Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 548

Search results for: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique

548 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR

Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam

Abstract:

The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methane

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
547 Islam and Democracy

Authors: Nasrollah Sekhavaty

Abstract:

This topic has many points, one of which could be "the relationship between Islam and democracy". In this paper we discuss the relationship between them. The logic has taught us that there is only one relationship between an object and itself. But if we have two things, there is one of the four relations between them; contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality & peculiarity or generality & peculiarity in some respect. To clarify the relationship between Islam and democracy, at first we must examine the meaning of Islam and Democracy. Islam is a religion which has ideas about politics and governance. The politics in Islam includes both individual and social affairs, to achieve worldly and heavenly blessings. With this assumption, Islam and democracy are not the same, or contrast, nor the absolute generality & peculiarity; but, the relationship between these two concepts is the generality & peculiarity in some respect. Conclusion: If one considers democracy as content, it does not accumulate with Islam which is content. But if democracy means a structure and style of governing, then its content could be Islam.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, contradiction, equivalence, absolute generality, generality & peculiarity

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546 Women Education in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism

Authors: Nuzhat Fatima

Abstract:

This is very misleading conception that Islam is the religion of terrorists or terrorism. It is also another misconception that women are not given due important in Islamic. And women are forced to use veil. But if we closely look at the other two religions they also have the same commandments about the veil. Then comes education, women are given the equal right of education in Islam. But there are certain people creating the bad image of Islam and not giving permission to their females to get education. This paper will present the brief description of education and status of women in all three religions.

Keywords: Islam, women, education, christianity, Judaism

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545 Holy Kabah and Holy Mosque: The Journey of Spiritual, Mystical and Social Ascension of Two Slaves of Ethiopia to Represent the Two Holiest Symbols of Islam

Authors: Zawahir Siddique

Abstract:

The paper explores the philosophical, spiritual, and mystical dimensions of the glorified journey of Hajira and Bilal. The black Ethiopian slave Hajira’s skirt was chosen to cover the first house of God on earth. Hajira was chosen by God as the embodiment of love and submission. The philosophy behind her migration with her child Ismail and wandering between Safa and Marwa in search of water that eventually gushed forth from the feet of Ismail and how God gifted Hajira, Ismail, and the entire humanity with Zamzam needs to be explored. Every year over two million pilgrims assemble and circumambulate around the Holy Kabah during Hajj, and every day, millions of Muslims pray, riveting their faith around Kabah. The significance and mysticism of the central figure of Hajira deserve due attention. Several eras later, the most blessed personality of humanity, Prophet Muhammad, elevated another Ethiopian Slave to the highest honor in the first Mosque of the Prophet of Islam in Medina. The purity of his heart and spiritually captivating voice of Bilal was preferred over his pre-Islamic social status. When the companions of the Prophet questioned the diction and pronunciation of 'SHEEN' by Bilal owing to his African origin, the Prophet immediately corrected them, justifying the purity of Bilal’s heart mattered more and hence Bilal’s 'SEEN' was heard as 'SHEEN' by God Almighty. The journey of Bilal to Islam and his pious and devoted contributions to Islam in the light of spirituality, mysticism, and social reforms are also explored further in this paper.

Keywords: philosophy, spirituality, mysticism, Hajira, Bilal

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544 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu

Abstract:

The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

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543 Expansion and Consolidation of Islam in Iran to the End of Qajar Period

Authors: Ashaq Hussain

Abstract:

Under Islam, for the first time since the Achaemenids, all Iranians including those of Central Asia and on the frontiers of India became united under one rule. Islam was rescued from a narrow Bedouin outlook and Bedouin mores primarily by the Iranians, who showed that Islam, both as a religion and, primarily, as a culture, need not be bound solely to the Arabic language and Arab norms of behavior. Instead Islam was to become a universal religion and culture open to all people. This was a fundamental contribution of the Iranians to Islam, although all Iranians had become Muslims by the time of the creation of Saljuq Empire. So, Iran in a sense provided the history, albeit an epic, of pre-Islamic times for Islam. After all, the Arabs conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, where they found full-scale, imperial models for the management of the new Caliphate, whereas only provinces of the Byzantine Empire were overrun by the Arabs. The present paper is an attempt to give reader a detailed introduction, emergence, expansion and spread of Islam in Iran to the end of Qajar period. It is in this context the present paper has been analyzed.

