Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: combustor

39 Analysis of Syngas Combustion Characteristics in Can-Type Combustor using CFD

Authors: Norhaslina Mat Zian, Hasril Hasini, Nur Irmawati Om

Abstract:

This study focuses on the flow and combustion behavior inside gas turbine combustor used in thermal power plant. The combustion process takes place using synthetic gas and the baseline solution was made on gas turbine combustor firing natural gas (100% Methane) as the main source of fuel. Attention is given to the effect of the H2/CO ratio on the variation of the flame profile, temperature distribution, and emissions. The H2/CO ratio varies in the range of 10-80 % and the CH4 values are fixed 10% for each case. While keeping constant the mass flow rate and operating pressure, the preliminary result shows that the flow inside the can-combustor is highly swirling which indicates good mixing of fuel and air prior to the entrance of the mixture to the main combustion zone.

Keywords: cfd, combustion, flame, syngas

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38 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
37 A Transfer Function Representation of Thermo-Acoustic Dynamics for Combustors

Authors: Myunggon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon

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In this paper, we present a transfer function representation of a general one-dimensional combustor. The input of the transfer function is a heat rate perturbation of a burner and the output is a flow velocity perturbation at the burner. This paper considers a general combustor model composed of multiple cans with different cross sectional areas, along with a non-zero flow rate.

Keywords: combustor, dynamics, thermoacoustics, transfer function

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36 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

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35 Numerical Analysis of Catalytic Combustion in a Tabular Reactor with Methane and Air Mixtures over Platinum Catalyst

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promote desired chemical reactions. The objective of this work is to design and simulate a catalytic combustor by using CHEMKIN with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor (PFR) can be used to predict reasonably well with the effect of various operating parameters such as the inlet temperature, velocity and fuel/air ratios. The numerical results are validated by comparing the surface chemistries in single channel catalytic combustor. The catalytic combustor operates at much lower temperature than the conventional combustor since lean-fuel mixture is used where the complete methane conversion is achieved. The coupling between gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed is studied by investigating the commencement of flame ignition with respect to the surface site species.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, honeycomb monolith, plug flow reactor, surface reactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
34 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
33 Investigation of the Thermal Flow inside the Catalytic Combustor for Lean CH4-Air Mixture on a Platinum Catalyst with H2 Addition

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In order to elaborate the main idea of investigating the flow physics inside the catalytic combustor, the characteristics of the catalytic surface reactions are analyzed by employing the CHEMKIN methodology with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promotes desired chemical reactions. A single channel from the honeycomb monolith catalytic combustor is preferred to analyze the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed considering the fact that every channel in the honeycomb monolith behaves in similar fashion. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor can be used to predict the flow behavior inside the catalytic combustor. The hydrogen addition to the combustion reactants offers a way to light-off catalytic combustion of methane on platinum catalyst and aids to reduce the surface ignition temperature. Indeed, the hydrogen adsorption is higher on the uncovered Pt(s) surface sites because the sticking coefficient of hydrogen is larger than that of methane. The location of flame position in the catalyst bed is validated by igniting the methane fuel with the presence of hydrogen for corresponding multistep surface reactions.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, hydrogen adsorption, plug flow reactor, surface ignition temperature

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32 Study of a Lean Premixed Combustor: A Thermo Acoustic Analysis

Authors: Minoo Ghasemzadeh, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Alireza Ramezani

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In this study, thermo acoustic oscillations of a lean premixed combustor has been investigated, and a mono-dimensional code was developed in this regard. The linearized equations of motion are solved for perturbations with time dependence〖 e〗^iwt. Two flame models were considered in this paper and the effect of mean flow and boundary conditions were also investigated. After manipulation of flame heat release equation together with the equations of flow perturbation within the main components of the combustor model (i.e., plenum/ premixed duct/ and combustion chamber) and by considering proper boundary conditions between the components of model, a system of eight homogeneous equations can be obtained. This simplification, for the main components of the combustor model, is convenient since low frequency acoustic waves are not affected by bends. Moreover, some elements in the combustor are smaller than the wavelength of propagated acoustic perturbations. A convection time is also assumed to characterize the required time for the acoustic velocity fluctuations to travel from the point of injection to the location of flame front in the combustion chamber. The influence of an extended flame model on the acoustic frequencies of combustor was also investigated, assuming the effect of flame speed as a function of equivalence ratio perturbation, on the rate of flame heat release. The abovementioned system of equations has a related eigenvalue equation which has complex roots. The sign of imaginary part of these roots determines whether the disturbances grow or decay and the real part of these roots would give the frequency of the modes. The results show a reasonable agreement between the predicted values of dominant frequencies in the present model and those calculated in previous related studies.

