Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1441

Search results for: fuel blends

1441 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad


This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: gasoline engine, performance, emission, fuel blends

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1440 Combustion Characteristics of Bioethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Used in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Authors: Hasan Aydogan


The changes in the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of bioethanol-safflower biodiesel and diesel fuel blends used in a common rail diesel engine were investigated in this experimental study. E20B20D60 (20% bioethanol, 20% biodiesel, 60% diesel fuel by volume), E30B20D50, E50B20D30 and diesel fuel (D) were used as fuel. The tests were performed at full throttle valve opening and variable engine speeds. The results of the tests showed decreases in engine power, engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke density values with the use of bioethanol-biodiesel and diesel fuel blends, whereas, increases were observed in nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values. When combustion characteristics were examined, it was seen that the values were close to one another.

Keywords: bioethanol, biodiesel, safflower, combustion characteristics

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1439 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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1438 A Review of Ethanol-Diesel Blend as a Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engine

Authors: Ibrahim Yahuza, Habou Dandakouta


The use of ethanol blended with diesel is receiving more attention by many researchers in the recent time. It was shown that ethanol–diesel blends were technically acceptable for existing diesel engines. Ethanol, as an attractive alternative fuel, is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression–ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may require special materials and modification of the fuel tank design. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol–diesel blends.

Keywords: ethanol, renewable, blend, bio-fuel, diesel engines

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1437 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

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1436 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Ali Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni


An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nano particles are analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability.In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamo meter and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nano particles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: engine, cerium oxide, biodiesel, deposit

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1435 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik


In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

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1434 Combustion Characteristic of Propane/Acetylene Fuel Blends Pool Fire

Authors: Yubo Bi, Xiao Chen, Shouxiang Lu


A kind of gas-fueled burner, named Burning Rate Emulator, was proposed for the purpose of the emulation of condensed fuel recently. The gaseous fuel can be pure combustible fuel gas or blends of gaseous fuel or inert gas. However, this concept was recently proposed without detailed study on the combustion characteristic of fuel blends. In this study, two kinds of common gaseous fuels were selected, propane and acetylene, to provide the combustion heat as well as a large amount of smoke, which widely exists in liquid and solid fuel burning process. A set of experiments were carried out using a gas-fueled burner with a diameter of 8 cm. The total volume flow rate of propane and acetylene was kept at 3 liters per minute. The volume fraction of propane varied from 0% to 100% at interval of 10%. It is found that the flame height increases with propane volume fraction, which may be caused by the increase of heat release rate, as the energy density of propane is larger than that of acetylene. The dimensionless flame height is correlated against dimensionless heat release rate, which shows a power function relationship. The radiation fraction of the flame does not show a monotonic relationship with propane volume fraction. With the increase of propane volume fraction from 0% to 100%, the value of radiation fraction increases first and reach a maximum value around 0.46 at a propane volume fraction of 10%, and then decreases continuously to a value of 0.25 at the propane volume fraction of 100%. The flame radiation is related to the soot in the flame. The trend of the radiation fraction reflects that there may be a synergistic effect of soot formation between propane and acetylene which can be guessed from the significantly high radiation fraction at a propane volume fraction of 10%. This work provides data for combustion of gaseous fuel blends pool fire and also give reference on the design of Burning Rate Emulator.

Keywords: Burning Rate Emulator, fuel blends pool fire, flame height, radiation fraction

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1433 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu


Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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1432 Performance of an Automotive Engine Running on Gasoline-Condensate Blends

