Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: tire

61 Design of Semi-Automatic Vent and Flash Remover

Authors: Inba Blesso P., Senthil Kumar P.

Abstract:

The main consideration of any tire manufacturing process is wear resistance. One of the factors that cause tire wear is improper removal of vent and flash from the tire surface. The contact point between tyre surface and vent is highly supposed to wear. When the vehicle running at higher speed with heavy load, the tire vent and flash is wearing initially and it makes few of the tire surface material to wear along with it. Hence, provision must be given to efficient removal vent and flash thereby tire wear. Human efforts in trimming of tire vent results in time consuming and inaccurate output. Hence, this lead to the reduction in production rate and profit. Thus, the development of automated system can helps to attain minimum time consumption and provide a possible way to get the profitable production. Semi-automated system that employs Pneumatic actuators and sequencing circuits are focused in this study. By implementing this, one can achieve the accurate results with reduction in time and profitable output.

Keywords: tire manufacturing, pneumatic system, vent and flash removal, engineering and technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
60 Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model

Authors: Prathuang Usaborisut, Dithaporn Thungsotanon

Abstract:

Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated to sugarcane productivity. Soil beneath the tractor’s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help to understand such effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with increase of number of tire’s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force, the maximum error was about 16%.

Keywords: draft force, soil compaction model, stress state, tractive tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
59 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa

Abstract:

Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis

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58 A Finite Element Based Predictive Stone Lofting Simulation Methodology for Automotive Vehicles

Authors: Gaurav Bisht, Rahul Rathnakumar, Ravikumar Duggirala

Abstract:

Predictive simulations are one of the key focus areas in safety-critical industries such as aerospace and high-performance automotive engineering. The stone-chipping study is one such effort taken up by the industry to predict and evaluate the damage caused due to gravel impact on vehicles. This paper describes a finite elements based method that can simulate the ejection of gravel chips from a vehicle tire. The FE simulations were used to obtain the initial ejection velocity of the stones for various driving conditions using a computational contact mechanics approach. To verify the accuracy of the tire model, several parametric studies were conducted. The FE simulations resulted in stone loft velocities ranging from 0–8 m/s, regardless of tire speed. The stress on the tire at the instant of initial contact with the stone increased linearly with vehicle speed. Mesh convergence studies indicated that a highly resolved tire mesh tends to result in better momentum transfer between the tire and the stone. A fine tire mesh also showed a linearly increasing relationship between the tire forward speed and stone lofting speed, which was not observed in coarser meshes. However, it also highlighted a potential challenge, in that the ejection velocity vector of the stone seemed to be sensitive to the mesh, owing to the FE-based contact mechanical formulation of the problem.

Keywords: abaqus, contact mechanics, foreign object debris, stone chipping

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
57 The Study of Tire Pyrolysis Fuel in CI Diesel Engine for Spray Combustion Character and Performance

Authors: Chun Pao Kuo, Chi Tong Lin

Abstract:

The study explored atomization characteristics of tire pyrolysis fuel and its impacts on using three types of fuel: diesel oil mixed with 10% of tire pyrolysis fuel (called T10), diesel oil mixed with 20% tire pyrolysis (called T20), and consumer-grade diesel oil (D100). The investigators used the fuel for simulation and tests at various fuel injection timing, engine speed, and fuel injection speed to inspect impacts from fuel type on oil droplet atomization speed and output power. Actual vehicle tests were conducted using a 5-ton sedan (Hino) with 3660 cc displacement and a front-end inline four-cylinder diesel engine, and this type of vehicle is easily available from the market. A dynamometer was used to set up three engine speeds for the dynamometer testing at different injection timing and pressure. Next, an exhaust analyzer was used to measure exhaust pollution at different conditions to explore the effect of fuel types and injection speeds on output power in order to establish the best operation conditions for tire pyrolysis fuel.

