Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 685

Search results for: gasoline engine

685 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad

Abstract:

This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: gasoline engine, performance, emission, fuel blends

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
684 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
683 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, M. M. Noor, I. M. Yusri

Abstract:

Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, combustion characteristics, engine emissions, alternative fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
682 The Using of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on a Low Heat Loss Si Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul

Abstract:

In this study, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) application is performed in order to reduce the engine emissions. Piston, exhaust, and intake valves of a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine were coated with chromium carbide (Cr3C2) at a thickness of 300 µm by using the Plasma Spray coating method which is a TBC method. Gasoline engine was converted into an LPG system. The study was conducted in 4 stages. In the first stage, the piston, exhaust, and intake valves of the gasoline engine were coated with Cr3C2. In the second stage, gasoline engine was converted into the LPG system and the emission values in this engine were recorded. In the third stage, the experiments were repeated under the same conditions with a standard (uncoated) engine and the results were recorded. In the fourth stage, data obtained from both engines were loaded on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and estimated values were produced for every revolution. Thus, mathematical modeling of coated and uncoated engines was performed by using ANN. While there was a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of LPG engine due to TBC, carbon monoxide (CO) values decreased.

Keywords: LPG fuel, thermal barrier coating, artificial neural network, mathematical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
681 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare

Abstract:

Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
680 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

Abstract:

In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
679 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
678 Performance of an Automotive Engine Running on Gasoline-Condensate Blends

Authors: Md. Ehsan, Cyrus Ashok Arupratan Atis

Abstract:

Significantly lower cost, bulk availability, absence of identification color additives and relative ease of mixing with fuels have made gas-field condensates a lucrative option as adulterant for gasoline in Bangladesh. Widespread adulteration of fuels with gas-field condensates being a problem existing mainly in developing countries like Bangladesh, Nigeria etc., research works regarding the effect of such fuel adulteration are very limited. Since the properties of the gas-field condensate vary widely depending on geographical location, studies need to be based on local condensate feeds. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of blending of gas-field condensates with gasoline(octane) in terms of - fuel properties, engine performance and exhaust emission. Condensate samples collected from Kailashtila gas field were blended with octane, ranging from 30% to 75% by volume. However for blends with above 60% condensate, cold starting of engine became difficult. Investigation revealed that the condensate samples had significantly higher distillation temperatures compared to octane, but were not far different in terms of heating value and carbon residues. Engine tests showed Kailashtila blends performing quite similar to octane in terms of power and thermal efficiency. No noticeable knocking was observed from in-cylinder pressure traces. For all the gasoline-condensate blends the test engine ran with relatively leaner air-fuel mixture delivering slightly lower CO emissions but HC and NOx emissions were similar to octane. Road trials of a test vehicle in real traffic condition and on a standard gradient using 50%(v/v) gasoline-condensate blend were also carried out. The test vehicle did not exhibit any noticeable difference in drivability compared to octane.

Keywords: condensates, engine performance, fuel adulteration, gasoline-condensate blends

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
677 Internal Combustion Engine Fuel Composition Detection by Analysing Vibration Signals Using ANFIS Network

Authors: M. N. Khajavi, S. Nasiri, E. Farokhi, M. R. Bavir

Abstract:

Alcohol fuels are renewable, have low pollution and have high octane number; therefore, they are important as fuel in internal combustion engines. Percentage detection of these alcoholic fuels with gasoline is a complicated, time consuming, and expensive process. Nowadays, these processes are done in equipped laboratories, based on international standards. The aim of this research is to determine percentage detection of different fuels based on vibration analysis of engine block signals. By doing, so considerable saving in time and cost can be achieved. Five different fuels consisted of pure gasoline (G) as base fuel and combination of this fuel with different percent of ethanol and methanol are prepared. For example, volumetric combination of pure gasoline with 10 percent ethanol is called E10. By this convention, we made M10 (10% methanol plus 90% pure gasoline), E30 (30% ethanol plus 70% pure gasoline), and M30 (30% Methanol plus 70% pure gasoline) were prepared. To simulate real working condition for this experiment, the vehicle was mounted on a chassis dynamometer and run under 1900 rpm and 30 KW load. To measure the engine block vibration, a three axis accelerometer was mounted between cylinder 2 and 3. After acquisition of vibration signal, eight time feature of these signals were used as inputs to an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The designed ANFIS was trained for classifying these five different fuels. The results show suitable classification ability of the designed ANFIS network with 96.3 percent of correct classification.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, vibration signal, fuel composition, classification, ANFIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
676 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
675 An Approach towards Elementary Investigation on HCCI Technology

Authors: Jitendra Sharma

Abstract:

Here a Homogeneous Charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine. HCCI has a homogeneous charge and have no problems associated with soot and Nox but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) values with HCCI. The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lakes a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios and engine speeds. HCCI a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low Knox and particulate matter emissions. The homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising new engine technology that combines elements of the diesel and gasoline engine operating cycles. HCCI as a way to increase the efficiency of the gasoline engine. The attractive properties are increased fuel efficiency due to reduced throttling losses, increased expansion ratio and higher thermodynamic efficiency. With the advantages there are some mechanical limitations to the operation of the HCCI engine. The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. The main drawback of HCCI is the absence of direct combustion timing control. Therefore all the right conditions for auto ignition have to be set before combustion starts. This paper describes the past and current research done on HCCI engine. Many research got considerable success in doing detailed modeling of HCCI combustion. This paper aims at studying the fundamentals of HCCI combustion, the strategy to control the limitation of HCCI engine.