Keywords: combustion instability, dominant frequencies, flame speed, premixed combustor

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31 The Influence of Step and Fillet Shape on Nozzle Endwall Heat Transfer

Authors: Jeong Ju Kim, Hee Yoon Chung, Dong Ho Rhee, Hyung Hee Cho

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There is a gap at combustor-turbine interface where leakage flow comes out to prevent hot gas ingestion into the gas turbine nozzle platform. The leakage flow protects the nozzle endwall surface from the hot gas coming from combustor exit. For controlling flow’s stream, the gap’s geometry is transformed by changing fillet radius size. During the operation, step configuration is occurred that was unintended between combustor-turbine platform interface caused by thermal expansion or mismatched assembly. In this study, CFD simulations were performed to investigate the effect of the fillet and step on heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness on the nozzle platform. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes equation was solved with turbulence model, SST k-omega. With the fillet configuration, predicted film cooling effectiveness results indicated that fillet radius size influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. Predicted film cooling effectiveness results at forward facing step configuration indicated that step height influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. We suggested that designer change a combustor-turbine interface configuration which was varied by fillet radius size near endwall gap when there was a step at combustor-turbine interface. Gap shape was modified by increasing fillet radius size near nozzle endwall. Also, fillet radius and step height were interacted with the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer on endwall surface.

Keywords: gas turbine, film cooling effectiveness, endwall, fillet

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
30 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

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Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) with Polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, emissions, gas turbine combustor, gasification, solid waste, syngas, waste to energy

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29 Analysis of Vortical Structures Generated by the Swirler of Combustion Chamber

Authors: Vladislav A. Nazukin, Valery G. Avgustinovich, Vakhtang V. Tsatiashvili

Abstract:

The most important part of modern lean low NOx combustors is a premixer where swirlers are often used for intensification of mixing processes and further formation of required flow pattern in combustor liner. Swirling flow leads to formation of complex eddy structures causing flow perturbations. It is able to cause combustion instability. Therefore, at design phase, it is necessary to pay great attention to aerodynamics of premixers. Analysis based on unsteady CFD modeling of swirling flow in production combustor swirler showed presence of large number of different eddy structures that can be conditionally divided into three types relative to its location of origin and a propagation path. Further, features of each eddy type were subsequently defined. Comparison of calculated and experimental pressure fluctuations spectrums verified correctness of computations.

Keywords: DES simulation, swirler, vortical structures, combustion chamber

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28 Flame Volume Prediction and Validation for Lean Blowout of Gas Turbine Combustor

Authors: Ejaz Ahmed, Huang Yong

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The operation of aero engines has a critical importance in the vicinity of lean blowout (LBO) limits. Lefebvre’s model of LBO based on empirical correlation has been extended to flame volume concept by the authors. The flame volume takes into account the effects of geometric configuration, the complex spatial interaction of mixing, turbulence, heat transfer and combustion processes inside the gas turbine combustion chamber. For these reasons, flame volume based LBO predictions are more accurate. Although LBO prediction accuracy has improved, it poses a challenge associated with Vf estimation in real gas turbine combustors. This work extends the approach of flame volume prediction previously based on fuel iterative approximation with cold flow simulations to reactive flow simulations. Flame volume for 11 combustor configurations has been simulated and validated against experimental data. To make prediction methodology robust as required in the preliminary design stage, reactive flow simulations were carried out with the combination of probability density function (PDF) and discrete phase model (DPM) in FLUENT 15.0. The criterion for flame identification was defined. Two important parameters i.e. critical injection diameter (Dp,crit) and critical temperature (Tcrit) were identified, and their influence on reactive flow simulation was studied for Vf estimation. Obtained results exhibit ±15% error in Vf estimation with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, gas turbine combustor, lean blowout

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27 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
26 Analysis of Reduced Mechanisms for Premixed Combustion of Methane/Hydrogen/Propane/Air Flames in Geometrically Modified Combustor and Its Effects on Flame Properties