Keywords: diesel engine, exhaust pollution, fuel injection timing, tire pyrolysis oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
56 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
55 Inflation and Deflation of Aircraft's Tire with Intelligent Tire Pressure Regulation System

Authors: Masoud Mirzaee, Ghobad Behzadi Pour

Abstract:

An aircraft tire is designed to tolerate extremely heavy loads for a short duration. The number of tires increases with the weight of the aircraft, as it is needed to be distributed more evenly. Generally, aircraft tires work at high pressure, up to 200 psi (14 bar; 1,400 kPa) for airliners and higher for business jets. Tire assemblies for most aircraft categories provide a recommendation of compressed nitrogen that supports the aircraft’s weight on the ground, including a mechanism for controlling the aircraft during taxi, takeoff; landing; and traction for braking. Accurate tire pressure is a key factor that enables tire assemblies to perform reliably under high static and dynamic loads. Concerning ambient temperature change, considering the condition in which the temperature between the origin and destination airport was different, tire pressure should be adjusted and inflated to the specified operating pressure at the colder airport. This adjustment superseding the normal tire over an inflation limit of 5 percent at constant ambient temperature is required because the inflation pressure remains constant to support the load of a specified aircraft configuration. On the other hand, without this adjustment, a tire assembly would be significantly under/over-inflated at the destination. Due to an increase of human errors in the aviation industry, exorbitant costs are imposed on the airlines for providing consumable parts such as aircraft tires. The existence of an intelligent system to adjust the aircraft tire pressure based on weight, load, temperature, and weather conditions of origin and destination airports, could have a significant effect on reducing the aircraft maintenance costs, aircraft fuel and further improving the environmental issues related to the air pollution. An intelligent tire pressure regulation system (ITPRS) contains a processing computer, a nitrogen bottle with 1800 psi, and distribution lines. Nitrogen bottle’s inlet and outlet valves are installed in the main wheel landing gear’s area and are connected through nitrogen lines to main wheels and nose wheels assy. Controlling and monitoring of nitrogen will be performed by a computer, which is adjusted according to the calculations of received parameters, including the temperature of origin and destination airport, the weight of cargo loads and passengers, fuel quantity, and wind direction. Correct tire inflation and deflation are essential in assuring that tires can withstand the centrifugal forces and heat of normal operations, with an adequate margin of safety for unusual operating conditions such as rejected takeoff and hard landings. ITPRS will increase the performance of the aircraft in all phases of takeoff, landing, and taxi. Moreover, this system will reduce human errors, consumption materials, and stresses imposed on the aircraft body.

Keywords: avionic system, improve efficiency, ITPRS, human error, reduced cost, tire pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
54 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo

Abstract:

Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: agriculture, carbon sequestration, physicochemical analysis, pyrolytic tire char, soil amendment.

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
53 A Review on Application of Waste Tire in Concrete

Authors: M. A. Yazdi, J. Yang, L. Yihui, H. Su

Abstract:

The application of recycle waste tires into civil engineering practices, namely asphalt paving mixtures and cementbased materials has been gaining ground across the world. This review summarizes and compares the recent achievements in the area of plain rubberized concrete (PRC), in details. Different treatment methods have been discussed to improve the performance of rubberized Portland cement concrete. The review also includes the effects of size and amount of tire rubbers on mechanical and durability properties of PRC. The microstructure behaviour of the rubberized concrete was detailed.

Keywords: waste rubber aggregates, microstructure, treatment methods, size and content effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
52 An Efficient Process Analysis and Control Method for Tire Mixing Operation

Authors: Hwang Ho Kim, Do Gyun Kim, Jin Young Choi, Sang Chul Park

Abstract:

Since tire production process is very complicated, company-wide management of it is very difficult, necessitating considerable amounts of capital and labors. Thus, productivity should be enhanced and maintained competitive by developing and applying effective production plans. Among major processes for tire manufacturing, consisting of mixing component preparation, building and curing, the mixing process is an essential and important step because the main component of tire, called compound, is formed at this step. Compound as a rubber synthesis with various characteristics plays its own role required for a tire as a finished product. Meanwhile, scheduling tire mixing process is similar to flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP) because various kinds of compounds have their unique orders of operations, and a set of alternative machines can be used to process each operation. In addition, setup time required for different operations may differ due to alteration of additives. In other words, each operation of mixing processes requires different setup time depending on the previous one, and this kind of feature, called sequence dependent setup time (SDST), is a very important issue in traditional scheduling problems such as flexible job shop scheduling problems. However, despite of its importance, there exist few research works dealing with the tire mixing process. Thus, in this paper, we consider the scheduling problem for tire mixing process and suggest an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to minimize the makespan for completing all the required jobs belonging to the process. Specifically, we design a particle encoding scheme for the considered scheduling problem, including a processing sequence for compounds and machine allocation information for each job operation, and a method for generating a tire mixing schedule from a given particle. At each iteration, the coordination and velocity of particles are updated, and the current solution is compared with new solution. This procedure is repeated until a stopping condition is satisfied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through a numerical experiment by using some small-sized problem instances expressing the tire mixing process. Furthermore, we compare the solution of the proposed algorithm with it obtained by solving a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model developed in previous research work. As for performance measure, we define an error rate which can evaluate the difference between two solutions. As a result, we show that PSO algorithm proposed in this paper outperforms MILP model with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency. As the direction for future work, we plan to consider scheduling problems in other processes such as building, curing. We can also extend our current work by considering other performance measures such as weighted makespan or processing times affected by aging or learning effects.