Authors: Md. Ehsan, Cyrus Ashok Arupratan Atis


Significantly lower cost, bulk availability, absence of identification color additives and relative ease of mixing with fuels have made gas-field condensates a lucrative option as adulterant for gasoline in Bangladesh. Widespread adulteration of fuels with gas-field condensates being a problem existing mainly in developing countries like Bangladesh, Nigeria etc., research works regarding the effect of such fuel adulteration are very limited. Since the properties of the gas-field condensate vary widely depending on geographical location, studies need to be based on local condensate feeds. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of blending of gas-field condensates with gasoline(octane) in terms of - fuel properties, engine performance and exhaust emission. Condensate samples collected from Kailashtila gas field were blended with octane, ranging from 30% to 75% by volume. However for blends with above 60% condensate, cold starting of engine became difficult. Investigation revealed that the condensate samples had significantly higher distillation temperatures compared to octane, but were not far different in terms of heating value and carbon residues. Engine tests showed Kailashtila blends performing quite similar to octane in terms of power and thermal efficiency. No noticeable knocking was observed from in-cylinder pressure traces. For all the gasoline-condensate blends the test engine ran with relatively leaner air-fuel mixture delivering slightly lower CO emissions but HC and NOx emissions were similar to octane. Road trials of a test vehicle in real traffic condition and on a standard gradient using 50%(v/v) gasoline-condensate blend were also carried out. The test vehicle did not exhibit any noticeable difference in drivability compared to octane.

Keywords: condensates, engine performance, fuel adulteration, gasoline-condensate blends

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1431 Comparative Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and Bitter Apricot Kernal Oil Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Virender Singh Gurau, Akash Deep, Sarbjot S. Sandhu


Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. In the present research work Bitter Apricot kernel oil was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the Bitter Apricot kernel oil methyl ester were investigated as per ASTM D6751. From the series of engine testing, it is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with biodiesel blend was little lower than that of diesel. BSEC is slightly higher for Bitter apricot kernel oil methyl ester blends than neat diesel. For biodiesel blends, CO emission was lower than diesel fuel as B 20 reduced CO emissions by 18.75%. Approximately 11% increase in NOx emission was observed with 20% biodiesel blend. It is observed that HC emissions tend to decrease for biodiesel based fuels and Smoke opacity was found lower for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, bitter apricot kernel oil, performance and emission testing

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1430 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel


Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

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1429 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy


The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.


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1428 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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1427 Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Methyl Esters and its Blends

Authors: Ajay V. Kolhe, R. E. Shelke, S. S. Khandare


This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant speed mode (1500rpm) under the full load condition of the engine on single cylinder 4-stroke CI engine. The result indicated that when the test engine was fuelled with JME, the engine performance slightly weakened, the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel. The biodiesel caused reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The useful brake power obtained is similar to diesel fuel for all loads. Oxygen content in the exhaust is more with JME blend due to the reason that fuel itself contains oxygen. JME as a new Biodiesel and its blends can be used in diesel engines without any engine modification.

Keywords: biodiesel, combustion, CI engine, jatropha curcas oil, performance and emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1426 Rheological Properties of PP/EVA Blends

Authors: Othman Y. Alothman


The study aims to investigate the effects of blend ratio, VA content and temperature on the rheological properties of PPEVA blends. The results show that all pure polymers and their blends show typical shear thinning behaviour. All neat polymers exhibit power-low type flow behaviour, with the viscosity order as EVA328 > EVA206 > PP in almost all frequency ranges. As temperature increases, the viscosity of all polymers decreases as expected, and the viscosity becomes more sensitive to the addition of EVA. Two different regions can be observed on the flow curve of some of the polymers and their blends, which is thought to be due to slip-stick transition or melt fracture.

Keywords: polypropylene, ethylene vinyl acetate, blends, rheological properties

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1425 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Different Blends of Rice Bran Oil and Ethanol

Authors: Perminderjit Singh, Randeep Singh


The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multifuel engine when fueled with different blends of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol are investigated and compared with the results of standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from rice bran oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, 50% load and at compression ratios of 16.5:1, 17:1, 17.5:1 and 18:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives the best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, the maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for waste cooking oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency at 50% load for rice bran oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B40 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in the reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions.