Authors: E. Salem

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Combustion has been used for a long time as a means of energy extraction. However, in recent years, there has been a further increase in air pollution, through pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, acid etc. In order to solve this problem, there is a need to reduce carbon and nitrogen oxides through learn burning modifying combustors and fuel dilution. A numerical investigation has been done to investigate the effectiveness of several reduced mechanisms in terms of computational time and accuracy, for the combustion of the hydrocarbons/air or diluted with hydrogen in a micro combustor. The simulations were carried out using the ANSYS Fluent 19.1. To validate the results “PREMIX and CHEMKIN” codes were used to calculate 1D premixed flame based on the temperature, composition of burned and unburned gas mixtures. Numerical calculations were carried for several hydrocarbons by changing the equivalence ratios and adding small amounts of hydrogen into the fuel blends then analyzing the flammable limit, the reduction in NOx and CO emissions, then comparing it to experimental data. By solving the conservations equations, several global reduced mechanisms (2-9-12) were obtained. These reduced mechanisms were simulated on a 2D cylindrical tube with dimensions of 40 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter. The mesh of the model included a proper fine quad mesh, within the first 7 cm of the tube and around the walls. By developing a proper boundary layer, several simulations were performed on hydrocarbon/air blends to visualize the flame characteristics than were compared with experimental data. Once the results were within acceptable range, the geometry of the combustor was modified through changing the length, diameter, adding hydrogen by volume, and changing the equivalence ratios from lean to rich in the fuel blends, the results on flame temperature, shape, velocity and concentrations of radicals and emissions were observed. It was determined that the reduced mechanisms provided results within an acceptable range. The variation of the inlet velocity and geometry of the tube lead to an increase of the temperature and CO2 emissions, highest temperatures were obtained in lean conditions (0.5-0.9) equivalence ratio. Addition of hydrogen blends into combustor fuel blends resulted in; reduction in CO and NOx emissions, expansion of the flammable limit, under the condition of having same laminar flow, and varying equivalence ratio with hydrogen additions. The production of NO is reduced because the combustion happens in a leaner state and helps in solving environmental problems.

Keywords: combustor, equivalence-ratio, hydrogenation, premixed flames

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
25 Numerical and Experimental Study on Bed-Wall Heat Transfer in Conical Fluidized Bed Combustor

Authors: Ik–Tae Im, H. M. Abdelmotalib, M. A. Youssef, S. B. Young

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In this study the flow characteristics and bed-to-wall heat transfer in a gas-solid conical fluidized bed combustor were investigated using both experimental and numerical methods. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were carried out using a commercial software, Fluent V6.3. A two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian model was applied in order to simulate the gas–solid flow and heat transfer in a conical sand-air bed with 30o con angle and 22 cm static bed height. Effect of different fluidizing number varying in the range of 1.5 - 2.3, drag models namely (Syamlal-O’Brien and Gidaspow), and friction viscosity on flow and bed-to-wall heat transfer were analyzed. Both bed pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing inlet gas velocity. The Gidaspow drag model showed a better agreement with experimental results than other drag model. The friction viscosity had no clear effect on both hydrodynamics and heat transfer.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer coefficient, hydrodynamics, renewable energy

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24 Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines

Authors: Aman Johri, Sidhant Sood, Pooja Suresh

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This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.

Keywords: atomization, ultrasound field effect, titanium mesh, breakup frequency, parent boundary layer, baseplate, propulsive efficiency, jet turbine fuel, induced vibrations

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23 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Pulse Combustion for Fabric Drying

Authors: Dan Zhao, Y. W. Sheng

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The present work considers a convection-driven T-shaped pulse combustion system. Both experimental and numerical investigations are conducted to study the mechanism of pulse combustion and its potential application in fabric drying. To gain insight on flame-acoustic dynamic interaction and pulsating flow characteristics, 3D numerical simulation of the pulse combustion process of a premixed turbulent flame in a Rijke-type combustor is performed. Two parameters are examined: (1) fuel-air ratio, (2) inlet flow velocity. Their effects on triggering pulsating flow and Nusselt number are studied. As each of the parameters is varied, Nusselt number characterizing the heat transfer rate and the heat-driven pulsating flow signature is found to change. The main nonlinearity is identified in the heat fluxes. To validate our numerical findings, a cylindrical T-shaped Rijke-type combustor made of quartz-glass with a Bunsen burner is designed and tested.