Keywords: compound, error rate, flexible job shop scheduling problem, makespan, particle encoding scheme, particle swarm optimization, sequence dependent setup time, tire mixing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
51 3D Numerical Investigation of Asphalt Pavements Behaviour Using Infinite Elements

Authors: K. Sandjak, B. Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical investigation of asphalt pavement structures behaviour using a coupled Finite Element-Mapped Infinite Element (FE-MIE) model. The validation and numerical performance of this model are assessed by confronting critical pavement responses with Burmister’s solution and FEM simulation results for multi-layered elastic structures. The coupled model is then efficiently utilised to perform 3-D simulations of a typical asphalt pavement structure in order to investigate the impact of two tire configurations (conventional dual and new generation wide-base tires) on critical pavement response parameters. The numerical results obtained show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the coupled (FE-MIE) model. In addition, the simulation results indicate that, compared with conventional dual tire assembly, single wide base tire caused slightly greater fatigue asphalt cracking and subgrade rutting potentials and can thus be utilised in view of its potential to provide numerous mechanical, economic, and environmental benefits.

Keywords: 3-D numerical investigation, asphalt pavements, dual and wide base tires, Infinite elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
50 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

Abstract:

Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

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49 Determining the Distance Consumers Are Willing to Travel to a Store: A Structural Equation Model Approach

Authors: Fuseina Mahama, Lieselot Vanhaverbeke

Abstract:

This research investigates the impact of patronage determinants on the distance consumers are willing to travel to patronize a tire shop. Although store patronage has been acknowledged as an important domain and has received substantial research interest, most of the studies so far conducted focus on grocery retail, leaving other categories of goods widely unexplored. In this study, we focus on car tires and provide a new perspective to the specific factors that influence tire shop patronage. An online survey of consumers’ tyre purchasing behaviour was conducted among private car owners in Belgium. A sample of 864 respondents was used in the study, with almost four out of five of them being male. 84% of the respondents had purchased a car tyre in the last 24 months and on average travelled 22.4kms to patronise a tyre shop. We tested the direct and mediated effects of store choice determinants on distance consumers are willing to travel. All hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Our findings show that with an increase in the consumer’s age the distance they were willing to travel to a tire shop decreased. Similarly, consumers who deemed proximity an important determinant of a tire shop our findings confirmed a negative effect on willingness to travel. On the other hand, the determinants price, personal contact and professionalism all had a positive effect on distance. This means that consumers actively sought out tire shops with these characteristics and were willing to travel longer distances in order to visit them. The indirect effects of the determinants flexible opening hours, family recommendation, dealer reputation, receiving auto service at home and availability of preferred brand on distance are mediated by dealer trust. Gender had a minimal effect on distance, with females exhibiting a stronger relation in terms of dealer trust as compared to males. Overall, we found that market relevant factors were better predictors of distance; and proximity, dealer trust and professionalism have the most profound effects on distance that consumers are willing to travel. This is related to the fact that the nature of shopping goods (among which are car tires) typically reinforces consumers to be more engaged in the shopping process, therefore factors that have to do with the store (e.g. location) and shopping process play a key role in store choice decision. These findings are very specific to shopping goods and cannot be generalized to other categories of goods. For marketers and retailers these findings can have direct implications on their location strategies. The factors found to be relevant to tire shop patronage will be used in our next study to calibrate a location model to be utilised to identify the optimum location for siting new tyre shop outlets and service centres.

Keywords: dealer trust, distance to store, tire store patronage, willingness to travel

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
48 Rim Size Optimization Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: M. Tan, N. N. Wan, N. Ramli, N. H. Hassan

Abstract:

Car drivers would always like to have custom wheel on their car for two reasons; to improve their car's aesthetic beauty and to improve their car handling. As the size of the rims or wheels played an important role in influencing the way of car handles around turns, this paper aims to present the optimality of rim size that drivers should have known while changing their rim. There are three factors that drivers should have considered while changing their rim: rim size, its weight and material of which they are made. Using mathematical analysis, this paper will focus on only one factor, which is rim size. Factors that are considered in calculating the optimum rim size are the vehicle rim radius, tire height and weight, and aspect ratio. This paper has found that there are limitations in percentage change in rim size from the original tire size. Failure to have the right offset size may cause problems in maneuvering the vehicle.