Keywords: Islam, Achaemenids, Bedouin, Central Asia, Iran

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542 Education and Development: An Overview of Islam

Authors: Rasheed Sanusi Adeleke

Abstract:

Several attempts have been made by scholars, both medieval and contemporary on the impact of Islam on scientific discovery. Lesser attention, however, is always accorded to the historical antecedents of the earlier Muslim scholars, who made frantic efforts towards the discoveries. Islam as a divine religion places high premium on the acquisition of knowledge especially that of sciences. It considers knowledge as a comprehensive whole, which covers both spiritual and material aspects of human life. Islam torches every aspect of human life for the growth, development and advancement of society. Acquisition of knowledge of humanity, social sciences as well as the pure and applied sciences is comprehensively expressed in Islamic education. Not only this, the history portrays the leading indelible roles played by the early Muslims on these various fields of knowledge. That is why Islam has declared acquisition of knowledge compulsory for all Muslims. This paper therefore analyses the contributions of Islam to civilization with particular reference to sciences. It also affirms that Islam is beyond the religion of prayers and rituals. The work is historic, analytic and explorative in nature. Recommendations are also also put forward as suggestions for the present generation cum posterity in general and Muslims in particular.

Keywords: education, development, Islam, development and Islam

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541 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Islam, challenges, representation, knowledge, century, global, twenty-first

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540 Islam-Oriented Movements' Recruiting Strategies in Morocco

Authors: Driss Bouyahya

Abstract:

During the late 1960s, Islam-oriented social movements have encroached to reach the Moroccan public spheres and mobilize huge waves of people from different walks of life under the banners of a rhetoric that resonates with the Muslim way of life away from Modernity and globalization tenets. In this respect, the present study investigates and explores some of the ways utilized by the Movement for Unity and Reform in Morocco as an Islam-oriented movement to recruit students massively at universities. The significance of this study lies in demystifying the recruitment strategies and mechanisms, considered essential for the Islam-oriented social movements to mobilize. This research paper uses a quantitative method to collect and analyze data through two different structured questionnaires. One of the major findings is that this Islam-oriented movement uses different techniques to recruit students, namely social networks, its websites and You-tube as three main modern and sophisticated means of communication. In a nutshell, this paper´s findings fill some of the gaps in the literature in regard to Islam-oriented movements ‘mobilization strategies.

Keywords: changing, ideology, Islam, party

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539 The Role of Islam in the Political Thought of Muhammad Abduh

Authors: Mehdi Beyad

Abstract:

Muhammad Abduh stands as a founding thinker of Islamic revivalism and modernism, the political phenomenon which began with him and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani in the 19th century which sought to address the perceived regression of Islamic societies in the face of western colonialism and the onslaught of modernity. The scholarship on Abduh and al-Afghani, and Islamic modernism in general, is vast. This paper, however, provides a critical approach to some of this scholarship and attempts to re-think the epistemic framework of Abduh's political thought and the place of Islam therein. Much of the current work on Abduh falls into the trap of seeing his task as one of "compromising" Islam for the values of European modernity. This paper argues that for Abduh, Islam was not just a compartmentalised theological framework: it was at the nexus of societal emancipation, intellectual and cultural rejuvenation, and political progress. Far from “modernising” and diluting Islam to the extent that it became irrelevant in the face of rationality as defined by European modernity, Islam remained central to Abduh’s political framework.

Keywords: Islamic political thought, Islamic revivalism, modernism, Muhammad Abduh, epistemology

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538 The Divergent Discourse of Political Islam: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Pakistan

Authors: Sohaib Khaliq

Abstract:

This paper pursues a systematic analysis of the broad range of theories and studies relevant to Islam and democracy, in general and as they have been developed from and applied to the Indonesian and Pakistani cases. The analysis finds that an Islamic society’s potential to assimilate democratic political institutions is contingent on either an unconstrained 'political participation' or its ability to 'reinterpret' religious text. Drawing on a comparison of Indonesia and Pakistan, the present study favors a route that passes through the religious gates of theoretical reinterpretation. In doing so, the study brings Muslim reformation theory into focus by clarifying the mechanism by which reformation takes place.

