, by a lab-scale UASB reactor. The molasses wastewater and the sludge used in the experiments were collected from the wastewater treatment plant of a baker’s yeast manufacturing company. The experimental set-up consisted of a 15 L thermostated UASB reactor at 37 ◦C. Before the reactor start-up, the reactor was filled with sludge and molasses wastewater at a ratio 1:1 v/v. Influent was fed to the reactor at a flowrate of 12 L/d, corresponding to a hydraulic residence time of about 30 h. Effluents were collected from the system outlet and were analyzed for the determination of the following parameters: COD, pH, total solids, volatile solids, ammonium, phosphates and total nitrogen according to the standard methods of analysis. In addition, volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition of the effluent was determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID), as an indicator to evaluate the process efficiency. The volume of biogas generated in the reactor was daily measured by the water displacement method, while gas composition was analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The effluent quality was greatly enhanced due to the use of the UASB reactor and high rate of biogas production was observed. The anaerobic treatment of the molasses wastewater by the UASB reactor improved the biodegradation potential of the influent, resulting at high methane yields and an effluent with better quality than the raw wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas production, molasses wastewater, UASB reactor

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17589 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, Fenton oxidation, industrial wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
17588 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim


Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: prestressed concrete members, high strength reinforcing bars, high strength concrete, shear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
17587 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki


Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewater

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17586 Rapid Start-Up and Efficient Long-Term Nitritation of Low Strength Ammonium Wastewater with a Sequencing Batch Reactor Containing Immobilized Cells

Authors: Hammad Khan, Wookeun Bae


Major concerns regarding nitritation of low-strength ammonium wastewaters include low ammonium loading rates (usually below 0.2 kg/m3-d) and uncertainty about long-term stability of the process. The purpose of this study was to test a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) filled with cell-immobilized polyethylene glycol (PEG) pellets to see if it could achieve efficient and stable nitritation under various environmental conditions. SBR was fed with synthetic ammonium wastewater of 30±2 mg-N/L and pH: 8±0.05, maintaining the dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.7±0.2 mg/L and the temperature at 30±1oC. The reaction was easily converted to partial nitrification mode within a month by feeding relatively high ammonium substrate (~100 mg-N/L) in the beginning. We observed stable nitritation over 300 days with high ammonium loading rates (as high as ~1.1 kg-N/m3-d), nitrite accumulation rates (mostly over 97%) and ammonium removal rate (mostly over 95%). DO was a major limiting substrate when the DO concentration was below ~4 mg/L and the NH4+-N concentration was above 5 mg/L, giving almost linear increase in the ammonium oxidation rate with the bulk DO increase. Low temperatures mainly affected the reaction rate, which could be compensated for by increasing the pellet volume (i.e. biomass). Our results demonstrated that an SBR filled with small cell-immobilized PEG pellets could achieve very efficient and stable nitritation of a low-strength ammonium wastewater.

Keywords: ammonium loading rate (ALR), cell-immobilization, long-term nitritation, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), sewage treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
17585 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel


Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
17584 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Strength and Durability of High Strength High Performance Concrete

Authors: H. B. Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Y. W. Yee, Y. T. Yeap


This paper reports the strength and durability properties of high strength high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash (RHA) having high silica, low carbon content and appropriate fineness. In this study concrete containing 10%, 15% and 20% RHA as cement replacement and water to binder ratio of 0.25 were investigated. The results show that increasing amount of RHA increases the dosage of superplasticizer to maintain similar workability. Partial replacement of cement with RHA did not increase the early age compressive strength of concrete. However, concrete containing RHA showed higher compressive strength at later ages. The results showed that compressive strength of concrete in the 90-115 MPa range can be obtained at 28 curing days and the durability properties of RHA concrete performed better than that of control concrete. The water absorption of concrete incorporating 15% RHA exhibited the lowest value. The porosity of concrete is consistent with water absorption whereby higher replacement of RHA decreased the porosity of concrete. There is a positive correlation between reducing porosity and increasing compressive strength of high strength high performance concrete. The results also indicate that up to 20% of RHA incorporation could be advantageously blended with cement without adversely affecting the strength and durability properties of concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, durability, high performance concrete, rice husk ash

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17583 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon


This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
17582 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan


In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
17581 Effect of Steel Fibers on Flexural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete

Authors: K. M. Aldossari, W. A. Elsaigh, M. J. Shannag


An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of hooked-end steel fibers on the flexural behavior of normal and high strength concrete matrices. The fiber content appropriate for the concrete matrices investigated was also determined based on flexural tests on standard prisms. Parameters investigated include: Matrix compressive strength ranging from 45 MPa to 70 MPa, corresponding to normal and high strength concrete matrices respectively; Fiber volume fraction including 0, 0.5%, 0.76%, and 1%, equivalent to 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg/m3 of hooked-end steel fibers respectively. Test results indicated that flexural strength and toughness of normal and high strength concrete matrices were significantly improved with the increase in the fiber content added; Whereas a slight improvement in compressive strength was observed for the same matrices. Furthermore, the test results indicated that the effect of increasing the fiber content was more pronounced on increasing the flexural strength of high strength concrete than that of normal concrete.

