Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: gasification

81 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy


The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: biomass fuels, temperature, advanced downdraft gasifier, tar, renewable energy sources

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80 Effect of Minerals in Middlings on the Reactivity of Gasification-Coke by Blending a Large Proportion of Long Flame Coal

Authors: Jianjun Wu, Fanhui Guo, Yixin Zhang


In this study, gasification-coke were produced by blending the middlings (MC), and coking coal (CC) and a large proportion of long flame coal (Shenfu coal, SC), the effects of blending ratio were investigated. Mineral evolution and crystalline order obtained by XRD methods were reproduced within reasonable accuracy. Structure characteristics of partially gasification-coke such as surface area and porosity were determined using the N₂ adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Experimental data of gasification-coke was dominated by the TGA results provided trend, reactivity differences between gasification-cokes are discussed in terms of structure characteristic, crystallinity, and alkali index (AI). The first-order reaction equation was suitable for the gasification reaction kinetics of CO₂ atmosphere which was represented by the volumetric reaction model with linear correlation coefficient above 0.985. The differences in the microporous structure of gasification-coke and catalysis caused by the minerals in parent coals were supposed to be the main factors which affect its reactivity. The addition of MC made the samples enriched with a large amount of ash causing a higher surface area and a lower crystalline order to gasification-coke which was beneficial to gasification reaction. The higher SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ contents, causing a decreasing AI value and increasing activation energy, which reduced the gasification reaction activity. It was found that the increasing amount of MC got a better performance on the coke gasification reactivity by blending > 30% SC with this coking process.

Keywords: low-rank coal, middlings, structure characteristic, mineral evolution, alkali index, gasification-coke, gasification kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
79 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian


Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

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78 A Numerical Model Simulation for an Updraft Gasifier Using High-Temperature Steam

Authors: T. M. Ismail, M. A. El-Salam


A mathematical model study was carried out to investigate gasification of biomass fuels using high-temperature air and steam as a gasifying agent using high-temperature air up to 1000°C. In this study, a 2D computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the gasification process in an updraft gasifier, considering drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification reactions. The gas and solid phases were resolved using a Euler−Euler multiphase approach, with exchange terms for the momentum, mass, and energy. The standard k−ε turbulence model was used in the gas phase, and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The results show that the present model giving a promising way in its capability and sensitivity for the parameter effects that influence the gasification process.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, gasification, biomass fuel, fixed bed gasifier

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77 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan


The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
76 Catalytic Soot Gasification in Single and Mixed Atmospheres of CO2 and H2O in the Presence of CO and H2

Authors: Yeidy Sorani Montenegro Camacho, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino


LiFeO2 nano-powders were prepared via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method and were used as carbon gasification catalyst in a reduced atmosphere. The gasification of soot with CO2 and H2O in the presence of CO and H2 (syngas atmosphere) were also investigated under atmospheric conditions using a fixed-bed micro-reactor placed in an electric, PID-regulated oven. The catalytic bed was composed of 150 mg of inert silica, 45 mg of carbon (Printex-U) and 5 mg of catalyst. The bed was prepared by ball milling the mixture at 240 rpm for 15 min to get an intimate contact between the catalyst and soot. A Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) of 38.000 h-1 was used for the tests campaign. The furnace was heated up to the desired temperature, a flow of 120 mL/min was sent into the system and at the same time the concentrations of CO, CO2 and H2 were recorded at the reactor outlet using an EMERSON X-STREAM XEGP analyzer. Catalytic and non-catalytic soot gasification reactions were studied in a temperature range of 120°C – 850°C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min (non-isothermal case) and at 650°C for 40 minutes (isothermal case). Experimental results show that the gasification of soot with H2O and CO2 are inhibited by the H2 and CO, respectively. The soot conversion at 650°C decreases from 70.2% to 31.6% when the CO is present in the feed. Besides, the soot conversion was 73.1% and 48.6% for H2O-soot and H2O-H2-soot gasification reactions, respectively. Also, it was observed that the carbon gasification in mixed atmosphere, i.e., when simultaneous carbon gasification with CO2 and steam take place, with H2 and CO as co-reagents; the gasification reaction is strongly inhibited by CO and H2, as well has been observed in single atmospheres for the isothermal and non-isothermal reactions. Further, it has been observed that when CO2 and H2O react with carbon at the same time, there is a passive cooperation of steam and carbon dioxide in the gasification reaction, this means that the two gases operate on separate active sites without influencing each other. Finally, despite the extreme reduced operating conditions, it has been demonstrated that the 32.9% of the initial carbon was gasified using LiFeO2-catalyst, while in the non-catalytic case only 8% of the soot was gasified at 650°C.