Keywords: biodiesel, rice bran oil, transesterification, ethanol, compression ratio

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1424 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka


Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: alternative fuel, butanol, diesel engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

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1423 Fuel Quality of Biodiesel from Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae Species

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Mahendra Pal Sharma


Depleting fossil fuel resources coupled with serious environmental degradation has led to the search for alternative resources for biodiesel production as a substitute of Petro-diesel. Currently, edible, non-edible oils and microalgal plant species are cultivated for biodiesel production. Looking at the demerits of edible and non-edible oil resources, the focus is being given to grow microalgal species having high oil productivities, less maturity time and less land requirement. Out of various microalgal species, Chlorella protothecoides is considered as the most promising species for biodiesel production owing to high oil content (58 %), faster growth rate (24–48 h) and high biomass productivity (1214 mg/l/day). The present paper reports the results of optimization of reaction parameters of transesterification process as well as the kinetics of transesterification with 97% yield of biodiesel. The measurement of fuel quality of microalgal biodiesel shows that the biodiesel exhibit very good oxidation stability (O.S) of 7 hrs, more than ASTM D6751 (3 hrs) and EN 14112 (6 hrs) specifications. The CP and PP of 0 and -3 °C are finding as per ASTM D 2500-11 and ASTM D 97-12 standards. These results show that the microalgal biodiesel does not need any enhancement in O.S & CFP and hence can be recommended to be directly used as MB100 or its blends into diesel engine operation. Further, scope is available for the production of binary blends using poor quality biodiesel for engine operation.

Keywords: fuel quality, methyl ester yield, microalgae, transesterification

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1422 Effect of Acids with Different Chain Lengths Modified by Methane Sulfonic Acid and Temperature on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch/Glycerin Blends

Authors: Chi-Yuan Huang, Mei-Chuan Kuo, Ching-Yi Hsiao


In this study, acids with various chain lengths (C6, C8, C10 and C12) modified by methane sulfonic acid (MSA) and temperature were used to modify tapioca starch (TPS), then the glycerol (GA) were added into modified starch, to prepare new blends. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and physical properties of blends were studied. This investigation was divided into two parts.  First, the biodegradable materials were used such as starch and glycerol with hexanedioic acid (HA), suberic acid (SBA), sebacic acid (SA), decanedicarboxylic acid (DA) manufacturing with different temperatures (90, 110 and 130 °C). And then, the solution was added into modified starch to prepare the blends by using single-screw extruder. The FT-IR patterns indicated that the characteristic peak of C=O in ester was observed at 1730 cm-1. It is proved that different chain length acids (C6, C8, C10 and C12) reacted with glycerol by esterification and these are used to plasticize blends during extrusion. In addition, the blends would improve the hydrolysis and thermal stability. The water contact angle increased from 43.0° to 64.0°.  Second, the HA (110 °C), SBA (110 °C), SA (110 °C), and DA blends (130 °C) were used in study, because they possessed good mechanical properties, water resistances and thermal stability. On the other hand, the various contents (0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.020 g) of MSA were also used to modify the mechanical properties of blends. We observed that the blends were added to MSA, and then the FT-IR patterns indicated that the C=O ester appeared at 1730 cm-1. For this reason, the hydrophobic blends were produced. The water contact angle of the MSA blends increased from 55.0° to 71.0°. Although break elongation of the MSA blends reduced from the original 220% to 128%, the stress increased from 2.5 MPa to 5.1 MPa. Therefore, the optimal composition of blends was the DA blend (130 °C) with adding of MSA (0.005 g).

Keywords: chain length acids, methane sulfonic acid, Tapioca starch (TPS), tensile stress

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1421 Analysis of Reduced Mechanisms for Premixed Combustion of Methane/Hydrogen/Propane/Air Flames in Geometrically Modified Combustor and Its Effects on Flame Properties

Authors: E. Salem


Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in recent years, there has been a further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid etc. In order to solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through learn burning modifying combustors and fuel dilution. A numerical investigation has been done to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms in terms of computational time and accuracy, for the combustion of the hydrocarbons/air or diluted with hydrogen in a micro combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends then analyzing the flammable limit, the reduction in NOx and CO emissions, then comparing it to experimental data. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-9-12) were obtained. These reduced mechanisms were simulated on a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter. The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air blends to visualize the flame characteristics than were compared with experimental data. Once the results were within acceptable range, the geometry of the combustor was modified through changing the length, diameter, adding hydrogen by volume, and changing the equivalence ratios from lean to rich in the fuel blends, the results on flame temperature, shape, velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range. The variation of the inlet velocity and geometry of the tube lead to an increase of the temperature and CO2 emissions, highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio. Addition of hydrogen blends into combustor fuel blends resulted in; reduction in CO and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having same laminar flow, and varying equivalence ratio with hydrogen additions. The production of NO is reduced because the combustion happens in a leaner state and helps in solving environmental problems.

