Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: bitter apricot kernel oil

276 Comparative Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and Bitter Apricot Kernal Oil Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Virender Singh Gurau, Akash Deep, Sarbjot S. Sandhu


Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. In the present research work Bitter Apricot kernel oil was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the Bitter Apricot kernel oil methyl ester were investigated as per ASTM D6751. From the series of engine testing, it is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with biodiesel blend was little lower than that of diesel. BSEC is slightly higher for Bitter apricot kernel oil methyl ester blends than neat diesel. For biodiesel blends, CO emission was lower than diesel fuel as B 20 reduced CO emissions by 18.75%. Approximately 11% increase in NOx emission was observed with 20% biodiesel blend. It is observed that HC emissions tend to decrease for biodiesel based fuels and Smoke opacity was found lower for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, bitter apricot kernel oil, performance and emission testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
275 In vitro α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) with Different Stage of Maturity

Authors: P. S. Percin, O. Inanli, S. Karakaya


Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a medicinal vegetable, which is used traditionally to remedy diabetes. Bitter melon contains several classes of primary and secondary metabolites. In traditional Turkish medicine bitter melon is used for wound healing and treatment of peptic ulcers. Nowadays, bitter melon is used for the treatment of diabetes and ulcerative colitis in many countries. The main constituents of bitter melon, which are responsible for the anti-diabetic effects, are triterpene, protein, steroid, alkaloid and phenolic compounds. In this study total phenolics, total carotenoids and β-carotene contents of mature and immature bitter melons were determined. In addition, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities of mature and immature bitter melons were studied. Total phenolic contents of immature and mature bitter melon were 74 and 123 mg CE/g bitter melon respectively. Although total phenolics of mature bitter melon was higher than that of immature bitter melon, this difference was not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). Carotenoids, a diverse group of more than 600 naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments, play important roles in many physiological processes both in plants and humans. The total carotenoid content of mature bitter melon was 4.36 fold higher than the total carotenoid content of immature bitter melon. The compounds that have hypoglycaemic effect of bitter melon are steroidal saponins known as charantin, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids. α-Amylase is one of the main enzymes in human that is responsible for the breakdown of starch to more simple sugars. Therefore, the inhibitors of this enzyme can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce the rate of glucose absorption. The immature bitter melon extract showed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was higher than that of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when IC50 values were compared. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence that aqueous extract of bitter melon may have an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate breakdown enzymes.

Keywords: bitter melon, in vitro antidiabetic activity, total carotenoids, total phenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
274 Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Quality: Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot Cultivars as Affected by Genotype and Ripening

Authors: Jamal Ayour, Mohamed Benichou


Fruit quality is one of the main concerns of consumers, producers, and distributors. The evolution of apricot fruits undergoes a strong acceleration during maturation, and the rapidity of post-harvest evolution of the ripe fruit is particularly selective in the apricot. The objective of this study is to identify new cultivars with an interesting quality as well as a better yield allowing a more prolonged production over time. The evaluation of the fruit quality of new apricot cultivars from the Marrakech region was carried out by analyzing their physical and biochemical attributes during ripening. The results obtained clearly show a great diversity of the physicochemical attributes of the selected clones. Also, some genotypes of apricots showed contents of sugars, organic acids (vitamin C) and β carotene significantly higher than those of the most famous varieties of Morocco: Canino, Delpatriarca, and Maoui. Principal component analysis (PCA), taking into account the maturity stage and the diversity of cultivars, made it possible to define three groups with similar physicochemical attributes. The results of this study are of great use, particularly for the selection of genotypes with a better quality of fruit, both for consumption or industrial processing and with important contents of physicochemical attributes.

Keywords: apricot, acidity, carotenoids, color, sugar, quality, vitamin C

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
273 Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering

Authors: Hamza Nejib, Okba Taouali


This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.

Keywords: online prediction, KAF, signal processing, RKHS, Kernel methods, KRLS, KLMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
272 Study of Dormancy-Breaking of Bitter Apple Seed (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Schard)

Authors: Asghar Rahimi, Majid Puryousef


This study aimed to examine dormancy-breaking of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis) seed. Seeds of wild bitter apple collected from the Balochestan zone in east of Iran were subjected to different treatments including temperatures (20 and 30°C) and some dormancy breaking methods on breaking seed dormancy of bitter apple. Only 6 treatments from 12 dormancy breaking treatments were effective in dormancy breaking, therefore only effective treatments were analyzed. In general, germination percentage of cleaved seeds, soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and soaking in H2SO4 in both temperatures was higher than other treatments and germination percentage of scarified seeds with sandy paper in both temperature was lower than other treatments. Also germination percentage of soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and naturally cracked seeds in temperature 20°c was higher than 30°c.