Keywords: soot gasification, nanostructured catalyst, reducing environment, syngas

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75 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah


Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

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74 Mathematical Modelling of Slag Formation in an Entrained-Flow Gasifier

Authors: Girts Zageris, Vadims Geza, Andris Jakovics


Gasification processes are of great interest due to their generation of renewable energy in the form of syngas from biodegradable waste. It is, therefore, important to study the factors that play a role in the efficiency of gasification and the longevity of the machines in which gasification takes place. This study focuses on the latter, aiming to optimize an entrained-flow gasifier by reducing slag formation on its walls to reduce maintenance costs. A CFD mathematical model for an entrained-flow gasifier is constructed – the model of an actual gasifier is rendered in 3D and appropriately meshed. Then, the turbulent gas flow in the gasifier is modeled with the realizable k-ε approach, taking devolatilization, combustion and coal gasification into account. Various such simulations are conducted, obtaining results for different air inlet positions and by tracking particles of varying sizes undergoing devolatilization and gasification. The model identifies potential problematic zones where most particles collide with the gasifier walls, indicating risk regions where ash deposits could most likely form. In conclusion, the effects on the formation of an ash layer of air inlet positioning and particle size allowed in the main gasifier tank are discussed, and possible solutions for decreasing a number of undesirable deposits are proposed. Additionally, an estimate of the impact of different factors such as temperature, gas properties and gas content, and different forces acting on the particles undergoing gasification is given.

Keywords: biomass particles, gasification, slag formation, turbulence k-ε modelling

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73 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng


Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

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72 Energy Conversion for Sewage Sludge by Microwave Heating Pyrolysis and Gasification

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Soo Hyuk Yun, Byeo Ri Jeong


The recent gradual increase in the energy demand is mostly met by fossil fuel, but the research on and development of new alternative energy sources is drawing much attention due to the limited fossil fuel supply and the greenhouse gas problem. Biomass is an eco-friendly renewable energy that can achieve carbon neutrality. The conversion of the biomass sludge wastes discharged from a wastewater treatment plant to clean energy is an important green energy technology in an eco-friendly way. In this NRF study, a new type of microwave thermal treatment was developed to apply the biomass-CCS technology to sludge wastes. For this, the microwave dielectric heating characteristics were examined to investigate the energy conversion mechanism for the combined drying-pyrolysis/gasification of the dewatered wet sludge. The carbon dioxide gasification was tested using the CO2 captured from the pre-combustion capture process. In addition, the results of the pyrolysis and gasification test with the wet sludge were analyzed to compare the microwave energy conversion results with the results of the use of the conventional heating method. Gas was the largest component of the product of both pyrolysis and gasification, followed by sludge char and tar. In pyrolysis, the main components of the producer gas were hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and there were some methane and hydrocarbons. In gasification, however, the amount of carbon monoxide was greater than that of hydrogen. In microwave gasification, a large amount of heavy tar was produced. The largest amount of benzene among light tar was produced in both pyrolysis and gasification. NH3 and HCN which are the precursors of NOx, generated as well. In microwave heating, the sludge char had a smooth surface, like that of glass, and in the conventional heating method with an electric furnace, deep cracks were observed in the sludge char. This indicates that the gas obtained from the microwave pyrolysis and gasification of wet sewage sludge can be used as fuel, but the heavy tar and NOx precursors in the gas must be treated. Sludge char can be used as solid fuel or as a tar reduction adsorbent in the process if necessary. This work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: microwave heating, pyrolysis gasification, precombustion CCS, sewage sludge, biomass energy