Keywords: mathematical analysis, optimum wheel size, percentage change, custom wheel

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47 Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire

Authors: Julius Ilawe Osayi, Peter Osifo

Abstract:

Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.

Keywords: catalytic pyrolysis, fossil fuel, kaolin, pyrolytic oil, used tyres, Zeolite NaY

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
46 Pyrolysis of the Reed (Phragmites australis) and Evaluation of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Ahmet Helvaci, Selcuk Dogan

Abstract:

Reed in especially almost all the lakes in Western Anatolia grows naturally. Due to the abundance of reed, pyrolysis of reed is very economical and practical application. In this study, it is aimed to determine the optimum conditions for the pyrolysis of the reed which is a cheap and abundant raw material and to evaluate pyrolysis products. For this purpose, reed was used obtained from Eber Lake located in the borders of Bolvadin county of Afyonkarahisar. Optimum pyrolysis conditions have been determined by examining the effects of changes in pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time. The evaluation of the obtained liquid and solid pyrolysis products has been investigated. Especially evaluability of solid carbon black production of tires has been investigated. Tire samples were prepared with carbon black samples obtained as a result of the pyrolysis process at different temperatures. Then, performance tests were made and compared with reference carbon blacks, used in the market and standards. At the same time, surface area measurement analysis of carbon black samples was made and compared again with reference carbon blacks. In addition, the fuel values of liquid products were also determined by calorimeter. It has been determined that the best surface area (about 370 m²/g) for carbon black samples, for tire production is 40 minutes at 500ᵒC. It was also found that the best result for evaluation studies in tire production was carbon black samples obtained at 450ᵒC pyrolysis temperature. In addition, it was seen that the calorimetry results of the liquid product obtained during 60 minutes of pyrolysis were quite good (around 5500 kcal/kg).

Keywords: evaluation of products, optimization, pyrolysis, reed

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
45 Development of Composite Material for Thermal and Electrical Insulation

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Recycling has been greatly stimulated by the market. There are already several products that are produced with recycled materials and various wastes have been studied in various forms of applications. The vast majority of insulation applications in domestic, commercial and industrial systems in the range of low and medium temperatures (up to 180 ° C), using the aggressive nature materials such as glass wool, rock wool, polyurethane, polystyrene. Such materials, while retaining the effectiveness of the heat flux, are disposed as expensive and take years too absorbed by nature. Thus, trying to adapt to a global policy on the preservation of the environment, a study in order to develop an insulating compound of natural / industrial waste and biodegradable materials conducted. Thus, this research presents the development of a composite material based zest tire and latex for thermal and electrical insulation.

Keywords: composite, latex, scrapes tire, insulation, electrical

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
44 Preparation of Chemically Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Char for Lead Ions Adsorption and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Lucky Malise, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The use of tires in automobiles is very important in the automobile industry. However, there is a serious environmental problem concerning the disposal of these rubber tires once they become worn out. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH on pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon was carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/1000ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases with an increase in contact time, pH, temperature and decreases with an increase in lead concentration. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, XRay diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The optimum points 1g/ 100 ml for adsorbent dosage, 7 for pH value of the solution, 115.2 min for contact time, 100 mg/l for initial metal concentration, and 25°C for temperature were obtained to achieve the highest adsorption capacity of 93.176 mg/g with a desirability of 0.994. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss taking place during the activation step is small.

Keywords: waste tire pyrolysis char, chemical activation, central composite design (CCD), adsorption capacity, numerical optimization

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43 Design and Validation of Different Steering Geometries for an All-Terrain Vehicle

Authors: Prabhsharan Singh, Rahul Sindhu, Piyush Sikka

Abstract:

The steering system is an integral part and medium through which the driver communicates with the vehicle and terrain, hence the most suitable steering geometry as per requirements must be chosen. The function of the chosen steering geometry of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is to provide the desired understeer gradient, minimum tire slippage, expected weight transfer during turning as these are requirements for a good steering geometry of a BAJA ATV. This research paper focuses on choosing the best suitable steering geometry for BAJA ATV tracks by reasoning the working principle and using fundamental trigonometric functions for obtaining these geometries on the same vehicle itself, namely Ackermann, Anti- Ackermann, Parallel Ackermann. Full vehicle analysis was carried out on Adams Car Analysis software, and graphical results were obtained for various parameters. Steering geometries were achieved by using a single versatile knuckle for frontward and rearward tie-rod placement and were practically tested with the help of data acquisition systems set up on the ATV. Each was having certain characteristics, setup, and parameters were observed for the BAJA ATV, and correlations were created between analytical and practical values.

