Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Hosein Bakhoda

26 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Ali Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni

Abstract:

An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nano particles are analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability.In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamo meter and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nano particles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: engine, cerium oxide, biodiesel, deposit

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25 A Cost-Effective Evaluation of Proper Control Process of Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Eisa Bakhoda, Hamid R. Javdan

Abstract:

One of the key factors in air cooled heat exchangers operation is the proper control of process stream outlet temperature. In this study, performances of two different air cooled heat exchangers have been considered, one of them condenses Propane and the other one cools LPG streams. In order to predict operation of these air coolers at different operating conditions. The results of simulations were applied for both economical evaluations and operational considerations for using convenient air cooler control system. In this paper, using On-Off fans method and installing variable speed drivers have been studied. Finally, the appropriate methods for controlling outlet temperature of process fluid streams as well as saving energy consumption were proposed. Using On-Off method for controlling studied Propane condenser by multiple fans is proper; while controlling LPG air cooler with lesser fans by means of two variable speed drivers is economically convenient.

Keywords: air cooled heat exchanger, simulation, economical evaluation, energy, process control

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24 Emergence and Manifestation of Ismaili Shiite Beliefs and Rituals in the Fatimid Rule

Authors: Hosein Rahmati

Abstract:

The Fatimid government was one of the powerful Shiite governments that was formed in 297 AH in the Islamic Maghreb based on Ismaili ideas and played an important role in promoting the culture and civilization of the Islamic world. Ismaili is one of the Shiite sects that has its own beliefs and teachings. This research seeks to find out which of the Ismaili beliefs and teachings were considered by the Fatimid political government and which the Fatimid government paid serious attention to highlighting. The present study, based on library sources and descriptive-analytical method, has concluded that the Ismaili doctrinal foundations, especially the doctrine of Imamate, are essential elements in the formation and continuation of the Fatimid rule. Their goals were approaching.

Keywords: Fatimid rule, The Ismaili, The Islamic Maghreb, Imamate

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23 Effect of Different Irrigation Intervals on Protein and Gel Production of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis M.) in Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hosein Al Omrani Nejad, Ali Rezvani Aghdam

Abstract:

This study was done in order to evaluation different irrigation intervals on amount of protein, and gel production in Aloe vera, a traditional medicinal plant. Plants was plnted in Greenhouse and irrigated according to Accumulative Pan Evaporation(APE). The treatments were included 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 mm APE which has been showed W1,W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7, W8,W9 and W10 respectively.The amount of protein and gel production was measured seperately. Results showed that highest protein and fresh weight of gel obtained plants which irrigated W6 and W7 respectively. According to these results can recomend which if plant irrigatedwhen APE reached 120 and 140 mm by Class A Evaporation Pan method gel production and protein would besuitable in north of khozestan province in limited irrigation conditions.

Keywords: irrigation, protein, gel, aloe vera, Iran

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22 Effect of the Poisson’s Ratio on the Behavior of Epoxy Microbeam

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour

Abstract:

Researchers suggest that variations in Poisson’s ratio affect the behavior of Timoshenko micro beam. Therefore, in this study, two epoxy Timoshenko micro beams with different dimensions were modeled using the finite element method considering all boundary conditions and initial conditions that govern the problem. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on the resonant frequency, maximum deflection, and maximum rotation of the micro beams was examined. The analyses suggest that an increased Poisson’s ratio reduces the maximum rotation and the maximum rotation and increases the resonant frequency. Results were consistent with those obtained using the couple stress, classical, and strain gradient elasticity theories.

Keywords: microbeam, microsensor, epoxy, poisson’s ratio, dynamic behavior, static behavior, finite element method

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21 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timoshenko Microcantilever Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour

Abstract:

Micro cantilevers are one of the components used in the manufacture of micro-electromechanical systems. Epoxy microcantilevers have a variety of applications in the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-actuators. In this paper, the Timoshenko Micro cantilever was statically and dynamically analyzed using the finite element method. First, all boundary conditions and initial conditions governing micro cantilevers were considered. The effect of size on the deflection, angle of rotation, natural frequencies, and mode shapes were then analyzed and evaluated under different frequencies. It was observed that an increased micro cantilever thickness reduces the deflection, rotation, and resonant frequency. A good agreement was observed between our results and those obtained by the couple stress theory, the classical theory, and the strain gradient elasticity theory.