Keywords: HCCI, diesel engine, combustion, elementary investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
674 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

Abstract:

The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
673 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
672 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, ethanol, acetone, gasoline, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
671 Oxyhydrogen Gas (HHO) as Replacement to Gasoline Fuel

Authors: Rishabh Pandey, Umang Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

In today’s era of technological advancement, we come across incalculable innovations, almost every day. No doubt that the society has developed a lot in learning and technology, but we should also take into account the problems and inflictions that are occurring. Focusing on the petroleum sector a trending global concern is toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions. It is well known that gasoline is non-renewable source of energy and its burning produces harmful emissions which are adversely affecting the environment, such issues are motivating us to seek alternative solutions that would not require much modification in engine design and help us come out with an outcome. Keeping in mind the importance of environment and human race, we present a factious idea of use of oxyhydrogen gas or HHO gas in place of gasoline in the vehicles and petroleum industry. This technology is prospering, highly efficient, could be used economically and safe, and it will be responsible for changing the future of oil and gas sector in accordance with protection to the environment. In the coming future, we will check the compatibility of HHO generator with fuel engine for production of oxyhydrogen gas with use of water and effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. We will also work on the comparison of HHO gas and commercially available gasoline fuel in support of their chemical structures; ignition rate; octane rating; knocking properties; storage; transportation and cost effectiveness and it is trusted that use of HHO gas will be ecofriendly as no harmful emissions are produced, rather the only emission is water. Additionally, this paper will include the use of HHO cell in fuel engines and challenges faced in installing it in the current period and provide effective solutions for the same.

Keywords: fuel, gas, generator, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
670 An Investigation of Water Atomizer in Ejected Gas of a Vehicle Engine

Authors: Chun-Wei Liu, Feng-Tsai Weng

Abstract:

People faced pollution threaten in modern age although the standard of exhaust gas of vehicles has been established. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of water atomizer in a vehicle emission system. Diluted 20% ammonia water was used in spraying system. Micro particles produced by exhausted gas from engine of vehicle which were cumulated through atomized spray in a self-development collector. In experiments, a self-designed atomization model plate and a gas tank controlled by the micro-processor using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) logic was prepared for exhaust test. The gas from gasoline-engine of vehicle was purified with the model panel collector. A soft well named ANSYS was utilized for analyzing the distribution condition of rejected gas. Micro substance and percentage of CO, HC, CO2, NOx in exhausted gas were investigated at different engine speed, and atomizer vibration frequency. Exceptional results in the vehicle engine emissions measurement were obtained. The temperature of exhausted gas can be decreased 3oC. Micro substances PM10 can be decreased and the percentage of CO can be decreased more than 55% at 2500RPM by proposed system. Value of CO, HC, CO2 and NOX was all decreased when atomizers were used with water.

Keywords: atomizer, CO, HC, NOx, PM2.5

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
669 Combustion Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions in Gasoline/Ethanol Mixed Fuels

Authors: Shin Woo Kim, Eui Ju Lee

Abstract:

The recent development of biofuel production technology facilitates the use of bioethanol and biodiesel on automobile. Bioethanol, especially, can be used as a fuel for gasoline vehicles because the addition of ethanol has been known to increase octane number and reduce soot emissions. However, the wide application of biofuel has been still limited because of lack of detailed combustion properties such as auto-ignition temperature and pollutant emissions such as NOx and soot, which has been concerned mainly on the vehicle fire safety and environmental safety. In this study, the combustion characteristics of gasoline/ethanol fuel were investigated both numerically and experimentally. For auto-ignition temperature and NOx emission, the numerical simulation was performed on the well-stirred reactor (WSR) to simulate the homogeneous gasoline engine and to clarify the effect of ethanol addition in the gasoline fuel. Also, the response surface method (RSM) was introduced as a design of experiment (DOE), which enables the various combustion properties to be predicted and optimized systematically with respect to three independent variables, i.e., ethanol mole fraction, equivalence ratio and residence time. The results of stoichiometric gasoline surrogate show that the auto-ignition temperature increases but NOx yields decrease with increasing ethanol mole fraction. This implies that the bioethanol added gasoline is an eco-friendly fuel on engine running condition. However, unburned hydrocarbon is increased dramatically with increasing ethanol content, which results from the incomplete combustion and hence needs to adjust combustion itself rather than an after-treatment system. RSM results analyzed with three independent variables predict the auto-ignition temperature accurately. However, NOx emission had a big difference between the calculated values and the predicted values using conventional RSM because NOx emission varies very steeply and hence the obtained second order polynomial cannot follow the rates. To relax the increasing rate of dependent variable, NOx emission is taken as common logarithms and worked again with RSM. NOx emission predicted through logarithm transformation is in a fairly good agreement with the experimental results. For more tangible understanding of gasoline/ethanol fuel on pollutant emissions, experimental measurements of combustion products were performed in gasoline/ethanol pool fires, which is widely used as a fire source of laboratory scale experiments. Three measurement methods were introduced to clarify the pollutant emissions, i.e., various gas concentrations including NOx, gravimetric soot filter sampling for elements analysis and pyrolysis, thermophoretic soot sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Soot yield by gravimetric sampling was decreased dramatically as ethanol was added, but NOx emission was almost comparable regardless of ethanol mole fraction. The morphology of the soot particle was investigated to address the degree of soot maturing. The incipient soot such as a liquid like PAHs was observed clearly on the soot of higher ethanol containing gasoline, and the soot might be matured under the undiluted gasoline fuel.