Keywords: combustor, equivalence-ratio, hydrogenation, premixed flames

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1420 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

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1419 Small Scale Waste to Energy Systems: Optimization of Feedstock Composition for Improved Control of Ash Sintering and Quality of Generated Syngas

Authors: Mateusz Szul, Tomasz Iluk, Aleksander Sobolewski


Small-scale, distributed energy systems enabling cogeneration of heat and power based on gasification of sewage sludge, are considered as the most efficient and environmentally friendly ways of their treatment. However, economic aspects of such an investment are very demanding; therefore, for such a small scale sewage sludge gasification installation to be profitable, it needs to be efficient and simple at the same time. The article presents results of research on air gasification of sewage sludge in fixed bed GazEla reactor. Two of the most important aspects of the research considered the influence of the composition of sewage sludge blends with other feedstocks on properties of generated syngas and ash sintering problems occurring at the fixed bed. Different means of the fuel pretreatment and blending were proposed as a way of dealing with the above mentioned undesired characteristics. Influence of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) and biomasses in the fuel blends were evaluated. Ash properties were assessed based on proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analysis of the feedstock. The blends were specified based on complementary characteristics of such criteria as C content, moisture, volatile matter, Si, Al, Mg, and content of basic metals in the ash were analyzed, Obtained results were assessed with use of experimental gasification tests and laboratory ISO-procedure for analysis of ash characteristic melting temperatures. Optimal gasification process conditions were determined by energetic parameters of the generated syngas, its content of tars and lack of ash sinters within the reactor bed. Optimal results were obtained for co-gasification of herbaceous biomasses with sewage sludge where LHV (Lower Heating Value) of the obtained syngas reached a stable value of 4.0 MJ/Nm3 for air/steam gasification.

Keywords: ash fusibility, gasification, piston engine, sewage sludge

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1418 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos


The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

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1417 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri, Sumit Roy


The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: coconut oil, alternative fuel, emissions, dual-fuel

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1416 Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites

Authors: Marianna I. Triantou, Konstantina I. Stathi, Petroula A. Tarantili


In the present study, the incorporation of graphene into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests. The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion. Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature (Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends, due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in the case of pure PP.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, blends, graphene, polypropylene

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1415 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

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1414 Evaluation of the Energy Performance and Emissions of an Aircraft Engine: J69 Using Fuel Blends of Jet A1 and Biodiesel

Authors: Gabriel Fernando Talero Rojas, Vladimir Silva Leal, Camilo Bayona-Roa, Juan Pava, Mauricio Lopez Gomez