Keywords: all-terrain vehicle, Ackermann, Adams car, Baja Sae, steering geometry, steering system, tire slip, traction, understeer gradient

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42 Numerical Multi-Scale Modeling of Rubber Friction on Rough Pavements Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Ashkan Nazari, Saied Taheri

Abstract:

Knowledge of tire-pavement interaction plays a crucial role in designing safer and more reliable tires. Characterizing the tire-pavement frictional interaction leads to a better understanding of vehicle performance in braking and acceleration. In this work, we devise a multi-scale simulation approach to incorporate the effect of pavement surface asperities in different length-scales. We construct two- and three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the interaction between a rubber block and a rough pavement surface with asperities in different scales. To achieve this, the road profile is scanned via a laser profilometer and the obtained asperities are implemented in an FE software (ABAQUS) in micro and macro length-scales. The hysteresis friction, which is due to the dissipative nature of rubber, is the main component of the friction force and therefore is the subject of study in this work. Using different scales not only will assist in characterizing the pavement asperities with sufficient details but also, it is highly effective in preventing extreme local deformations and stress gradients which results in divergence in FE simulations. The simulation results will be validated with experimental results as well as the results reported in the literature.

Keywords: friction, finite element, multi-scale modeling, rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
41 Investigation of Physical Properties of Asphalt Binder Modified by Recycled Polyethylene and Ground Tire Rubber

Authors: Sajjad H. Kasanagh, Perviz Ahmedzade, Alexander Fainleib, Taylan Gunay

Abstract:

Modification of asphalt is a fundamental method around the world mainly on the purpose of providing more durable pavements which lead to diminish repairing cost during the lifetime of highways. Various polymers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) make up the greater parts of the all-over asphalt modifiers generally providing better physical properties of asphalt by decreasing temperature dependency which eventually diminishes permanent deformation on highways such as rutting. However, some waste and low-cost materials such as recycled plastics and ground rubber tire have been attempted to utilize in asphalt as modifier instead of manufactured polymer modifiers due to decreasing the eventual highway cost. On the other hand, the usage of recycled plastics has become a worldwide requirement and awareness in order to decrease the pollution made by waste plastics. Hence, finding an area in which recycling plastics could be utilized has been targeted by many research teams so as to reduce polymer manufacturing and plastic pollution. To this end, in this paper, thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizate (TDV) obtained from recycled post-consumer polyethylene and ground tire rubber (GTR) were used to provide an efficient modifier for asphalt which decreases the production cost as well and finally might provide an ecological solution by decreasing polymer disposal problems. TDV was synthesized by the chemists in the research group by means of the abovementioned components that are considered as compatible physical characteristic of asphalt materials. TDV modified asphalt samples having different rate of proportions of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 wt.% TDV modifier were prepared. Conventional tests, such as penetration, softening point and roll thin film oven (RTFO) tests were performed to obtain fundamental physical and aging properties of the base and modified binders. The high temperature performance grade (PG) of binders was determined by Superpave tests conducted on original and aged binders. The multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test which is relatively up-to-date method for classifying asphalts taking account of their elasticity abilities was carried out to evaluate PG plus grades of binders. The results obtained from performance grading, and MSCR tests were also evaluated together so as to make a comparison between the methods both aiming to determine rheological parameters of asphalt. The test results revealed that TDV modification leads to a decrease in penetration, an increase in softening point, which proves an increasing stiffness of asphalt. DSR results indicate an improvement in PG for modified binders compared to base asphalt. On the other hand, MSCR results that are compatible with DSR results also indicate an enhancement on rheological properties of asphalt. However, according to the results, the improvement is not as distinct as observed in DSR results since elastic properties are fundamental in MSCR. At the end of the testing program, it can be concluded that TDV can be used as modifier which provides better rheological properties for asphalt and might diminish plastic waste pollution since the material is 100% recycled.