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71 Atmospheric Fluid Bed Gasification of Different Biomass Fuels

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála


This paper shortly describes biomass types and growing amount in the Czech Republic. The considerable part of this paper deals with energy parameters of the most frequent utilizing biomass types and results of their gasification testing. There was chosen sixteen the most exploited "Czech" woody plants and grasses. There were determinated raw, element and biochemical analysis, basic calorimetric values, ash composition and ash characteristic temperatures. After that, each biofuel was tested by fluid bed gasification. The essential part of this paper yields results of chosen biomass types gasification experiments. Partly, there are described an operating conditions in detail with accentuation of individual fuels particularities partly, there is summarized gas composition and impurities content. The essential difference was determined mainly between woody plants and grasses both from point of view of the operating conditions and gas quality. The woody plants was evaluated as more suitable fuels for fluid bed gasifiers. This results will be able to significantly help with decision which energy plants are suitable for growing or with optimal biomass-treatment technology selection.

Keywords: biomass growing, biomass types, gasification, biomass fuels

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70 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel


Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

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69 Small Scale Waste to Energy Systems: Optimization of Feedstock Composition for Improved Control of Ash Sintering and Quality of Generated Syngas

Authors: Mateusz Szul, Tomasz Iluk, Aleksander Sobolewski


Small-scale, distributed energy systems enabling cogeneration of heat and power based on gasification of sewage sludge, are considered as the most efficient and environmentally friendly ways of their treatment. However, economic aspects of such an investment are very demanding; therefore, for such a small scale sewage sludge gasification installation to be profitable, it needs to be efficient and simple at the same time. The article presents results of research on air gasification of sewage sludge in fixed bed GazEla reactor. Two of the most important aspects of the research considered the influence of the composition of sewage sludge blends with other feedstocks on properties of generated syngas and ash sintering problems occurring at the fixed bed. Different means of the fuel pretreatment and blending were proposed as a way of dealing with the above mentioned undesired characteristics. Influence of RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) and biomasses in the fuel blends were evaluated. Ash properties were assessed based on proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analysis of the feedstock. The blends were specified based on complementary characteristics of such criteria as C content, moisture, volatile matter, Si, Al, Mg, and content of basic metals in the ash were analyzed, Obtained results were assessed with use of experimental gasification tests and laboratory ISO-procedure for analysis of ash characteristic melting temperatures. Optimal gasification process conditions were determined by energetic parameters of the generated syngas, its content of tars and lack of ash sinters within the reactor bed. Optimal results were obtained for co-gasification of herbaceous biomasses with sewage sludge where LHV (Lower Heating Value) of the obtained syngas reached a stable value of 4.0 MJ/Nm3 for air/steam gasification.

Keywords: ash fusibility, gasification, piston engine, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
68 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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67 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy


In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
66 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

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65 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

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64 Flexible Feedstock Concept in Gasification Process for Carbon-Negative Energy Technology: A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: Zahrul Faizi M. S., Ali A., Norhuda A. M.


Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from solid waste treatment and dependency on fossil fuel to produce electricity are the major concern in Malaysia as well as global. Innovation in downdraft gasification with combined heat and power (CHP) systems has the potential to minimize solid waste and reduce the emission of anthropogenic GHG from conventional fossil fuel power plants. However, the efficiency and capability of downdraft gasification to generate electricity from various alternative fuels, for instance, agriculture residues (i.e., woodchip, coconut shell) and municipal solid waste (MSW), are still controversial, on top of the toxicity level from the produced bottom ash. Thus this study evaluates the adaptability and reliability of the 20 kW downdraft gasification system to generate electricity (while considering environmental sustainability from the bottom ash) using flexible local feedstock at 20, 40, and 60% mixed ratio of MSW: agriculture residues. Feedstock properties such as feed particle size, moisture, and ash contents are also analyzed to identify optimal characteristics for the combination of feedstock (feedstock flexibility) to obtain maximum energy generation. Results show that the gasification system is capable to flexibly accommodate different feedstock compositions subjected to specific particle size (less than 2 inches) at a moisture content between 15 to 20%. These values exhibit enhance gasifier performance and provide a significant effect to the syngas composition utilizes by the internal combustion engine, which reflects energy production. The result obtained in this study is able to provide a new perspective on the transition of the conventional gasification system to a future reliable carbon-negative energy technology. Subsequently, promoting commercial scale-up of the downdraft gasification system.

Keywords: carbon-negative energy, feedstock flexibility, gasification, renewable energy

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63 Utilization of Bottom Ash as Catalyst in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen and Syngas Production: Lab Scale Approach

Authors: Angga Pratama Herman, Muhammad Shahbaz, Suzana Yusup


Bottom ash is a solid waste from thermal power plant and it is usually disposed of into landfills and ash ponds. These disposal methods are not sustainable since new lands need to be acquired as the landfills and ash ponds are fill to its capacity. Bottom ash also classified as hazardous material that makes the disposal methods may have contributed to the environmental effect to the area. Hence, more research needs to be done to explore the potential of recycling the bottom ash as more useful product. The objective of this research is to explore the potential of utilizing bottom ash as catalyst in biomass steam gasification. In this research, bottom ash was used as catalyst in gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA/MS). The effects of temperature (650 – 750 °C), particle size (0.5 – 1.0 mm) and bottom ash percentage (2 % - 10 %) were studied with and without steam. The experimental arrays were designed using expert method of Central Composite Design (CCD). Results show maximum yield of hydrogen gas was 34.3 mole % for gasification without steam and 61.4 Mole % with steam. Similar trend was observed for syngas production. The maximum syngas yield was 59.5 mole % for without steam and it reached up to 81.5 mole% with the use of steam. The optimal condition for both product gases was temperature 700 °C, particle size 0.75 mm and cool bottom ash % 0.06. In conclusion, the use of bottom ash as catalyst is possible for biomass steam gasification and the product gases composition are comparable with previous researches, however the results need to be validated for bench or pilot scale study.

Keywords: bottom ash, biomass steam gasification, catalyst, lab scale

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62 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir


Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

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61 Demonstration Operation of Distributed Power Generation System Based on Carbonized Biomass Gasification

Authors: Kunio Yoshikawa, Ding Lu


Small-scale, distributed and low-cost biomass power generation technologies are highly required in the modern society. There are big needs for these technologies in the disaster areas of developed countries and un-electrified rural areas of developing countries. This work aims to present a technical feasibility of the portable ultra-small power generation system based on the gasification of carbonized wood pellets/briquettes. Our project is designed for enabling independent energy production from various kinds of biomass resources in the open-field. The whole process mainly consists of two processes: biomass and waste pretreatment; gasification and power generation. The first process includes carbonization, densification (briquetting or pelletization), and the second includes updraft fixed bed gasification of carbonized pellets/briquettes, syngas purification, and power generation employing an internal combustion gas engine. A combined pretreatment processes including carbonization without external energy and densification were adopted to deal with various biomass. Carbonized pellets showed a better gasification performance than carbonized briquettes and their mixture. The 100-hour continuous operation results indicated that pelletization/briquetting of carbonized fuel realized the stable operation of an updraft gasifier if there were no blocking issues caused by the accumulation of tar. The cold gas efficiency and the carbon conversion during carbonized wood pellets gasification was about 49.2% and 70.5% with the air equivalence ratio value of around 0.32, and the corresponding overall efficiency of the gas engine was 20.3% during the stable stage. Moreover, the maximum output power was 21 kW at the air flow rate of 40 Nm³·h⁻¹. Therefore, the comprehensive system covering biomass carbonization, densification, gasification, syngas purification, and engine system is feasible for portable, ultra-small power generation. This work has been supported by Innovative Science and Technology Initiative for Security (Ministry of Defence, Japan).