Keywords: gasoline/ethanol fuel, NOx, pool fire, soot, well-stirred reactor (WSR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
668 Development of Restricted Formula SAE Intake Manifold Using 1D and Flow Simulations Based on Track Analysis

Authors: Sahil Kapahi

Abstract:

A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the power-train is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUMLAP software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modeled using 1D simulation on Ricardo WAVE. A design was developed to meet the targeted performance standards in terms of engine torque output and volumetric efficiency. Finally, the intake manifold was manufactured and assembled onto the vehicle, and the engine output of the vehicle with the designed intake was studied using a dynamometer. The results of the dynamometer testing were then validated against predicted values derived from the Ricardo WAVE modeling and benefits to performance of the vehicle were established.

Keywords: 1 D Simulation, air flow simulation, ANSYS CFX, four-stroke engine, OPTIMUM LAP, Ricardo WAVE

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
667 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani

Abstract:

A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
666 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO₃, YTZ, mullite and alumina

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
665 Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin, Michal Geca, P. Karpinski

Abstract:

This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.

Keywords: 1D-model, aircraft engine, performance, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
664 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan

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In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: turbofan, power, efficiency, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
663 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin

Abstract:

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
662 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla

Abstract:

The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
661 Development of Intake System for Improvement of Performance of Compressed Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Mardani Ali Serah, Yuriadi Kusuma, Chandrasa Soekardi

Abstract:

The improvement of flow strategy was implemented in the intake system of the engine to produce better Compressed Natural Gas engine performance. Three components were studied, designed, simulated, developed,tested and validated in this research. The components are: the mixer, swirl device and fuel cooler device. The three components were installed to produce pressurised turbulent flow with higher fuel volume in the intake system, which is ideal condition for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuelled engine. A combination of experimental work with simulation technique were carried out. The work included design and fabrication of the engine test rig; the CNG fuel cooling system; fitting of instrumentation and measurement system for the performance testing of both gasoline and CNG modes. The simulation work was utilised to design appropriate mixer and swirl device. The flow test rig, known as the steady state flow rig (SSFR) was constructed to validate the simulation results. Then the investigation of the effect of these components on the CNG engine performance was carried out. A venturi-inlet holes mixer with three variables: number of inlet hole (8, 12, and 16); the inlet angles (300, 400, 500, and 600) and the outlet angles (200, 300, 400, and 500) were studied. The swirl-device with number of revolution and the plane angle variables were also studied. The CNG fuel cooling system with the ability to control water flow rate and the coolant temperature was installed. In this study it was found that the mixer and swirl-device improved the swirl ratio and pressure condition inside the intake manifold. The installation of the mixer, swirl device and CNG fuel cooling system had successfully increased 5.5%, 5%, and 3% of CNG engine performance respectively compared to that of existing operating condition. The overall results proved that there is a high potential of this mixer and swirl device method in increasing the CNG engine performance. The overall improvement on engine performance of power and torque was about 11% and 13% compared to the original mixer.

Keywords: intake system, Compressed Natural Gas, volumetric efficiency, engine performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
660 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
659 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh

Abstract:

Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
658 Determination of Optimum Torque of an Internal Combustion Engine by Exergy Analysis

Authors: Veena Chaudhary, Rakesh P. Gakkhar

Abstract:

In this study, energy and exergy analysis are applied to the experimental data of an internal combustion engine operating on conventional diesel cycle. The experimental data are collected using an engine unit which enables accurate measurements of fuel flow rate, combustion air flow rate, engine load, engine speed and all relevant temperatures. First and second law efficiencies are calculated for different engine speed and compared. Results indicate that the first law (energy) efficiency is maximum at 1700 rpm whereas exergy efficiency is maximum and exergy destruction is minimum at 1900 rpm.

Keywords: diesel engine, exergy destruction, exergy efficiency, second law of thermodynamics

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657 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu

Abstract:

The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
656 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 283