Keywords: asphalt, ground tire rubber, recycled polymer, thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizate

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
40 The Experimental House: A Case Study to Assess the Long-Term Performance of Waste Tires Used as Replacement for Natural Material in Backfill Applications for Basement Walls in Manitoba

Authors: M. Shokry Rashwan

Abstract:

This study follows a number of experiments conducted at Red River College (RRC) to investigate the short term properties of tire derived aggregate (TDA) produced from shredding off-the-road (OTR) wasted tires in a proposed new application. The application targets replacing natural material used under concrete slabs and as backfills for residential homes’ basement slabs and walls, respectively, with TDA. The experimental work included determining: compressibility, gradation distribution, unit weight, hydraulic conductivity and lateral pressure. Based on the results of those short term properties; it was decided to move forward to study the long-term performance of this otherwise waste material through on-site demonstration. A full-scale basement replicating a typical Manitoba home was therefore built at RRC where both TDA and Natural Materials (NM) were used side-by-side. A large number of sensing and measuring systems are used to compare between the performances of each material when exposed to the typical ground and weather conditions. Parameters monitored and measured include heat losses, moisture migration, drainage ability, lateral pressure, relative movements of slabs and walls, an integrity of ground water and radon emissions. Up-to-date results have confirmed part of the conclusions reached from the earlier laboratory experiments. However, other results have shown that construction practices; such as placing and compaction, may need some adjustments to achieve more desirable outcomes. This presentation provides a review of both short-term tests as well as up-to-date analysis of the on-site demonstration.

Keywords: tire derived aggregate (TDA), basement construction, TDA material properties, lateral pressure of TDA, hydraulic conductivity of TDA

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39 Thermosonic Devulcanization of Waste Ground Rubber Tires by Quaternary Ammonium-Based Ternary Deep Eutectic Solvents and the Effect of α-Hydrogen

Authors: Ricky Saputra, Rashmi Walvekar, Mohammad Khalid

Abstract:

Landfills, water contamination, and toxic gas emission are a few impacts faced by the environment due to the increasing number of αof waste rubber tires (WRT). In spite of such concerning issue, only minimal efforts are taken to reclaim or recycle these wastes as their products are generally not-profitable for companies. Unlike the typical reclamation process, devulcanization is a method to selectively cleave sulfidic bonds within vulcanizates to avoid polymeric scissions that compromise elastomer’s mechanical and tensile properties. The process also produces devulcanizates that are re-processable similar to virgin rubber. Often, a devulcanizing agent is needed. In the current study, novel and sustainable ammonium chloride-based ternary deep eutectic solvents (TDES), with a different number of α-hydrogens, were utilised to devulcanize ground rubber tire (GRT) as an effort to implement green chemistry to tackle such issue. 40-mesh GRT were soaked for 1 day with different TDESs and sonicated at 37-80 kHz for 60-120 mins and heated at 100-140oC for 30-90 mins. Devulcanizates were then filtered, dried, and evaluated based on the percentage of by means of Flory-Rehner calculation and swelling index. The result shows that an increasing number of α-Hs increases the degree of devulcanization, and the value achieved was around eighty-percent, thirty percent higher than the typical industrial-autoclave method. Resulting bondages of devulcanizates were also analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Horikx fitting, and thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The earlier two confirms only sulfidic scissions were experienced by GRT through the treatment, while the latter proves the absence or negligibility of carbon-chains scission.

Keywords: ammonium, sustainable, deep eutectic solvent, α-hydrogen, waste rubber tire

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38 A Practical Technique of Airless Tyres’ Mold Manufacturing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Mohamed A. Hashem

Abstract:

Dissimilar to pneumatic tyres, airless tyres or flat-proof tyres (also known as tweel) is designed to have poly-composite compound treaded around a hub of flexible spokes. The main advantage of this design is its robustness as airless tyres are impossible to deflate or to blowout at highway speeds like conventional tyres so the driver does not have to be restless about having a spare tire. A summary of the study on manufacturing of airless tyres’ mold is given. Moreover, we have proposed some advantages and disadvantages of using tweel tyres.