Keywords: biomass carbonization, densification, distributed power generation, gasification

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60 Subcritical and Supercritical Water Gasification of Xylose

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Te-Hsiu Tang


Hemicellulose is one of the major constituents of all plant cell walls, making up 15-25% of dry wood. It is a biopolymer from many different sugar monomers, including pentoses, like xylose, and hexoses, like mannose. In an effort to gasify real biomass in subcritical and supercritical water in a single process, it is necessary to understand the gasification of hemicellulose, in addition to cellulose and lignin, in subcritical and supercritical water. In the present study, xylose is chosen as the model compound for hemicellulose, since it has the largest amount in most hardwoods. Xylose is gasified in subcritical and supercritical water for the production of higher-valued gaseous products. Experiments were conducted with a 16-ml autoclave batch-type reactor. Hydrogen peroxide is adopted as the oxidant in an attempt to promote the gasification yield. The major operating parameters for the gasification include reaction temperature (400 - 600°C), reaction pressure (5 - 25 MPa), the concentration of xylose (0.05 and 0.30 M), and level of oxidant added (0 and 0.25 chemical oxygen demand). 102 experimental runs were completed out of 46 different set of experimental conditions. Product gases were analyzed with a GC-TCD and determined to be mainly composed of H₂ (10 – 74 mol. %), CO (1 – 56 mol. %), CH₄ (1 – 27 mol. %), CO₂ (10 – 50 mol. %), and C₂H₆ (0 – 8 mol. %). It has been found that the gas yield (amount of gas produced per gram of xylose gasified), higher heating value (HHV) of the dry product gas, and energy yield (energy stored in the product gas divided by the energy stored in xylose) all increase significantly with rising temperature and moderately with reducing pressure. The overall best operating condition occurred at 873 K and 10 MPa, with a gas yield of 54 mmol/g of xylose, a gas HHV of 440 kJ/mol, and an energy yield of 1.3. A seemingly unreasonably energy yield of greater than unity resulted from the external heating employed in the experiments to drive the gasification process. It is concluded that xylose can be completely gasified in subcritical and supercritical water under proper operating conditions. The addition of oxidant does not promote the gasification of xylose.

Keywords: gasification, subcritical water, supercritical water, xylose

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59 UV-Vis Spectroscopy as a Tool for Online Tar Measurements in Wood Gasification Processes

Authors: Philip Edinger, Christian Ludwig


The formation and control of tars remain one of the major challenges in the implementation of biomass gasification technologies. Robust, on-line analytical methods are needed to investigate the fate of tar compounds when different measures for their reduction are applied. This work establishes an on-line UV-Vis method, based on a liquid quench sampling system, to monitor tar compounds in biomass gasification processes. Recorded spectra from the liquid phase were analyzed for their tar composition by means of a classical least squares (CLS) and partial least squares (PLS) approach. This allowed for the detection of UV-Vis active tar compounds with detection limits in the low part per million by volume (ppmV) region. The developed method was then applied to two case studies. The first involved a lab-scale reactor, intended to investigate the decomposition of a limited number of tar compounds across a catalyst. The second study involved a gas scrubber as part of a pilot scale wood gasification plant. Tar compound quantification results showed good agreement with off-line based reference methods (GC-FID) when the complexity of tar composition was limited. The two case studies show that the developed method can provide rapid, qualitative information on the tar composition for the purpose of process monitoring. In cases with a limited number of tar species, quantitative information about the individual tar compound concentrations provides an additional benefit of the analytical method.