Keywords: Islam, democratization, political Islam, reformation

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537 Legal Comparative on Islam and Human Rights in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

Abstract:

This study aims to reconstruct the discourse of human rights which focused on the issue of freedom of religion/belief (FORB) in Indonesia. This topic always has an appeal considering the development of Islam, both as a phenomenon of religion as well as social and political phenomenon, always in touch with human rights issues. For the majority, Islam is involved in human rights discourse needs to be viewed as a natural thing as it also occurs in the majority group in other countries. The natural state is increasingly gaining affirmation when also considering the doctrine of Islam which is also related to human rights. So the involvement of Islamic parties to human rights talks in Indonesia is not as excessive when considering the sociological position and character of Islamic doctrine. But because of who made the object of conversation, namely human rights and particularly freedom of religion or belief again, not something that is taken for granted, then the diversity within Islam itself impossible can be avoided. In this study the diversity of views presented in the trial which categorically can be grouped into two views, namely: inclusive and exclusive.

Keywords: Islam doctrine, Islamic parties, human rights, freedom of religion

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536 Islam and Globalization: Accommodation or Containment of One by the Other

Authors: Mohammed Isah Shehu

Abstract:

This paper examined the context of globalization and Islam and accommodation or containment of one by the other. The paper is born out of the misconception and misunderstanding among many people that globalization is purely Western, anti-Islam and that Islam, globalization and Islam are diametrically opposed as such have no places for accommodating each other. The study used secondary sources to gather data. The study found that from its origin, Islam is in the whole context, a globalized religion and the contemporary globalization is already contained by Islam; that while contemporary globalization is centered on Western world, values and preferences (Western civilization, information and communication technology, free markets, trade and investments); some of the major foundation works that are aiding globalization were originally handiworks of past great Muslims (Islamic civilizations, Order of Algebra, tools of Navigation, Calligraphy, Medicine, Astronomy et cetera) whose major values are not Islamic; with globalization the Muslims have greater opportunities of spreading of Islam and practicing it in a most conducive atmosphere, easy and fast linkage with their fellow Muslim brothers wherever they may be; easier and freer world of trade and have the best opportunities to most things. The study however observed that Western contemporary globalization poses threats to religions such as those of globalization of immorality, injustice, trade with anti-Islamic terms and conditions, internationalized crime et cetera. Muslims would have to avoid or be cautious of many things for Islam is a complete religion that has what is forbidden and allowed (halaal and haramm) based on principles of (Shariah, justice to all, humanity and compassion, obedience to and seeking Allah’s pleasure); to Muslims, Contemporary globalization has to be in conformity with original provisions of Islam. The study recommended that Muslims must rise up in seeking knowledge on Islam and all other fields, further intellectual explorations of works by Muslim scholars/thinkers so that any advancement in globalization would be properly domesticated within Islam for the Muslims to make optimum use of any advancement to the benefit of Islam.

Keywords: accommodation, containment, Islam, globalization

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535 Political Islam: From Coinage to Hot Debate

Authors: Sajid Iqbal Sheikh

Abstract:

From almost last 100 years 'political islam' has diversity in its usage as terminology in the speculative works of both muslim and non-muslims theorists. 'Political islam' as a term was coined consciously as equal to the 'militant islam' and “Terrorist Islam” vs “Plain Islam” and “Modern Islam” etc. Many paradigm shifts tamed the term into one of the hottest debate of the day. This research paper aims to categorize historical linkage of its coinage, development phases and present status. Based on content analysis, Narrative approach has been utilized for the sake of dexterous conclusion. The paper treasures out that Western dominance on civilizational and political spheres of the holistic world considers 'political islam' a gigantic threat and plans to resist it in theoretic and practical fields simultaneously. Despite minor strategic variances, the ideological followers of Syed Qutab, Mulana Mudoodi and Hasan Al-Bana, are struggling hard for the achievement of their ultimate goal of Political change, specifically in the Muslim World in the prior phase. The paper concludes that Resistance to Islamic resurgence and its Political goals is being observed in most of the Muslim world, especially in the Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Tsunia and Yeman etc, which is a basic cause of contrary reaction in the Muslim World.