Keywords: pulse combustion, fabric drying, heat transfer, combustion oscillations, pressure oscillations

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22 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

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Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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21 Feasibility Study of Plant Design with Biomass Direct Chemical Looping Combustion for Power Generation

Authors: Reza Tirsadi Librawan, Tara Vergita Rakhma

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The increasing demand for energy and concern of global warming are intertwined issues of critical importance. With the pressing needs of clean, efficient and cost-effective energy conversion processes, an alternative clean energy source is needed. Biomass is one of the preferable options because it is clean and renewable. The efficiency for biomass conversion is constrained by the relatively low energy density and high moisture content from biomass. This study based on bio-based resources presents the Biomass Direct Chemical Looping Combustion Process (BDCLC), an alternative process that has a potential to convert biomass in thermal cracking to produce electricity and CO2. The BDCLC process using iron-based oxygen carriers has been developed as a biomass conversion process with in-situ CO2 capture. The BDCLC system cycles oxygen carriers between two reactor, a reducer reactor and combustor reactor in order to convert coal for electric power generation. The reducer reactor features a unique design: a gas-solid counter-current moving bed configuration to achieve the reduction of Fe2O3 particles to a mixture of Fe and FeO while converting the coal into CO2 and steam. The combustor reactor is a fluidized bed that oxidizes the reduced particles back to Fe2O3 with air. The oxidation of iron is an exothermic reaction and the heat can be recovered for electricity generation. The plant design’s objective is to obtain 5 MW of electricity with the design of the reactor in 900 °C, 2 ATM for the reducer and 1200 °C, 16 ATM for the combustor. We conduct process simulation and analysis to illustrate the individual reactor performance and the overall mass and energy management scheme of BDCLC process that developed by Aspen Plus software. Process simulation is then performed based on the reactor performance data obtained in multistage model.

Keywords: biomass, CO2 capture, direct chemical looping combustion, power generation

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20 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag

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This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

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19 Application of Flue Gas Recirculation in Fluidized Bed Combustor for Energy Efficiency Enhancement

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang

Abstract:

For a fluidized-bed combustion system, excess air ratio (EAR) and superficial velocity are major operating parameters affecting combustion behaviors, and these 2 factors are dependent variables since both fluidizing gas and combustion-supporting agent are air. EAR will change when superficial velocity alters, so that the effect of superficial velocity and/or EAR on combustion behaviors cannot be examined under a specific condition. When stage combustion is executed, one can discuss the effect of EAR under a certain specific superficial velocity, but the flow rate of secondary air and EAR are dependent. In order to investigate the effect of excess air ratio on the combustion behavior of a fluidized combustion system, the flue gas recirculation was adapted by the author in 2007. We can maintain a fixed flow rate of primary gas or secondary gas and change excess oxygen as an independent variable by adjusting the recirculated flue gas appropriately. In another word, we can investigate the effect of excess oxygen on the combustion behavior at a certain primary gas flow, or at a certain hydrodynamics conditions. This technique can be used at a lower turndown ratio to maintain the residual oxygen in the flue gas at a certain value. All the experiments were conducted in a pilot scale fluidized bed combustor. The fluidized bed combustor can be divided into four parts, i.e., windbox, distributor, combustion chamber, and freeboard. The combustion chamber with a cross-section of 0.8 m × 0.4 m was constructed of 6 mm carbon steel lined with 150 mm refractory to reduce heat loss. Above the combustion chamber, the freeboard is 0.64 m in inner diameter. A total of 27 tuyeres with orifices of 5 and 3 mm inside diameters mounted on a 6 mm stainless-steel plate were used as the gas distributor with an open-area-ratio of 0.52%. The Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min respectively. The bed temperature was controlled by three heat transfer tubes inserted into the bubbling bed zone. The experimental data shows that bed temperature, CO and NO emissions increase with the stoichiometric oxygen of the primary gas. NO emissions decrease with the stoichiometric oxygen of the primary. Compared with part of primary air substituted with nitrogen, a lower NO emission can be obtained while flue gas recirculation applies as part of primary air.