Keywords: foliar application, nano chelate, nitrogen, Safflower

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
271 The Evaluation of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Materials Collected from Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey

Authors: M. Kubilay Önal


The objective of this study was to determine the adaptabilities of native apricot materials collected from Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey to Aegean Region conditions. Different phenological and pomological characteristics of the cultivars were observed during study. Determination of promising types for adaptation trials were performed employing the 'weighed-ranking' method. To determine them the relative points were given to the characteristics such as yield, average fruit weight, attractiveness, soluble solid, seed ratio by weight and aroma. As a result of two-year evaluation studies on the phenological and pomological characteristics of 22 types, 9 out of them, viz., nos. 2235, 2236, 2237, 2239, 2242, 2244, 2246, 2249, 2257 were selected as promising ones.

Keywords: apricot, phenological characters, pomological characters, weight-ranking method

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
270 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai

Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira


Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: extraction, characterization, kernel oil, acrocomia totai

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
269 The Antioxidant Gel Mask Supplies Of Bitter Melon's Extract ( Momordica charantia Linn.)

Authors: N. S. Risqina, G. Edijanti, P. S. Nurita, L. Endang, R. A. Siti, R. Tri


Skin is an important and vital organs and also as a mirror of health and life. Facial skin care is one of the main emphasis to get the beautiful, healthy, and fresh skin. Potentially antioxidant phenolic compounds shows, antimutagen, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds that have the nature of free radicals, inhibiting the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes as well as anti-inflammatory. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) is a plant that contains flavonoids, and phenolic antioxidant activity. Bitter melon has strong antioxidant activity that can counteract the free radicals.These compounds can prevent free radicals that cause premature aging. Gel masks including depth cleansing is the cosmetics which work in depth and could raise the dead skin cells. Measurement of antioxidant activity of the extract and gel mask is done by using the immersion method of DPPH. IC50 value of ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit of 287.932 ppm. The preparation of gel mask bitter melon fruit extract, necessary to test the effectiveness of antioxidants using DPPH method is done by measuring the inhibition of DPPH and using UV spectrophotometer at the wavelength of maximum DPPH solution. Tests conducted at the beginning and end of the evaluation (day 0 and day 28). The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the bitter melon's extract and to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract gel mask pare in varying concentrations, ie 1xIC100 (0.295%), 2xIC100 (0.590%) and 4xIC100 (1.180%). Evaluation of physical properties of the preparation on (Day-0,7,14,21, and 28) and evaluation of antioxidant activity (day 0 and 28). Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA to determine differences in the physical properties of each formula. The statistical results showed that differences in the formula and storage time affects the adhesion, dispersive power, dry time and pH it is shown on a significant value of p <0.05, but longer storage does not affect the pH because the significance value p> 0,05. The antioxidant test showed that there are differences in antioxidant activity in all formulas. Measurement of antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas day 28 consecutive 130 411, 495 ppm, and 53239.806 95561.645 ppm ppm. The Conclusions drawn that there are antioxidant activity in preparation gel mask of bitter melon fruit extract. The antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on the day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas on day 28 of antioxidant activity gel mask bitter melon fruit extract with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180% in succession, namely: 130,411.495 ppm, ppm 95561.645 and 53239.806 ppm.

Keywords: antioxdant, bitter melon, gel mask, IC50

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
268 Effects of Mild Heat Treatment on the Physical and Microbial Quality of Salak Apricot Cultivar