Keywords: microcantilever, microsensor; epoxy, dynamic behavior, static behavior, finite element method

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20 A Survey on Frequency of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis in Horses in Ahvaz South-West of Iran

Authors: Ali R. Ghadrdan-Mashhadi, Hosein Hamidi-Nejat, Parisa Alizadehnia

Abstract:

Cryptosporidia and Giardia are protozoan parasites that have worldwide distribution and infect a variety of animals. Although, the infection to these parasites rarely caused to illness in horses, but some veterinarian recorded the clinical signs (such as diarrhea and malabsorbtion) especially in foals. In present study, the frequency of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis in horses in Ahvaz investigated. The feces samples were taken from 100 horses that keep in seven horse breeding clubs, during spring and summer. The ages of horses were from 1 month to 27 years old. Fecal samples were stained by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Tri-chrome methods. Results were analyzed with Chi-square Test and Fisher’s exact test. The results showed that the rate of infection to Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 18% and 40%, respectively. There weren't significant differences between infection to Cryptosporidium and Giardia with sex, age and fecal constancy. Although, the rate of infection to Cryptosporidium in studied horses is very similar to other studies but it seems, the rate of infection to Giardia is high in compare to other studies were done in the other countries.

Keywords: Ahvaz, cryptosporidium, giardia, horse

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19 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics

Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer

Abstract:

Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.

Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle-based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability

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18 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi

Abstract:

The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

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17 Investigating the Effect of Aesthetics of Wisdom and Thought on Islamic-Iranian Architecture and Modern Western Architecture: Considering the Position of Islamic Philosophy and Western Philosophy in the Art of Architecture

Authors: Hamid Mohamad Hosein Zadeh Hashemi

Abstract:

In this article, in order to recognize the value of aesthetics of the place of wisdom and mysticism on Islamic art-architecture, and compare it with the influence of philosophy and thought on the "modern art of architecture" of the West, it examines the position of wisdom and philosophy in art Architecture ". In this regard, one can point out the unique status of "art of architecture" in human societies, which in two cultures of the East and West, based on the ideas of Islamic wisdom and Western thought, has taken a dual path, so that even today, even from the original And the basic "art of architecture" of its primary and academic has turned away and has undergone some kind of transformation. To this end, we examine some of the "aesthetics" positions based on the "art of architecture" in the broad sense of the word, in order to reflect on the historical course of this art, and with regard to the position of Islamic thought and Western thought, each of which originated from, but based on The basis of cultures, climate, and sociology, and others, are ultimately the result of an arbitrary result, namely the achievement of the aesthetic position of wisdom and mysticism on the "Islamic-Iranian" architecture of art "and its opposition to the position of philosophy and thought On modern art of modern architecture of the West.

Keywords: aesthetics, art, philosophy, the art of Architecture, wisdom

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16 A New Learning Automata-Based Algorithm to the Priority-Based Target Coverage Problem in Directional Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaharuddin Salleh, Sara Marouf, Hosein Mohammadi

Abstract:

Directional sensor networks (DSNs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their extensive applications in a wide range of situations. One of the most important problems associated with DSNs is covering a set of targets in a given area and, at the same time, maximizing the network lifetime. This is due to limitation in sensing angle and battery power of the directional sensors. This problem gets more complicated by the possibility that targets may have different coverage requirements. In the present study, this problem is referred to as priority-based target coverage (PTC). As sensors are often densely deployed, organizing the sensors into several cover sets and then activating these cover sets successively is a promising solution to this problem. In this paper, we propose a learning automata-based algorithm to organize the directional sensors into several cover sets in such a way that each cover set could satisfy coverage requirements of all the targets. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrated that the algorithms were able to contribute to solving the problem.