Keywords: fluidized bed combustion, flue gas circulation, NO emission, recycle

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18 Non-Reacting Numerical Simulation of Axisymmetric and Single Cavity Trapped Vortex Combustors

Authors: Heval Serhat Uluk, Sam M. Dakka

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In this study, non-reacting simulations of axisymmetric and single cavity trapped vortex combustors were simulated to investigate the pressure drop and drag for various cavity aspect ratios and air mass flow rates. Models were validated by using experimental papers that are already available in the literature. Numerical study of axisymmetric trapped vortex combustor was carried out by using two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational domains, whereas single cavity trapped vortex combustor will only be simulated for the three-dimensional computational domain. A grid independence study will be conducted for each model. A comparison study was conducted between Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) k-ε Realizable with enhanced wall treatment and RANS k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) models to find the most suitable turbulence model, and it was found that the k-ω Shear Stress Transport model gives relatively close results to experimental outcomes. The two-dimensional model has already proven that simulation results are relatively close to the experimental results. Pressure drop rises with increasing air mass flow rate, and the lowest pressure drop was observed at 0.6 forebody/cavity aspect ratio for various air mass flow rates, which is similar to experimental outcomes. At the end of this study, it is expected to conclude the effect of air mass flow rate and cavity aspect ratio on the aerodynamics of vortex inside the cavity and find the lowest pressure drop and drag for both experimental setups. Moreover, it will also help to choose which turbulence model to use for two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational domains.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, aerodynamic, aerospace, propulsion

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17 Biorefinery Annexed to South African Sugar Mill: Energy Sufficiency Analysis

Authors: S. Farzad, M. Ali Mandegari, J. F. Görgens

Abstract:

The South African Sugar Industry, which has a significant impact on the national economy, is currently facing problems due to increasing energy price and low global sugar price. The available bagasse is already combusted in low-efficiency boilers of the sugar mills while bagasse is generally recognized as a promising feedstock for second generation bioethanol production. Establishment of biorefinery annexed to the existing sugar mills, as an alternative for the revitalization of sugar industry producing biofuel and electricity has been proposed and considered in this study. Since the scale is an important issue in the feasibility of the technology, this study has taken into account a typical sugar mill with 300 ton/hr sugar cane capacity. The biorefinery simulation is carried out using Aspen PlusTM V8.6, in which the sugar mill’s power and steam demand has been considered. Hence, sugar mills in South Africa can be categorized as highly efficient, efficient, and not efficient with steam consumption of 33, 40, and 60 tons of steam per ton of cane and electric power demand of 10 MW; three different scenarios are studied. The sugar cane bagasse and tops/trash are supplied to the biorefinery process and the wastes/residues (mostly lignin) from the process are burnt in the CHP plant in order to produce steam and electricity for the biorefinery and sugar mill as well. Considering the efficient sugar mill, the CHP plant has generated 5 MW surplus electric powers, but the obtained energy is not enough for self-sufficiency of the plant (Biorefinery and Sugar mill) due to lack of 34 MW heat. One of the advantages of second generation biorefinery is its low impact on the environment and carbon footprint, thus the plant should be self-sufficient in energy without using fossil fuels. For this reason, a portion of fresh bagasse should be sent to the CHP plant to meet the energy requirements. An optimization procedure was carried out to find out the appropriate portion to be burnt in the combustor. As a result, 20% of the bagasse is re-routed to the combustor which leads to 5 tons of LP Steam and 8.6 MW electric power surpluses.

Keywords: biorefinery, sugarcane bagasse, sugar mill, energy analysis, bioethanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
16 Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

Authors: Chien-Song Chyang, Yu-Chi Wang

Abstract:

For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed. The moisture content of the sludge was 48.53%, and its LHV was 454.6 kcal/kg. Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min, respectively. Diesel burners with on-off controllers were used to control the temperature; the bed temperature was set to 750±20 °C, and the freeboard temperature was 850±20 °C. The experimental data show that the NO emission increased with bed temperature. The maximum NO emission is 139 ppm, which is in agreement with the regulation. The CO emission is low than 100 ppm through the operation period. The mean particle size of fly ash collected from baghouse decreased with operating time. The ration of bottom ash to fly ash is about 3. Compared with bottom ash, the potassium in the fly ash is much higher. It implied that the potassium content is not the key factor for aggregation of bottom ash.