Authors: Bengi Hakguder Taze, Sevcan Unluturk


Şalak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Şalak) is a specific variety grown in Igdir, Turkey. The fruit has distinctive properties distinguish it from other cultivars, such as its unique size, color, taste and higher water content. Drying is the widely used method for preservation of apricots. However, fresh consumption is preferred for Şalak apricot instead of drying due to its low dry matter content. Higher amounts of water in the structure and climacteric nature make the fruit sensitive against rapid quality loss during storage. Hence, alternative processing methods need to be introduced to extend the shelf life of the fresh produce. Mild heat (MH) treatment is of great interest as it can reduce the microbial load and inhibit enzymatic activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mild heat treatment on the natural microflora found on Şalak apricot surfaces and some physical quality parameters of the fruit, such as color and firmness. For this purpose, apricot samples were treated at different temperatures between 40 and 60 ℃ for different periods ranging between 10 to 60 min using a temperature controlled water bath. Natural flora on the fruit surfaces was examined using standard plating technique both before and after the treatment. Moreover, any changes in color and firmness of the fruit samples were also monitored. It was found that control samples were initially containing 7.5 ± 0.32 log CFU/g of total aerobic plate count (TAPC), 5.8±0.31 log CFU/g of yeast and mold count (YMC), and 5.17 ± 0.22 log CFU/g of coliforms. The highest log reductions in TAPC and YMC were observed as 3.87-log and 5.8-log after the treatments at 60 ℃ and 50 ℃, respectively. Nevertheless, the fruit lost its characteristic aroma at temperatures above 50 ℃. Furthermore, great color changes (ΔE ˃ 6) were observed and firmness of the apricot samples was reduced at these conditions. On the other hand, MH treatment at 41 ℃ for 10 min resulted in 1.6-log and 0.91-log reductions in TAPC and YMC, respectively, with slightly noticeable changes in color (ΔE ˂ 3). In conclusion, application of temperatures higher than 50 ℃ caused undesirable changes in physical quality of Şalak apricots. Although higher microbial reductions were achieved at those temperatures, temperatures between 40 and 50°C should be further investigated considering the fruit quality parameters. Another strategy may be the use of high temperatures for short time periods not exceeding 1-5 min. Besides all, MH treatment with UV-C light irradiation can be also considered as a hurdle strategy for better inactivation results.

Keywords: color, firmness, mild heat, natural flora, physical quality, şalak apricot

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
267 Kernel Parallelization Equation for Identifying Structures under Unknown and Periodic Loads

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi


This paper presents a Kernel parallelization equation for damage identification in structures under unknown periodic excitations. Herein, the dynamic differential equation of the motion of structure is viewed as a mapping from displacements to external forces. Utilizing this viewpoint, a new method for damage detection in structures under periodic loads is presented. The developed method requires only two periods of load. The method detects the damages without finding the input loads. The method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering the concept, kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic loads. The method is verified for a case study under periodic loads.

Keywords: Kernel, unknown periodic load, damage detection, Kernel parallelization equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
266 Effect of Local Processing Techniques on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients Content of Bitter Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

Authors: J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, T. G. Atume


The effects of local processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients content of bitter cassava were investigated. Raw bitter cassava tubers were boiled, sundried, roasted, fried to produce Kuese, partially fermented and sun dried to produce Alubo, fermented by submersion to produce Akpu and fermented by solid state to produce yellow and white gari. These locally processed cassava products were subjected to proximate, mineral analysis and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that, raw bitter cassava is composed of 1.85% ash, 20.38% moisture, 4.11% crude fibre, 1.03% crude protein, 0.66% lipids and 71.88% total carbohydrate. For the mineral analysis, the raw bitter cassava tuber contained 32.00% Calcium, 12.55% Magnesium, 1.38% Iron and 80.17% Phosphorous. Even though all processing techniques significantly increased the mineral content, fermentation had higher mineral increment effect. The anti-nutrients analysis showed that the raw tuber contained 98.16mg/100g cyanide, 44.00mg/100g oxalate 304.20mg/100g phytate and 73.00mg/100g saponin. In general all the processing techniques showed a significant reduction of the phytate, oxalate and saponin content of the cassava. However, only fermentation, sun drying and gasification were able to reduce the cyanide content of bitter cassava below the safe level (10mg/100g) recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Yellow gari(with the addition of palm oil) showed low cyanide content (1.10 mg/100g) than white gari (3.51 mg/100g). Processing methods involving fermentation reduce cyanide and other anti-nutrients in the cassava to levels that are safe for consumption and should be widely practiced.

Keywords: bitter cassava, local processing, fermentation, anti-nutrient.