Keywords: electoral process, islamic resurgence, islamic political theory, muslim response, resistance, western hegemony

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534 Western Culture Differences and the Contradictions in the Islamic World

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

Abstract:

Regarding the issues that are currently happening in the world, more than any other time the differences between West and Islam is under discussion. The cultural relations between Islam and the West took a drastically new turn when Europe arose as the dominant and unchallenged force of the modern era. The author, by using descriptive- analytical method, tries to analyse one of the most controversial questions facing analysts of relations between the Islamic world and the West: What are the roots of the conflict? This paper addresses the history of the intellectual tradition of the West and the attitude of Muslim world regarding the rise of western modernity. Also, the differences between two groups on philosophical foundations such as religion, power, science and humanism will be explained. The author believes that the real difference between the West and Islam is epistemological.

Keywords: civilization, culture, Islam, West

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533 Muslims in Diaspora Negotiating Islam through Muslim Public Sphere and the Role of Media

Authors: Sabah Khan

Abstract:

The idea of universal Islam tends to exaggerate the extent of homogeneity in Islamic beliefs and practices across Muslim communities. In the age of migration, various Muslim communities are in diaspora. The immediate implication of this is what happens to Islam in diaspora? How Islam gets represented in new forms? Such pertinent questions need to be dealt with. This paper shall draw on the idea of religious transnationalism, primarily transnational Islam. There are multiple ways to conceptualize transnational phenomenon with reference to Islam in terms of flow of people, transnational organizations and networks; Ummah oriented solidarity and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper specifically deals with the new Muslim public sphere. It primarily refers to the space and networks enabled by new media and communication technologies, whereby Muslim identity and Islamic normativity are rehearsed, debated by people in different locales. A new sense of public is emerging across Muslim communities, which needs to be contextualized. This paper uses both primary and secondary data. Primary data elicited through content analysis of audio-visuals on social media and secondary sources of information ranging from books, articles, journals, etc. The basic aim of the paper is to focus on the emerging Muslim public sphere and the role of media in expanding public spheres of Islam. It also explores how Muslims in diaspora negotiate Islam and Islamic practices through media and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper cogently weaves in discussions firstly, of re-intellectualization of Islamic discourse in the public sphere. In other words, how Muslims have come to reimagine their collective identity and critically look at fundamental principles and authoritative tradition. Secondly, the emerging alternative forms of Islam by young Muslims in diaspora. In other words, how young Muslims search for unorthodox ways and media for religious articulation, including music, clothing and TV. This includes transmission and distribution of Islam in diaspora in terms of emerging ‘media Islam’ or ‘soundbite Islam’. The new Muslim public sphere has offered an arena to a large number of participants to critically engage with Islam, which leads not only to a critical engagement with traditional forms of Islamic authority but also emerging alternative forms of Islam and Islamic practices.

Keywords: Islam, media, Muslims, public sphere

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532 The Investigation on the Relationship between Religion and Development: By Focusing on Islam

Authors: Dalal Benboutrif

Abstract:

Religion and Development relation is one of the most arguable phrases amongst politicians, philosophers, clerics, scientists, sociologists and even the public. The main objective of this research is to clarify the relations, contrasts and interactions between religion and the major types of development including social, political, economic and scientific developments, by focusing on Islam religion. A review of the literature was performed concerning religion and development relations and conflicts, by focusing on Islam religion and then the unprocessed tips of the review were characterized. Regarding clarification of the key points of the literature, three main sectors were considered in the research. The first sector of the research mainly focused on the philosophical views on religion, which were analyzed by main evaluation of three famous philosophers’ ideas: ‘Kant’, ‘Hegel’ and ‘Weber’, and then a critical discussion on Weber’s idea about Islam and development was applied. The second sector was specified to ‘Religion and Development’ and mainly discussed the role of religion in development through poverty reduction, the interconnection of religion, spirituality and social development, religious education effects on social development, and the relation of religion with political development. The third sector was specified to ‘Islam and Development’ and mainly discussed the Islamic golden age of science, major reasons of today’s backwardness (non-development) of most Islamic countries, and Quranic instructions regarding adaptability of Islam with development. The findings of the current research approved the research hypothesis as: ‘Religious instructions (included Islam) are not in conflict with development’, rather, it could have positive effects mainly on social development and it can pave the way for society to develop. Turkey was considered as a study model, as a successful developed Islamic country demonstrating the non-conflicting relation of Islam and development.

Keywords: development, Islam, philosophy, religion

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531 The Feasibility of Economic Science in Islam With an Emphasis on Sadr's Vantage Point

Authors: Yahya Jahangiri, Ali Almasi

Abstract:

Currently capitalism is one of the most important economic issues discussed by great scholars around the world. But Islamic approach, regarding this issue may differ both western and eastern views. A greatest scholar in Islamic economy ‘especially in Shia’ is Martyr Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr. He wrote “Our economy” (Iqtisaduna) to present an economic point of view according to the Islamic teachings. In this regard firstly we will mention three approaches which are common in Muslim scullers about the economic science and then the main approach which is Sadr's view is described here. His claim explains that Islam and capitalism are in conflict with each other. And finally he explains the relationship between Islam and economy and he suggests the Islamic point of view in economy and its foundations as a solution for economic problems which we face today.

Keywords: Islam, economic science, capitalism, Martyr Sadr

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530 The Economic System (Islam) and Riba's Prohibition on Historical Perspective

Authors: Risanda Alirastra Budiantoro, Riesanda Najmi Sasmita, Sri Herianingrum

Abstract:

Allah has given the guidance in the form of Islam for Muslim to take and lead all the aspects of life including the economic activity. The Islamic economic system is believed to be the answer to the economic problems that exist at this time. The goal is to achieve falah in kaffah by not doing some economic activities that are in violation as prescribed by Islam. An example for this is riba. Discourse on riba can be said ‘classical’ both in the development of Islamic thought and in Islamic civilization because riba often occurs in all aspects of public life, especially economic transactions (in Islam called muamalah). Riba is an additional retrieval, either in a sale and purchase transaction or lending in a false or contrary to the principle of muamalah in Islam. Prohibition of riba is obtained from various sources by the Qur'an and Hadith Rasulullah SAW, so the scholars firmly and clearly defined the prohibition of riba because there are exploitative elements that can harm the others. So, this study is aimed to identify Islamic economic system and the prohibition of riba in historical perspective. From the results of this study, it is expected to be a good reference for the reader to understand the Islamic economic system and riba in the future.

Keywords: economics system, riba, historical perspective, economy

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529 Nature, Elixir of Architecture: A Contemplation on Human, Nature and Architecture in Islam

Authors: A. Kabiri-Samani, M. J. Seddighi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that a key factor in the manifestation of architecture is the interaction of human and nature. Explaining the type of relationship defined by “the architect” between architecture and nature opens a window towards understanding the theoretical conceptions of the architect as the creator of “architecture”. Now, if these theoretical foundations are put under scrutiny from the viewpoint of Islam, and an architect considers the relationship of human and nature within the context of Islam, he would let nature to manifest itself in architecture. The reasons for such a relationship is explicable in terms of the degree and nature of knowledge of the architect about nature; while the way it comes to existence is explained by defining the force of nature – ruling the entire nature – and its acts. It is by the scientific command of the architect and his mastery in the hermetic force of nature that the material bodies of buildings evolve from artificial to natural. Additionally, the presence of nature creates hermetic architectural spaces for the spiritual development of humans while serving for living at different levels.