Keywords: concrete, flexural strength, toughness, steel fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
17580 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali


This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading

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17579 Shear Behavior of Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ghada Diaa, Enas A. Khattab


Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new advanced concrete that is being transferred from laboratory researches to practicable applications. In addition to its excellent durability properties, UHSC has high compressive and tensile strengths, and high modulus of elasticity. Despite of this low degree of hydration, ultra high strength values can be achieved by controlling the mixture proportions. In this research, an experimental program was carried out to investigate the shear behavior of ultra high strength concrete beams. A total of nine beams were tested to determine the effect of different parameters on the shear behavior of UHSC beams. The parameters include concrete strength, steel fiber volume, shear span to depth ratio, and web reinforcement ratio. The results demonstrated that nominal shear stress at cracking load and at ultimate load increased with the increase of concrete strength or the decrease in shear span-depth ratio. Using steel fibers or shear reinforcement increases the ultimate shear strength and makes the shear behavior more ductile. In this study, a simplified analytical model to calculate the shear strength of UHSC beams is introduced. Shear strength estimated according to the proposed method in this research is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: ultra high strength, shear strength, diagonal, cracking, steel fibers

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17578 Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Steel Fibre

Authors: A. J. Shah, Neeraj Kumar Sahu


Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.

Keywords: high strength concrete, the flexural strength of RPC, compressive strength of RPC, durability

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17577 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Butchi Kameswara Rao Chittem, Rooban Kumar


Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Concrete is believed to have a good fire resistance. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and its constituent materials when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete are reported in literature as effects of elevated temperature on concrete. In this paper results are reported on the behaviour of normal strength concrete and high strength concrete subjected to temperatures 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching. Rebound hammer test was also conducted to study the changes in surface hardness of concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures.

Keywords: normal strength concrete, high-strength concrete, temperature, NDT

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17576 The Influence of High Temperatures on HVFA Concrete Columns by NDT Methods

Authors: D. Jagath Kumari, K. Srinivasa Rao


Quality assurance of the structures subjected to high temperatures is now enforcing measure for the Structural Engineers. The existing relations between strength and nondestructive measurements have been established under normal conditions are not suitable to concretes that have been exposed to high temperatures. The scope of the work is to investigate the influence of high temperatures of short durations on the residual properties of reinforced HVFA concrete columns that affect the strength by non-destructive tests (NDT). Fly ash concrete is increasingly used in the design of normal strength, high strength and high performance concretes. In this paper, the authors revealed the influence of high temperatures on HVFA concrete columns. These columns are heated from 100oC to 800oC with increments of 100oC and allowed to cool to room temperature by two methods one is air cooling method and the other immediate water quenching method. All the specimens were tested identically, before heating and after heating for compressive strength and material integrity by rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) meter respectively. HVFA concrete retained more residual strength by water quenching method than air-cooling method.

Keywords: HVFA concrete, NDT methods, residual strength, non-destructive tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
17575 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran


The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
17574 The Mechanical Strength and Durability of High Performance Concrete Using Local Materials

Authors: I. Guemidi, Y. Abdelaziz, T. Rikioui


In this work, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes (HPC) containing local southwest Algerian materials. The mechanical properties were assessed from the compressive strength and the flexural strength, whilst the durability characteristics were investigated in terms of sulphate attack. The results obtained allow us to conclude that it is possible to make a high performance concrete (HPC) based on existing materials in the local market, if these are carefully selected and properly mixed in such away to optimize grain size distribution.

Keywords: durability, high performance concrete, high strength, local materials, Southwest Algerian, sulphate attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
17573 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager


In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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17572 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin


This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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17571 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR

Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam


The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methane

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
17570 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva


The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% at 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes have been designed, three as conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen as HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines i.e. IS: 10262. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave One Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fly ash, concrete mixes, compressive strength, strength prediction models, linear regression, ANN

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17569 Development of the Accelerator Applied to an Early Stage High-Strength Shotcrete

Authors: Ayanori Sugiyama, Takahisa Hanei, Yasuhide Higo


Domestic demand for the construction of tunnels has been increasing in recent years in Japan. To meet this demand, various construction materials and construction methods have been developed to attain higher strength, reduction of negative impact on the environment and improvement for working conditions. In this report, we would like to introduce the newly developed shotcrete with superior hardening properties which were tested through the actual machine scale and its workability and strength development were evaluated. As a result, this new tunnel construction method was found to achieve higher workability and quicker strength development in only a couple of minutes.