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
265 A Time-Varying and Non-Stationary Convolution Spectral Mixture Kernel for Gaussian Process

Authors: Kai Chen, Shuguang Cui, Feng Yin


Gaussian process (GP) with spectral mixture (SM) kernel demonstrates flexible non-parametric Bayesian learning ability in modeling unknown function. In this work a novel time-varying and non-stationary convolution spectral mixture (TN-CSM) kernel with a significant enhancing of interpretability by using process convolution is introduced. A way decomposing the SM component into an auto-convolution of base SM component and parameterizing it to be input dependent is outlined. Smoothly, performing a convolution between two base SM component yields a novel structure of non-stationary SM component with much better generalized expression and interpretation. The TN-CSM perfectly allows compatibility with the stationary SM kernel in terms of kernel form and spectral base ignored and confused by previous non-stationary kernels. On synthetic and real-world datatsets, experiments show the time-varying characteristics of hyper-parameters in TN-CSM and compare the learning performance of TN-CSM with popular and representative non-stationary GP.

Keywords: Gaussian process, spectral mixture, non-stationary, convolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
264 Antidiabetic Effects of Bitter Melon

Authors: Jinhyun Ryu, Chengliang Xie, Nal Ae Yoon, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang


Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders featured by a deficit in or loss of insulin activity to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. Mainly, it results from the compromised insulin secretion and/or reduced insulin activity. The frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been increased rapidly in recent decades with the increase in the trend of obesity due to life style and food habit. Obesity is considered to be the primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and thereby developing T2D. Traditionally naturally occurring fruits, vegetables etc. are being used to treat many pathogenic conditions. In this study, we tried to find out the effect of a popularly used vegetable in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, ‘bitter melon’ on high fat diet induced T2D. To investigate the effect, we used 70% ethanol extract of bitter melon (BME) as dietary supplement with chow. BME was found to attenuate the high fat diet (HFD) induced body weight and total fat mass significantly. We also observed that BME reduced the insulin resistance induced by HFD effectively. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity, and reducing the hepatic fat and obesity. These results indicate that BME could be effective to attenuate T2D and could be a preventive measure against T2D.

Keywords: bitter melon, obesity, type 2 diabetes, high fat diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
263 A Fuzzy Kernel K-Medoids Algorithm for Clustering Uncertain Data Objects

Authors: Behnam Tavakkol


Uncertain data mining algorithms use different ways to consider uncertainty in data such as by representing a data object as a sample of points or a probability distribution. Fuzzy methods have long been used for clustering traditional (certain) data objects. They are used to produce non-crisp cluster labels. For uncertain data, however, besides some uncertain fuzzy k-medoids algorithms, not many other fuzzy clustering methods have been developed. In this work, we develop a fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm for clustering uncertain data objects. The developed fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm is superior to existing fuzzy k-medoids algorithms in clustering data sets with non-linearly separable clusters.

Keywords: clustering algorithm, fuzzy methods, kernel k-medoids, uncertain data

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
262 Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Fruit Set, Yield, and Quality Attributes of “Farbaly” Apricot Cultivar

Authors: A. Tarantino, F. Lops, G. Disciglio, E. Tarantino


Apulia region (southern Italy) is excellent for heavy production of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Fruit quality is a combination of physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics. The present experiment was laid in the commercial orchard in Cerignola (Foggia district, Apulia region, 41°15’49’’N; 15°53’59’’E; 126 a.s.l.) during the 2014-2015 season. The experiment consisted of the use of three biostimulant treatments (Hendophyt®, Ergostim® and Radicon®) compared with untreated control on ‘Farbaly’ apricot cultivar, in order to evaluate the vegeto-productive and fruit qualitative attributes. Foliar spray of biostimulants was applied at different times during the growth season (at red ball, fruit setting and fruit development stages). Experimental data showed some specific differences among the biostimulant treatments, which fruit set, growth and productivity were affected. Moderate influences were found regarding the qualitative attributes of fruits. The soluble solid content was positively affected by Hendophyt® treatment. Antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in Hendophyt® and Radicon® treatments respect to the untreated control.