The substitution of conventional aviation fuels with biomass-derived alternative fuels is an emerging field of study in the aviation transport, mainly due to its energy consumption, the contribution to the global Greenhouse Gas - GHG emissions and the fossil fuel price fluctuations. Nevertheless, several challenges remain as the biofuel production cost and its degradative effect over the fuel systems that alter the operating safety. Moreover, experimentation on full-scale aeronautic turbines are expensive and complex, leading to most of the research to the testing of small-size turbojets with a major absence of information regarding the effects in the energy performance and the emissions. The main purpose of the current study is to present the results of experimentation in a full-scale military turbojet engine J69-T-25A (presented in Fig. 1) with 640 kW of power rating and using blends of Jet A1 with oil palm biodiesel. The main findings are related to the thrust specific fuel consumption – TSFC, the engine global efficiency – η, the air/fuel ratio – AFR and the volume fractions of O2, CO2, CO, and HC. Two fuels are used in the present study: a commercial Jet A1 and a Colombian palm oil biodiesel. The experimental plan is conducted using the biodiesel volume contents - w_BD from 0 % (B0) to 50 % (B50). The engine operating regimes are set to Idle, Cruise, and Take-off conditions. The turbojet engine J69 is used by the Colombian Air Force and it is installed in a testing bench with the instrumentation that corresponds to the technical manual of the engine. The increment of w_BD from 0 % to 50 % reduces the η near 3,3 % and the thrust force in a 26,6 % at Idle regime. These variations are related to the reduction of the 〖HHV〗_ad of the fuel blend. The evolved CO and HC tend to be reduced in all the operating conditions when increasing w_BD. Furthermore, a reduction of the atomization angle is presented in Fig. 2, indicating a poor atomization in the fuel nozzle injectors when using a higher biodiesel content as the viscosity of fuel blend increases. An evolution of cloudiness is also observed during the shutdown procedure as presented in Fig. 3a, particularly after 20 % of biodiesel content in the fuel blend. This promotes the contamination of some components of the combustion chamber of the J69 engine with soot and unburned matter (Fig. 3). Thus, the substitution of biodiesel content above 20 % is not recommended in order to avoid a significant decrease of η and the thrust force. A more detail examination of the mechanical wearing of the main components of the engine is advised in further studies.

Keywords: aviation, air to fuel ratio, biodiesel, energy performance, fuel atomization, gas turbine

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1413 Fish Oil and Its Methyl Ester as an Alternate Fuel in the Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Authors: Pavan Pujar


Mackerel Fish oil was used as the raw material to produce the biodiesel in this study. The raw oil (RO) was collected from discarded fish products. This oil was filtered and heated to 110oC and made it moisture free. The filtered and moisture free RO was transesterified to produce biodiesel. The experimental results showed that oleic acid and lauric acid were the two major components of the fish oil biodiesel (FOB). Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were found approximately same in the quantity. The fuel properties kinematic viscosity, flash point, fire point, specific gravity, calorific value, cetane number, density, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, cloud point, pour point, ash content, Cu strip corrosion, carbon residue, API gravity were determined for FOB. A comparative study of the properties was carried out with RO and Neat diesel (ND). It was found that Cetane number was 59 for FOB which was more than RO, which showed 57. Blends (B20, B40, B60, B80: example: B20: 20% FOB + 80% ND) of FOB and ND were prepared on volume basis and comparative study was carried out with ND and FOB. Performance parameters BSFE, BSEC, A:F Ratio, Break thermal efficiency were analyzed and it was found that complete replacement of neat diesel (ND) is possible without any engine modifications.

Keywords: fish oil biodiesel, raw oil, blends, performance parameters

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1412 Effects of Small Amount of Poly(D-Lactic Acid) on the Properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Microcrystalline Cellulose/Poly(D-Lactic Acid) Blends

Authors: Md. Hafezur Rahaman, Md. Sagor Hosen, Md. Abdul Gafur, Rasel Habib


This research is a systematic study of effects of poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) on the properties of poly(L-lactic acid)(PLLA)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/PDLA blends by stereo complex crystallization. Blends were prepared with constant percentage of (3 percent) MCC and different percentage of PDLA by solution casting methods. These blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the confirmation of blends compatibility, Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the analysis of morphology, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) for thermal properties measurement. FTIR Analysis results confirm no new characteristic absorption peaks appeared in the spectrum instead shifting of peaks due to hydrogen bonding help to have compatibility of blends component. Development of three new peaks from XRD analysis indicates strongly the formation of stereo complex crystallinity in the PLLA structure with the addition of PDLA. TGA and DTG results indicate that PDLA can improve the heat resistivity of the PLLA/MCC blends by increasing its degradation temperature. Comparison of DTA peaks also ensure developed thermal properties. Image of SEM shows the improvement of surface morphology.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, poly(l-lactic acid), stereocomplex crystallization, thermal stability

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