Keywords: nature, Islam, cognition, science, presence, elixir

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528 Critical Vision Innovation and Creativity in the Architecture and Urbanism of the Land in Islam between Traditionalism and Positivism

Authors: Wafeek Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed

Abstract:

In the era of globalization and openness informational. Anyone who thinks about innovation in the earth population in Islam in our contemporary reality, he will find that it is not destined to its civilized extension to last. The purpose of the research is a trial to reach a realistic vision for creative, innovative and intellectual thought for the earth population in Islam as an instrument to Confrontation and observe the changes that have affected in the architecture of the land during different eras. Through knowing the controls of the ruling legitimacy(that served as definitions and laws which formulate its features) and using customs, traditions, and conventions as a telescope for the earth population in Islam, It explained the impact of them on features of creative formation for the architecture of the land in our contemporary reality. The study shows a modern vision to identify innovation in the earth population in Islam. As well as reformulating its mental image and monitoring its changes in Islamic heritage cities. This will be done through a two main branches: firstly, set forth a theory represented in studying creative concepts which formulate the population of the earth in Islam. Such as initiative and responsibility for reviving the dead land, the lane [alley] as formation unit and social solidarity,… Etc.. The second branch is preparing a practical, critical vision for innovative conceptual thought for the architecture of the land of Islam, through studying the development of a traditional Islamic city., The conceptual thought of making the birth festival ["Al-Refaee"] and its emulation for governing roles in the traditional city building. The research concludes The necessity of forming the suggested a creative vision for identifying how to re-form the conceptual for our contemporary population of the earth. It poses an important question which is how to return to creativity in the architecture of the land of Islam in our built environments.

Keywords: innovation and creation, architecture, the land in Islam, criticism of design

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527 Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?

Keywords: business, ethics, finance, Islam

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526 The Internal View of the Mu'min: Natural Law Theories in Islam

Authors: Gianni Izzo

Abstract:

The relation of Islam to its legal precepts, reflected in the various jurisprudential 'schools of thought' (madhahib), is one expressed in a version of 'positivism' (fiqh) providing the primary theory for deducing Qurʾan rulings and those from the narrations (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Scholars of Islam, including Patricia Crone (2004) and others chronicled by Anver Emon (2005), deny the influence of natural law theories as extra-scriptural indices of revelation’s content. This paper seeks to dispute these claims by reference to historical and canonical examples within Shiʿa legal thought that emphasize the salient roles of ‘aql (reason), fitrah (primordial human nature), and lutf (divine grace). These three holistic features, congenital to every human, and theophanically reflected in nature make up a mode of moral intelligibility antecedent to prophetic revelation. The debate between the 'traditionalist' Akhbaris and 'rationalist' Usulis over the nature of deriving legal edicts in Islam is well-covered academic ground. Instead, an attempt is made to define and detail the built-in assumptions of natural law revealed in the jurisprudential summa of Imami Shiʿism, whether of either dominant school, that undergird its legal prescriptions and methods of deduction.

Keywords: Islam, fiqh, natural law, legal positivism, aql

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525 Islamophobia: A Study of Unfounded Fear of Islam in Nigeria

Authors: AbdulHameed Badmas Yusuf

Abstract:

Islamophobia is unfounded fear of Islam and, more accurately, of his adherents. This phenomenon has found a fertile terrain in Nigeria given her status as a multireligious society where Muslims and Christians co-exist. Over the years, Islamophobia has taken constitutional, diplomatic, educational, financial, and political dimensions in the country. Any move by Muslims to adhere to their religious dictates, within the constitutional framework, is misconstrued by Christians - their religious counterparts- as a systematic way of Islamizing the country. Against this backdrop, this paper casts a look at Islamophobia from the five dimensions mentioned above. It shall identify possible causes of Islamophobia and proffer solutions accordingly. Available resources as well as events in the recent past reveal that Islamophobia is not unconnected with orientalism and terrorism, which are informed by prejudice and ignorance respectively. As such, the paper suggests adequate knowledge and tolerance as inevitable tools to curtail the menace of Islamophobia. This will go a long way in enhancing mutual tolerance and peaceful co-existence among the adherents of Christianity, Islam, and other religions in Nigeria. Both historical and analytical methods are used in this paper.