Keywords: Prunus Armeniaca L., biostimulants, fruit set, fruit quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
261 Impact of Wastewater from Outfalls of River Ganga on Germination Percentage and Growth Parameters of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) with Antioxidant Activity Study

Authors: Sayanti Kar, Amitava Ghosh, Pritam Aitch, Gupinath Bhandari


An extensive seasonal analysis of wastewater had been done from outfalls of river Ganga in Howrah, Hooghly, 24 PGS (N) District, West Bengal, India during 2017. The morphological parameters of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) were estimated under wastewater treatment. An approach to study the activity within the range of low molecular weight peptide 3-0.5 kDa were taken through its extraction and purification by ion exchange resin column, cation, and anion exchanger. HPLC analysis had been done for both in wastewater treated and untreated plants. The antioxidant activity by using DPPH and germination percentage in control and treated plants were also determined in relation to wastewater effect. The inhibition of growth and its parameters were maximum in pre-monsoon in comparing to post-monsoon and monsoon season. The study also helped to explore the effect of wastewater on the peptidome of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). Some of these low molecular weight peptide(s) (3-0.5 kDa) also inhibited during wastewater treatment. Expression of particular peptide(s) or absence of some peptide(s) in chromatogram indicated the adverse effects on plants which may be the indication of stressful condition. Pre monsoon waste water was found to create more impact than other two.

Keywords: bitter gourd (Momordica charantia l.), low molecular weight peptide, river ganga, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
260 Analysis of the Relationship between the Unitary Impulse Response for the nth-Volterra Kernel of a Duffing Oscillator System

Authors: Guillermo Manuel Flores Figueroa, Juan Alejandro Vazquez Feijoo, Jose Navarro Antonio


A continuous nonlinear system response may be obtained by an infinite sum of the so-called Volterra operators. Each operator is obtained from multidimensional convolution of nth-order between the nth-order Volterra kernel and the system input. These operators can also be obtained from the Associated Linear Equations (ALEs) that are linear models of subsystems which inputs and outputs are of the same nth-order. Each ALEs produces a particular nth-Volterra operator. As linear models a unitary impulse response can be obtained from them. This work shows the relationship between this unitary impulse responses and the corresponding order Volterra kernel.

Keywords: Volterra series, frequency response functions FRF, associated linear equations ALEs, unitary response function, Voterra kernel

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259 Improving the Quality and Nutrient Content of Palm Kernel Cake through Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Mirnawati, Gita Ciptaan, Ferawati


Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a waste of the palm oil industry. Indonesia, as the largest palm oil producer in the world, produced 45-46% palm kernel cake. Palm kernel cake can potentially be used as animal ration but its utilization for poultry is limited. Thus, fermentation process was done in order to increase the utilization PKC in poultry ration. An experiment was conducted to study the effect between Inoculum Doses with Bacillus subtilis and fermentation time to improve the quality and nutrient content of fermented Palm Kernel Cake. Material and Methods: 1) Palm kernel cake derived from Palm Kernel Processing Manufacture of Andalas Agro Industry in Pasaman, West Sumatra. 2) Bacillus subtilis obtained from The Research Center of Applied Chemistry LIPI, Bogor. 3) Preparations nutrient agar medium (NA) produced by Difoo - Becton Dickinson. 4) Rice bran 5) Aquades and mineral standard. The experiment used completely randomize design (CRD) with 3 x 3 factorial and 3 replications. The first factors were three doses of inoculum Bacillus subtilis: (3%), (5%), and (7%). The second factor was fermentation time: (1) 2 day, (2) 4 day, and (3) 6 day. The parameters were crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC). Results: The result of the study showed that there was significant interaction (P<0.01) between factor A and factor B and each factor A and B also showed significant effect (P<0.01) on crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that fermented PKC with 7% doses of Bacillus subtilis and 6 days fermentation time provides the best result as seen from 24.65% crude protein, 17.35% crude fiber, 68.47% nitrogen retention, 53.25% crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC).

Keywords: fermentation, Bacillus Subtilis, inoculum, palm kernel cake, quality, nutrient

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
258 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared


In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

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257 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Apricots

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Sladjana Stajčić


Honey, produced by the honeybee, is a natural saturated sugar solution, which is mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Besides this, it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and different inflammatory processes. Honey is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits (plums, figs, cranberries, apricots etc.). The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried apricot addition to polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Some individual phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral honey (PH), linden honey (LH) and also in their mixtures with dried apricot, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40), were identified and quantified by HPLC. The most dominant phenolic compound was: gallic acid in LH (11.14 mg/100g), LH40 (42.65 mg/100g), PH (7.24 mg/100g) and catehin in PH40 (11.83 mg/100g). The antioxidant activity of PH, LH, PH40 and LH40 was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Honey samples with 40% dried apricot exhibited better antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The EC50 values, the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial concentration of OH radicals by 50%, were: EC50PH=3.36 mg/ml, EC50LH=13.36 mg/ml, EC50PH40=2.29 mg/ml, EC50 LH40=7.78 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral honey and linden honey with dried apricots improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: honey, dried apricot, HPLC, hydroxyl radical