Keywords: accelerator, shotcrete, tunnel, high-strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
17568 Effect of Concrete Strength and Aspect Ratio on Strength and Ductility of Concrete Columns

Authors: Mohamed A. Shanan, Ashraf H. El-Zanaty, Kamal G. Metwally


This paper presents the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of normal and high strength reinforced concrete columns confined with transverse steel under axial compressive loading. Nineteen normal strength concrete rectangular columns with different variables tested in this research were used to study the effect of concrete compressive strength and rectangularity ratio on strength and ductility of columns. The paper also presents a nonlinear finite element analysis for these specimens and another twenty high strength concrete square columns tested by other researchers using ANSYS 15 finite element software. The results indicate that the axial force – axial strain relationship obtained from the analytical model using ANSYS are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS is capable of modeling and predicting the actual nonlinear behavior of confined normal and high-strength concrete columns under concentric loading. The maximum applied load and the maximum strain have also been confirmed to be satisfactory. Depending on this agreement between the experimental and analytical results, a parametric numerical study was conducted by ANSYS 15 to clarify and evaluate the effect of each variable on strength and ductility of the columns.

Keywords: ANSYS, concrete compressive strength effect, ductility, rectangularity ratio, strength

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17567 MBR-RO System Operation in Quantitative and Qualitative Promotion of Waste Water Cleaning: Case Study of Shokohieyh Qoms’ Waste Water Cleaning

Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi


According to population growth and increasing water needs of industrial and agricultural sections and lack of existing water sources, also increases of wastewater and new wastewater treatment plant construction’s high costs, it is inevitable to reuse wastewater with the approach of increasing wastewater treatment capacity and output sewage quality. In this regard, the first sewage reuse plan in industrial uses was designed with the approach of qualitative and quantitative improvement due to the increased organic load of the output sewage of Qom Shokohieh city’s’ in wastewater treatment plant. This research investigated qualitative factors COD, BOD, TSS, TDS, and input and output heavy metal of MBR-RO system and ability of increase wastewater acceptance capacity by existing in wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, experimental results of seven-month navigation system have been used from 07/01/2013 to 02/01/2014. Existing data analysis showed that MBR system is able to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BOD, 13.8% TDS, 98% heavy metals and RO system is able to remove 98.9% TDS. This study showed that MBR-RO integration system is able to increase the capacity of refinery by 30%.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, wastewater reuse, MBR, RO

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
17566 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay


High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH as a sustainable material instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared, incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
17565 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor


Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
17564 Convergence Analysis of a Gibbs Sampling Based Mix Design Optimization Approach for High Compressive Strength Pervious Concrete

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Lu Jin


Pervious concrete features with high water permeability rate. However, due to the lack of fine aggregates, the compressive strength is usually lower than other conventional concrete products. Optimization of pervious concrete mix design has long been recognized as an effective mechanism to achieve high compressive strength while maintaining desired permeability rate. In this paper, a Gibbs Sampling based algorithm is proposed to approximate the optimal mix design to achieve a high compressive strength of pervious concrete. We prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently converges to the set of global optimal solutions. The convergence rate and accuracy depend on a control parameter employed in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed approach, the system converges to the optimal solution quickly and the derived optimal mix design achieves the maximum compressive strength while maintaining the desired permeability rate.

Keywords: convergence, Gibbs Sampling, high compressive strength, optimal mix design, pervious concrete

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17563 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin


Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide

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17562 Treatment of High Concentration Cutting Fluid Wastewater by Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Kai-Shiang Chang, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


In recent years, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been widely utilized as it can effectively replace conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is found to be more effective technology compared to other conventional activated sludge process and advanced membrane separation technique. Additionally, as far as the MBR is concerned, it is having excellent control of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and conducive to the retention of high concentration of sludge biomass. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can effectively reduce footprint in terms of area and omit the secondary processing procedures in the conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Currently, as per the membrane technology, the ceramic membrane is found to have highly strong anti-acid-base properties, and it is more suitable than polymeric membrane while using for backwash and chemical cleaning. This study is based upon the treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater, as the Cutting Fluid is widely used in the cutting equipment. However, the Cutting Fluid wastewater is very difficult to treat. In this study, the ceramic membrane was used and combine with of MBR system to treat the Cutting Fluid wastewater. In this present study, different kind of chemical coagulants have been utilized for pretreatment purpose in order to get the supernatant and simultaneously this wastewater (supernatant) was treated by MBR process. Nevertheless, ceramic membrane has three advantages such as high mechanical strength, drug resistance and reuse. During the experiment, the backwash technique was used for every interval of 10 minutes in order to avoid fouling of the membrane. In this study, during pretreatment the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was found to be 71-86% and oil removal efficiency was analyzed to be 83-92%. This pretreatment study suggests that it is quiet effective methodology to reduce COD and oil concentration. Finally, In the MBR system when the HRT is more than 7.5 hour, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 87-93% and could achieve 100% oil removal efficiency. Coagulation test series were seen in Refs coagulants for the treatment of wastewater containing cutting oil with better oil and COD removal efficiency. The results also showed that the oil removal efficiency in the MBR system could reduce the oil content to less than 1 mg / L when the oil quality was 126 mg / L. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of membrane bioreactor by utilizing ceramic membrane has been demonstrated for treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, cutting fluid, oil, chemical oxygen demand

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