Keywords: islamophobia, islam, Nigeria, orientalism, terrorism

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524 Simulation of Forest Fire Using Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Mohammad F. Fauzi, Nurul H. Shahba M. Shahrun, Nurul W. Hamzah, Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a simulation system using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that will be distributed around the forest for early forest fire detection and to locate the areas affected. In Brunei Darussalam, approximately 78% of the nation is covered by forest. Since the forest is Brunei’s most precious natural assets, it is very important to protect and conserve our forest. The hot climate in Brunei Darussalam can lead to forest fires which can be a fatal threat to the preservation of our forest. The process consists of getting data from the sensors, analyzing the data and producing an alert. The key factors that we are going to analyze are the surrounding temperature, wind speed and wind direction, humidity of the air and soil.

Keywords: forest fire monitor, humidity, wind direction, wireless sensor network

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523 A Study of Career Suitability Among Medical Students

Authors: Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim, K. Omar

Abstract:

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions in our life. A right career leads a person to grow with that career and achieve success through the decision. Thus, career suitability assessment is important to help individuals to understand how a variety of personal attributes can impact their potential success and satisfaction with different career options and work environments. Some career needs specific personality trait that relates to attributes of job requirements and commitments. For medicine, being caring, approachable, inquisitive, able to listen and understand patients’ pain, anxiety and sorrow are important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the career suitability of pre-clinical students. This was a cross sectional study conducted among pre-clinical medical students in Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. 'Sidek Career Interest Inventory’ was used to assess the students’ suitability for the course. This instrument had been validated locally to suit the local social and cultural context. It assessed the students’ personality trait based on Holland’s theory and their interests. For students to pursue in the medical course, two main personality trait are believed to be essential namely investigative and social trait personalities. Some of the characteristics of investigative trait are analytical, rational, intellectual and curious, while the characteristics of social trait personality include empathy, friendly, understanding and accommodating. The score for each personality trait were categorized as low (0-3.99), moderate (4-6.99) and high (7-10). A total of 81 pre-clinical medical students were included in this study. About two third (93.8%) of them were female and all of them are from 20 to 21 of age. Approximately, half of the students (47.5%) scored high and another 46.3% scored moderate for investigative trait. For social trait, only 13.8% scored high while 31.3% scored moderate. Only 12.5% (10) students had high scores for both investigative and social traits. Most of the pre-clinical medical students scored high in the investigative sections, however their social values were inadequate (low scores). For them to become good medical doctors, they should be good in both investigative and social skills to enhance their suitability for this career. Therefore, there is a need to nurture these medical students with appropriate social values and soft skills.

Keywords: career suitability, career interest, medical students, personality trait

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522 The Station and Value of Beauty in Islam Based on the Holy Quran

Authors: Hamidreza Qaderi

Abstract:

Beauty is a part of our life and we as Muslims cannot ignore it. Furthermore, Islam did not ignore. God in Quran has used words that mean beauty many times. Zain «زین» and its synonyms are some of that words that are used 46 times in a different meaning of beauty. Some of them are mentioned to worldly beauty and not acceptable beauty and other of them are mentioned to the Moral beauty. In this article, the meaning of Zain 'beauty' in Surah Al Aaraf (The Heights) is explained and described. In fact, there are specific signs about beauty in the 31 and 32 verses of this Surah in which the station of beauty can determine. For clarification of this issue, the analytic philosophy method is used to express the relation between this word and aesthetics and beauty in this article. The results of this research show that the beauty is an important issue in Islam as much as God order to Muslims to be beautiful when they want to pray.