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
256 Kernel-Based Double Nearest Proportion Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Authors: Hung-Sheng Lin, Cheng-Hsuan Li


Over the past few years, kernel-based algorithms have been widely used to extend some linear feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminate analysis (LDA), and nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE) to their nonlinear versions, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), generalized discriminate analysis (GDA), and kernel nonparametric weighted feature extraction (KNWFE), respectively. These nonlinear feature extraction methods can detect nonlinear directions with the largest nonlinear variance or the largest class separability based on the given kernel function. Moreover, they have been applied to improve the target detection or the image classification of hyperspectral images. The double nearest proportion feature extraction (DNP) can effectively reduce the overlap effect and have good performance in hyperspectral image classification. The DNP structure is an extension of the k-nearest neighbor technique. For each sample, there are two corresponding nearest proportions of samples, the self-class nearest proportion and the other-class nearest proportion. The term “nearest proportion” used here consider both the local information and other more global information. With these settings, the effect of the overlap between the sample distributions can be reduced. Usually, the maximum likelihood estimator and the related unbiased estimator are not ideal estimators in high dimensional inference problems, particularly in small data-size situation. Hence, an improved estimator by shrinkage estimation (regularization) is proposed. Based on the DNP structure, LDA is included as a special case. In this paper, the kernel method is applied to extend DNP to kernel-based DNP (KDNP). In addition to the advantages of DNP, KDNP surpasses DNP in the experimental results. According to the experiments on the real hyperspectral image data sets, the classification performance of KDNP is better than that of PCA, LDA, NWFE, and their kernel versions, KPCA, GDA, and KNWFE.

Keywords: feature extraction, kernel method, double nearest proportion feature extraction, kernel double nearest feature extraction

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255 Water Footprint for the Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Vijaya Subramaniam, Loh Soh Kheang, Astimar Abdul Aziz


Water footprint (WFP) has gained importance due to the increase in water scarcity in the world. This study analyses the WFP for an agriculture sector, i.e., the oil palm supply chain, which produces oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB), crude palm oil, palm kernel, and crude palm kernel oil. The water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) method was used. This method analyses the water depletion index (WDI) based on the local blue water scarcity. The main contribution towards the WFP at the plantation was the production of FFB from the crop itself at 0.23m³/tonne FFB. At the mill, the burden shifts to the water added during the process, which consists of the boiler and process water, which accounted for 6.91m³/tonne crude palm oil. There was a 33% reduction in the WFP when there was no dilution or water addition after the screw press at the mill. When allocation was performed, the WFP reduced by 42% as the burden was shared with the palm kernel and palm kernel shell. At the kernel crushing plant (KCP), the main contributor towards the WFP 4.96 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil which came from the palm kernel which carried the burden from upstream followed by electricity, 0.33 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil used for the process and 0.08 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil for transportation of the palm kernel. A comparison was carried out for mills with biogas capture versus no biogas capture, and the WFP had no difference for both scenarios. The comparison when the KCPs operate in the proximity of mills as compared to those operating in the proximity of ports only gave a reduction of 6% for the WFP. Both these scenarios showed no difference and insignificant difference, which differed from previous life cycle assessment studies on the carbon footprint, which showed significant differences. This shows that findings change when only certain impact categories are focused on. It can be concluded that the impact from the water used by the oil palm tree is low due to the practice of no irrigation at the plantations and the high availability of water from rainfall in Malaysia. This reiterates the importance of planting oil palm trees in regions with high rainfall all year long, like the tropics. The milling stage had the most significant impact on the WFP. Mills should avoid dilution to reduce this impact.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, water footprint, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil, WAVE method

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254 Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Kernel Inclusion in Broiler Diet on Growth Performance, Organ Weight and Gut Morphometry