Keywords: airless tyres, tweel, non-pneumatic tyres, manufacturing

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37 Design Transformation to Reduce Cost in Irrigation Using Value Engineering

Authors: F. S. Al-Anzi, M. Sarfraz, A. Elmi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Researchers are responding to the environmental challenges of Kuwait in localized, innovative, effective and economic ways. One of the vital and significant examples of the natural challenges is lack or water and desertification. In this research, the project team focuses on redesigning a prototype, using Value Engineering Methodology, which would provide similar functionalities to the well-known technology of Waterboxx kits while reducing the capital and operational costs and simplifying the process of manufacturing and usability by regular farmers. The design employs used tires and recycled plastic sheets as raw materials. Hence, this approach is going to help not just fighting desertification but also helping in getting rid of ever growing huge tire dumpsters in Kuwait, as well as helping in avoiding hazards of tire fires yielding in a safer and friendlier environment. Several alternatives for implementing the prototype have been considered. The best alternative in terms of value has been selected after thorough Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) exercise has been developed. A prototype has been fabricated and tested in a controlled simulated lab environment that is being followed by real environment field testing. Water and soil analysis conducted on the site of the experiment to cross compare between the composition of the soil before and after the experiment to insure that the prototype being tested is actually going to be environment safe. Experimentation shows that the design was equally as effective as, and may exceed, the original design with significant savings in cost. An estimated total cost reduction using the VE approach of 43.84% over the original design. This cost reduction does not consider the intangible costs of environmental issue of waste recycling which many further intensify the total savings of using the alternative VE design. This case study shows that Value Engineering Methodology can be an important tool in innovating new designs for reducing costs.

Keywords: desertification, functional analysis, scrap tires, value engineering, waste recycling, water irrigation rationing

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36 Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires

Authors: Yang Gon Seo, Chang-Joon Kim, Dae Hyeok Kim

Abstract:

It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.

Keywords: adsorbent, ammonia, pyrolytic carbon black, hydrogen sulfide, metal oxide

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35 Durability Analysis of a Knuckle Arm Using VPG System

Authors: Geun-Yeon Kim, S. P. Praveen Kumar, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

A steering knuckle arm is the component that connects the steering system and suspension system. The structural performances such as stiffness, strength, and durability are considered in its design process. The former study suggested the lightweight design of a knuckle arm considering the structural performances and using the metamodel-based optimization. The six shape design variables were defined, and the optimum design was calculated by applying the kriging interpolation method. The finite element method was utilized to predict the structural responses. The suggested knuckle was made of the aluminum Al6082, and its weight was reduced about 60% in comparison with the base steel knuckle, satisfying the design requirements. Then, we investigated its manufacturability by performing foraging analysis. The forging was done as hot process, and the product was made through two-step forging. As a final step of its developing process, the durability is investigated by using the flexible dynamic analysis software, LS-DYNA and the pre and post processor, eta/VPG. Generally, a car make does not provide all the information with the part manufacturer. Thus, the part manufacturer has a limit in predicting the durability performance with the unit of full car. The eta/VPG has the libraries of suspension, tire, and road, which are commonly used parts. That makes a full car modeling. First, the full car is modeled by referencing the following information; Overall Length: 3,595mm, Overall Width: 1,595mm, CVW (Curve Vehicle Weight): 910kg, Front Suspension: MacPherson Strut, Rear Suspension: Torsion Beam Axle, Tire: 235/65R17. Second, the road is selected as the cobblestone. The road condition of the cobblestone is almost 10 times more severe than that of usual paved road. Third, the dynamic finite element analysis using the LS-DYNA is performed to predict the durability performance of the suggested knuckle arm. The life of the suggested knuckle arm is calculated as 350,000km, which satisfies the design requirement set up by the part manufacturer. In this study, the overall design process of a knuckle arm is suggested, and it can be seen that the developed knuckle arm satisfies the design requirement of the durability with the unit of full car. The VPG analysis is successfully performed even though it does not an exact prediction since the full car model is very rough one. Thus, this approach can be used effectively when the detail to full car is not given.

Keywords: knuckle arm, structural optimization, Metamodel, forging, durability, VPG (Virtual Proving Ground)

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34 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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33 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao

Abstract:

In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics

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32 Analysis Thermal of Composite Material in Cold Systems

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation of discarded industrial residues, The scrape of tires have been seen as a salutary alternative for addictive in concrete, asphalt production and of other composites materials. In this work, grew a composite the base of scrape of tire as reinforcement and latex as matrix, to be used as insulating thermal in "cold" systems (0º). Analyzed the acting of the material was what plays the thermal conservation when submitted the flow of heat. Verified the temperature profiles in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. As a consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: cold system, latex, flow of heat, asphalt production

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