Keywords: beauty, Quran, al zinah, Zain

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521 Zakariya Multaniand and his Role in the Spread of Islam and Suhrawardiyya in the Subcontinent

Authors: Mahdi Momeni

Abstract:

The arrival of Mysticism to the subcontinent can be generally divided into two periods. The first period, was the Sporadic arrival of Sufis whom were traveling to the subcontinent according to the tradition of disquisition and the second period was; when the Sufi dynasties were sending missionaries and caliphs to guide and promote people from different direction to that land. Among the Sufi dynasty that entered to India in the thirteenth century, two dynasties of Chishti and Suhrawardîya were more successful than other Sufi dynasties. And thus they are very important in the spread of Islam and Mysticism to the subcontinent. Suhrawardiyya dynasty was founded by Sheikh Ziauddin Abu Najib Suhrawardi and was developed and spread by his nephew Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi Abo hafs Omar. Sheikh Shahabuddin sent many Caliphs and missionaries to India. Among these missionaries were People like Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Seyyed Noureddin Mobarak Ghaznavi, Sheikh Jalal al-din Tabrizi and Sheikh Zakariya Multani. Since Suhrawardiyya doctrine relies on Asceticism and Sharia, so one of the important elements among Suhrawardiyya missionaries was inviting people to Islam. Accordingly Sheikh Shahab Caliphs had a great role in the spread of Islam and Mysticism in different territories, especially India. Such that it can be pointed out is the the role of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Multani, the founder of Suhrawardiyya Dynasty in India. Sheikh Zakaria Multani after working in three areas, establishing monasteries, training managers, having numerous trips to different places, participating to social affairs provided the spread of Islam and Mysticism in subcontinent. This paper studies his role and actions in the subcontinent.

Keywords: islam, sufism, Suhrawardiyya, subcontinent, Multan

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520 Contemporary Visual Art and Shariah: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Ishak Ramli, Mohamad Noorman Masrek, Muhamad Abdul Aziz Ab Gani

Abstract:

Islam places restrictions and limitation to the creation and ownership of visual art. Not all forms of visual arts are permissible in Islam. However, guidance on the creation and ownership of visual arts is not made plain and clear not only to the Islamic followers but also to the art community. Given this gap, this study attempts to develop a conceptual framework that will guide artist and art collectors on what constitute to valid and acceptable through the Islamic perspective. Based on this framework, several research checklist are proposed. It is highly useful especially for the researchers who are interested to study the topic. Qualitative research is the best choice to test run the paper work to attempt all the checklist which are formed.

Keywords: contemporary visual art, Shariah, conceptual framework, Islam

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519 Reasons for Choosing Medicine and the Personality Traits of Pre-Clinical Medical Students

Authors: Zarini Ismail, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim, Khairani Omar

Abstract:

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions that people have to make in life. While choosing a suitable career, a person cannot ignore their intrinsic traits such as the type of personality, interests, values, and aptitude. The objective of this study is to ascertain the personality of the pre-clinical medical students and their reasons or intentions for choosing medicine as a career. This study is a cross-sectional study involving Year 3 pre-clinical medical students at Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. Participants were given a set of validated questionnaires on demographic data and open-ended questions for reasons of choosing medicine. Thematic analysis were used to analyse the open-ended question. The Participants were also required to answer a Career Interest Questionnaire (based on Holland’s Theory). A total of 81 Year 3 medical students were involved in this study. About two third (69%) of them were female and their age ranged from 20 to 21 years old. The majority of them were from middle-income families. From the thematic analysis, there were several reasons given for choosing medicine by the students. The majority of the students stated that it was their passion and interest in the medical field (45.7%). Approximately 24.7% decided to take the medical course because of parents/family influenced and 19.8% mentioned that they wanted to help the society. Other themes emerged were jobs opportunity in future (1.2%) and influenced by friends (3.7%). Based on Holland’s theory, ideally to become a good medical doctor one should score high in investigative and social personality trait. However, 26.3% of the students had low scores in these personality traits. We then looked into the reasons given by these students for choosing medicine. Approximately 28% were due to parents/family decision while 52% admitted that it was due to their interest. When compared with the group of students with high personality scores (investigative and social), there was not much difference in the reasons given for choosing medicine. The main reasons given by the students for choosing medicine were own interest, family’s influence and to help others. However, a proportion of them had low scores in the personality traits which are relevant for medicine. Although some of these students admitted that they choose medicine based on their interest, their strength might not be suitable for their chosen carrier.

Keywords: career, medical students, medicine, personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 210