Authors: Olatundun Bukola Ezekiel, Adejumo Olusoji


A feeding trial was conducted with 100 two-weeks old broiler chicken to evaluate the influence of inclusion in broiler diets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel (used to replace equal quantity of maize) on their performance, organ weight and gut morphometry. The birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, each treatment having four replicates consisting of five broilers in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (23% CP). Weekly feed intake and changes in body weight were calculated and feed efficiency determined. At the end of the 28-day feeding trial, four broilers per treatment were selected and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance procedures of Statistical Analysis Software The treatment means were presented with group standard errors of means and where significant, were compared using the Duncan multiple range test of the same software. The results showed that broilers fed 2.5% neem kernel inclusion diets had growth performance statistically comparable to those fed the control diet. Birds on 5, 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets showed significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of liver. The absolute weight of spleen also increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds on 10 % neem kernel diet. More than 5 % neem kernel diets gave significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative weight of the kidney. The length of the small intestine significantly increased in birds fed 7.5 and 10% neem kernel diets. Significant differences (P<0.05) did not occur in the length of the large intestine, right and left caeca. It is recommended that neem kernel can be included up to 2.5% in broiler chicken diet without any deleterious effects on the performance and physiological status of the birds.

Keywords: broiler chicken, growth performance, gut morphometry, neem kernel, organ weight

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253 Growth, Yield and Pest Infestation Response of Maize (Zea mays Linn.) to Biopesticide

Authors: Udomporn Pangnakorn, Settawut Prasatporn, Sombat Chuenchooklin


The effect of biopesticide on growth, yield and pest infestation of maize (Zea mays Linn.) (variety DK 6818) was evaluated during the drought season. The experimental plots were located at research station of Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. The extracted substance from plants was evaluated in the plots in 4 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata L.); 3) neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), 4) golden shower (Cassia fistula Linn.). The experiment was followed a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications per treatment. The results showed that golden shower gave the highest growth of maize in term of height (203.29 cm), followed by neem and bitter bush with average height of 202.66 cm and 191.66 cm respectively with significance different. But neem treatment given significantly higher average of yield component in term of length, width, and weight of pod corn with 18.89 cm 13.91 cm and 166.46 g respectively. Also, treatment of neem showed the highest harvested yield at 284.06 kg/ha followed by the golden shower and bitter bush with harvested yield at 245.86 kg/ha and 235.52 kg/ha respectively. Additionally, treatment of neem and golden shower were the highest effectiveness for reducing insects pest infestation of maize: corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch, corn borer Ostrinia fumacalis Guenee and corn armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The treatment of neem, golden shower, and bitter bush given reduction insect infestation on maize with leaves area were infested at 5,412 mm², 6,827 mm² and 8,910 mm² respectively with significance different when compared to control.

Keywords: maize, Zea mays Linn., biopesticide, bitter bush, Chromolaena odorata L.), neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, golden shower, Cassia fistula Linn.

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252 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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251 In Vitro Digestibility of Grains and Straw of Seventeen Ecotypes of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) in the North of Morocco

Authors: Boukrouh Soumaya, Cabaraux Jean-François, Avril Claire, Noutfia Ali, Chentouf Mouad


The introduction of marginal leguminous forage species in the diet of ruminants are of great importance. Bitter vetch is a good source of proteins, highly resistant against drought and poor soil conditions. Accordingly; two years field trials (2018/2019 and 2019-2020) were conducted to determine the digestibility of straw and grains of 17 promising bitter vetch ecotypes(Vicia ervilia) in the north of Morocco. In vitro dry and organic matter digestibility, gas production, and kinetics of fermentation of grains and straw were evaluated using gas production technique, pepsin-cellulase enzymatic digestibility of DM (CDDM)and OM (CDOM), as well as protease enzymatic CP degradation (CPD) and in vitro true digestibility, were performed using DAISYII Incubator. In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor, and volatile fatty acids. Enzymatic dry matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among grains and straw for all ecotypes. It varied from 804.1 to 957.7 g/kg DM and 270.4 to 412.3 g/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Metabolizable energy varied between 11.7 to 14.3 MJ/kg DM and 2.6 to 5.0 MJ/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d), and lag times of grains and straws from different bitter vetch ecotypes were different (p > 0.05). The results emphasized that in any evaluation of bitter vetch ecotypes, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration, particularly in areas where straw from this legume is considered as an important feedstuff for ruminants. Enzymatic digestibility was lower than in vitro digestibility by gaz production and by the DAISYII method because rumen fluid contains bacteria than increase digestibility. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility by gaz production and the DAISY II method. The DAISY II method can be used to increase labor efficiency in the in vitro DM digestibility analysis if gaz production is not necessary for analysis.