Keywords: bottom ash, fluidized-bed combustion, incineration, sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
15 Numerical Study on Vortex-Driven Pressure Oscillation and Roll Torque Characteristics in a SRM with Two Inhibitors

Authors: Ji-Seok Hong, Hee-Jang Moon, Hong-Gye Sung

Abstract:

The details of flow structures and the coupling mechanism between vortex shedding and acoustic excitation in a solid rocket motor with two inhibitors have been investigated using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis. The oscillation frequencies and vortex shedding periods from two inhibitors compare reasonably well with the experimental data and numerical result. A total of four different locations of the rear inhibitor has been numerically tested to characterize the coupling relation of vortex shedding frequency and acoustic mode. The major source of triggering pressure oscillation in the combustor is the resonance with the acoustic longitudinal half mode. It was observed that the counter-rotating vortices in the nozzle flow produce roll torque.

Keywords: large eddy simulation, proper orthogonal decomposition, SRM instability, flow-acoustic coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
14 Economic Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis Pagone Emmanuele, Agbadede Roupa, Allison Isaiah

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero-emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, the current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbomachinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50% cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low-temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air preheater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high-temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout)–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture). This paper discusses monte carlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: gas turbine, global warming, green house gas, fossil fuel power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
13 Monte Carlo Risk Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis, Pagone Emanuele

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5 cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbo machinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50 % cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air pre-heater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. This paper discusses techno-economic analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) – AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine– AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture). This paper discusses Montecarlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: gas turbine, global warming, green house gases, power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
12 Simulation on Fuel Metering Unit Used for TurboShaft Engine Model

Authors: Bin Wang, Hengyu Ji, Zhifeng Ye

Abstract:

Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) in fuel system of an aeroengine sometimes has direct influence on the engine performance, which is neglected for the sake of easy access to mathematical model of the engine in most cases. In order to verify the influence of FMU on an engine model, this paper presents a co-simulation of a stepping motor driven FMU (digital FMU) in a turboshaft aeroengine, using AMESim and MATLAB to obtain the steady and dynamic characteristics of the FMU. For this method, mechanical and hydraulic section of the unit is modeled through AMESim, while the stepping motor is mathematically modeled through MATLAB/Simulink. Combining these two sub-models yields an AMESim/MATLAB co-model of the FMU. A simplified component level model for the turboshaft engine is established and connected with the FMU model. Simulation results on the full model show that the engine model considering FMU characteristics describes the engine more precisely especially in its transition state. An FMU dynamics will cut down the rotation speed of the high pressure shaft and the inlet pressure of the combustor during the step response. The work in this paper reveals the impact of FMU on engine operation characteristics and provides a reference to an engine model for ground tests.

Keywords: fuel metering unit, stepping motor, AMESim/Matlab, full digital simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
11 Environmental Quality On-Line Monitoring Based on Enterprises Resource Planning on Implementation ISO 14001:2004

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy

Abstract:

This study aims to develop strategies for the prevention or elimination of environmental pollution as well as changes in external variables of the environment in order to implement the environmental management system ISO 14001:2004 by integrating analysis of environmental issues data, RKL-RPL transactional data and regulation as part of ERP on the management dashboard. This research uses a quantitative descriptive approach with analysis method comparing with air quality standard (PP 42/1999, LH 21/2008), water quality standard (permenkes RI 416/1990, KepmenLH 51/2004, kepmenLH 55/2013 ), and biodiversity indicators. Based on the research, the parameters of RPL monitoring have been identified, among others, the quality of emission air (SO₂, NO₂, dust, particulate) due to the influence of fuel quality, combustion performance in a combustor and the effect of development change around the generating area. While in water quality (TSS, TDS) there was an increase due to the flow of water in the cooling intake carrying sedimentation from the flow of Banjir Kanal Timur. Including compliance with the ISO 14001:2004 clause on application design significantly contributes to the improvement of the quality of power plant management.

Keywords: environmental management systems, power plant management, regulatory compliance , enterprises resource planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
10 Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials

Authors: P. Ninduangdee, V. I. Kuprianov

Abstract:

Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behaviour of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.

Keywords: palm kernel shell, fluidized-bed combustion, alternative bed materials, combustion and emission performance, bed agglomeration prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 179