Keywords: biomass gasification, on-line, tar, UV-Vis

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58 Fluidised Bed Gasification of Multiple Agricultural Biomass-Derived Briquettes

Authors: Rukayya Ibrahim Muazu, Aiduan Li Borrion, Julia A. Stegemann


Biomass briquette gasification is regarded as a promising route for efficient briquette use in energy generation, fuels and other useful chemicals, however, previous research work has focused on briquette gasification in fixed bed gasifiers such as updraft and downdraft gasifiers. Fluidised bed gasifier has the potential to be effectively sized for medium or large scale. This study investigated the use of fuel briquettes produced from blends of rice husks and corn cobs biomass residues, in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier. The study adopted a combination of numerical equations and Aspen Plus simulation software to predict the product gas (syngas) composition based on briquette's density and biomass composition (blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs). The Aspen Plus model was based on an experimentally validated model from the literature. The results based on a briquette size of 32 mm diameter and relaxed density range of 500 to 650 kg/m3 indicated that fluidisation air required in the gasifier increased with an increase in briquette density, and the fluidisation air showed to be the controlling factor compared with the actual air required for gasification of the biomass briquettes. The mass flowrate of CO2 in the predicted syngas composition, increased with an increase in the air flow rate, while CO production decreased and H2 was almost constant. The H2/CO ratio for various blends of rice husks and corn cobs did not significantly change at the designed process air, but a significant difference of 1.0 for H2/CO ratio was observed at higher air flow rate, and between 10/90 to 90/10 blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs. This implies the need for further understanding of biomass variability and hydrodynamic parameters on syngas composition in biomass briquette gasification.

Keywords: aspen plus, briquettes, fluidised bed, gasification, syngas

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57 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna


There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

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56 Numerical Simulation of Different Configurations for a Combined Gasification/Carbonization Reactors

Authors: Mahmoud Amer, Ibrahim El-Sharkawy, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Elwardany


Gasification and carbonization are two of the most common ways for biomass utilization. Both processes are using part of the waste to be accomplished, either by incomplete combustion or for heating for both gasification and carbonization, respectively. The focus of this paper is to minimize the part of the waste that is used for heating biomass for gasification and carbonization. This will occur by combining both gasifiers and carbonization reactors in a single unit to utilize the heat in the product biogas to heating up the wastes in the carbonization reactors. Three different designs are proposed for the combined gasification/carbonization (CGC) reactor. These include a parallel combination of two gasifiers and carbonized syngas, carbonizer and combustion chamber, and one gasifier, carbonizer, and combustion chamber. They are tested numerically using ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics to ensure homogeneity of temperature distribution inside the carbonization part of the CGC reactor. 2D simulations are performed for the three cases after performing both mesh-size and time-step independent solutions. The carbonization part is common among the three different cases, and the difference among them is how this carbonization reactor is heated. The simulation results showed that the first design could provide only partial homogeneous temperature distribution, not across the whole reactor. This means that the produced carbonized biomass will be reduced as it will only fill a specified height of the reactor. To keep the carbonized product production high, a series combination is proposed. This series configuration resulted in a uniform temperature distribution across the whole reactor as it has only one source for heat with no temperature distribution on any surface of the carbonization section. The simulations provided a satisfactory result that either the first parallel combination of gasifier and carbonization reactor could be used with a reduced carbonized amount or a series configuration to keep the production rate high.

Keywords: numerical simulation, carbonization, gasification, biomass, reactor

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55 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for UCG

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

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54 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics

Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, R. Valdmanis, A. Kolmickovs


Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3 % and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10 % increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10 %

Keywords: biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasification

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53 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) with Polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, emissions, gas turbine combustor, gasification, solid waste, syngas, waste to energy

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52 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu


Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

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