Keywords: bitter vetch, grains, straw, ecotype, in vitro digestibility, gaz production, enzymatic digestibility

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250 Composite Kernels for Public Emotion Recognition from Twitter

Authors: Chien-Hung Chen, Yan-Chun Hsing, Yung-Chun Chang


The Internet has grown into a powerful medium for information dispersion and social interaction that leads to a rapid growth of social media which allows users to easily post their emotions and perspectives regarding certain topics online. Our research aims at using natural language processing and text mining techniques to explore the public emotions expressed on Twitter by analyzing the sentiment behind tweets. In this paper, we propose a composite kernel method that integrates tree kernel with the linear kernel to simultaneously exploit both the tree representation and the distributed emotion keyword representation to analyze the syntactic and content information in tweets. The experiment results demonstrate that our method can effectively detect public emotion of tweets while outperforming the other compared methods.

Keywords: emotion recognition, natural language processing, composite kernel, sentiment analysis, text mining

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249 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya


In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: crushed palm kernel shell, fine aggregate, lightweight concrete, non-structural concrete

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248 Sweet to Bitter Perception Parageusia: Case of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Territory Diaschisis

Authors: I. S. Gandhi, D. N. Patel, M. Johnson, A. R. Hirsch


Although distortion of taste perception following a cerebrovascular event may seem to be a frivolous consequence of a classic stroke presentation, altered taste perception places patients at an increased risk for malnutrition, weight loss, and depression, all of which negatively impact the quality of life. Impaired taste perception can result from a wide variety of cerebrovascular lesions to various locations, including pons, insular cortices, and ventral posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Wallenberg syndrome, also known as a lateral medullary syndrome, has been described to impact taste; however, specific sweet to bitter taste dysgeusia from a territory infarction is an infrequent event; as such, a case is presented. One year prior to presentation, this 64-year-old right-handed woman, suffered a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm rupture with resultant infarction, culminating in a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. One and half months after this event, she noticed the gradual onset of lack of ability to taste sweet, to eventually all sweet food tasting bitter. Since the onset of her chemosensory problems, the patient has lost 60-pounds. Upon gustatory testing, the patient's taste threshold showed ageusia to sucrose and hydrochloric acid, while normogeusia to sodium chloride, urea, and phenylthiocarbamide. The gustatory cortex is made in part by the right insular cortex as well as the right anterior operculum, which are primarily involved in the sensory taste modalities. In this model, sweet is localized in the posterior-most along with the rostral aspect of the right insular cortex, notably adjacent to the region responsible for bitter taste. The sweet to bitter dysgeusia in our patient suggests the presence of a lesion in this localization. Although the primary lesion in this patient was located in the right medulla of the brainstem, neurodegeneration in the rostal and posterior-most aspect, of the right insular cortex may have occurred due to diaschisis. Diaschisis has been described as neurophysiological changes that occur in remote regions to a focal brain lesion. Although hydrocephalus and vasospasm due to aneurysmal rupture may explain the distal foci of impairment, the gradual onset of dysgeusia is more indicative of diaschisis. The perception of sweet, now tasting bitter, suggests that in the absence of sweet taste reception, the intrinsic bitter taste of food is now being stimulated rather than sweet. In the evaluation and treatment of taste parageusia secondary to cerebrovascular injury, prophylactic neuroprotective measures may be worthwhile. Further investigation is warranted.

Keywords: diaschisis, dysgeusia, stroke, taste

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247 The Reach of Shopping Center Layout Form on Subway Based on Kernel Density Estimate

Authors: Wen Liu


With the rapid progress of modern cities, the railway construction must be developing quickly in China. As a typical high-density country, shopping center on the subway should be one important factor during the process of urban development. The paper discusses the influence of the layout of shopping center on the subway, and put it in the time and space’s axis of Shanghai urban development. We use the digital technology to establish the database of relevant information. And then get the change role about shopping center on subway in Shanghaiby the Kernel density estimate. The result shows the development of shopping center on subway has a relationship with local economic strength, population size, policy support, and city construction. And the suburbanization trend of shopping center would be increasingly significant. By this case research, we could see the Kernel density estimate is an efficient analysis method on the spatial layout. It could reveal the characters of layout form of shopping center on subway in essence. And it can also be applied to the other research of space form.

Keywords: Shanghai, shopping center on the subway, layout form, Kernel density estimate

Procedia PDF Downloads 193