Keywords: directional sensor networks, target coverage problem, cover set formation, learning automata

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15 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in Pulsation Mist Flow in Rectanglar Duct Partially Filled with a Porous Medium

Authors: Hosein Shokoohmand, Mohamad Esmaeil Jomeh

Abstract:

The present thesis studies the effect of different factors such as frequency of oscillatory flow, change in constant wall heat flux and two-phase current state, on heat transfer in a pipe in presence of porous medium. In this experimental study is conducted for Reynolds numbers in a range of Re=850 to Re=10000 and oscillatory frequencies of 5, 20, 10, 30 and 40 Hz with constant heat flux of 585 w/m2 and 819 w/m2. The results indicate that increase in oscillation frequency in higher frequencies for heat flux of 585 w/m2 leads to an increase in heat transfer; however, in the rest of tests it results in a heat transfer decrease. Increasing Reynolds number in a pulsation mist flow causes an increase in average Nusselt number values. The effect of oscillation frequencies in a pulsation mist flow for different Reynolds numbers has revealed different results, in a way that for some Reynolds numbers an increase of frequency has led to a heat transfer decrease.

Keywords: Reynolds numbers, frequency of oscillatory flow, constant heat flux, mist flow

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14 Sensitivity and Specificity of Some Serological Tests Used for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Egypt on Bacteriological and Molecular Basis

Authors: Hosein I. Hosein, Ragab Azzam, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Khaled Hendy, Ayman Mahrous, Hany Hussien

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial zoonotic disease of a worldwide spread and has different names; Infectious or enzootic abortion and Bang's disease in animals; and Mediterranean or Malta fever, Undulant Fever and Rock fever in humans. It is caused by the different species of genus Brucella which is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular bacterium. Brucella affects a wide range of mammals including bovines, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rodents, marine mammals as well as human resulting in serious economic losses in animal populations. In human, Brucella causes a severe illness representing a great public health problem. The disease was reported in Egypt for the first time in 1939; since then the disease remained endemic at high levels among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat and is still representing a public health hazard. The annual economic losses due to brucellosis were estimated to be about 60 million Egyptian pounds yearly, but actual estimates are still missing despite almost 30 years of implementation of the Egyptian control programme. Despite being the gold standard, bacterial isolation has been reported to show poor sensitivity for samples with low-level of Brucella and is impractical for regular screening of large populations. Thus, serological tests still remain the corner stone for routine diagnosis of brucellosis, especially in developing countries. In the present study, a total of 1533 cows (256 from Beni-Suef Governorate, 445 from Al-Fayoum Governorate and 832 from Damietta Governorate), were employed for estimation of relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of buffered acidified plate antigen test (BPAT), rose bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis revealed (19.63%). Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of BPAT,RBT and CFT were estimated as, (96.27 %, 96.76 %, 87.65 % and 99.10 %), (93.42 %, 96.27 %, 90.16 % and 98.35%) and (89.30 %, 98.60 %, 94.35 %and 97.24 %) respectively. BPAT showed the highest sensitivity among the three employed serological tests. RBT was less specific than BPAT. CFT showed the least sensitivity 89.30 % among the three employed serological tests but showed the highest specificity. Different tissues specimens of 22 seropositive cows (spleen, retropharyngeal udder, and supra-mammary lymph nodes) were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 12 (54.55%) cows. Bacteriological examinations failed to classify 10 cases (45.45%) and were culture negative. Bruce-ladder PCR was carried out for molecular identification of the 12 Brucella isolates at the species level. Three fragments of 587 bp, 1071 bp and 1682 bp sizes were amplified indicating Brucella melitensis. The results indicated the importance of using several procedures to overcome the problem of escaping of some infected animals from diagnosis.Bruce-ladder PCR is an important tool for diagnosis and epidemiologic studies, providing relevant information for identification of Brucella spp.

Keywords: brucellosis, relative sensitivity, relative specificity, Bruce-ladder, Egypt

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13 Design of an Acoustic System for Small-Scale Power Plants

Authors: Mohammadreza Judaki, Hosein Mohammadnezhad Shourkaei

Abstract:

Usually, noise generated by industrial units, is a pollution and disturbs people and causes problems for human health and sometimes these units will be closed because they cannot eliminate this pollution. Small-scale power plants usually are built close to residential areas, and noise generated by these power plants is an important factor in choosing their location and their design. Materials used to reduce noise are studied by measuring their absorption and reflection index numerically and experimentally. We can use MIKI model (Yasushi Miki, 1990) to simulate absorption index by using software like Ansys or Soundflow and compare calculation results with experimental simulation data. We consider high frequency sounds of power plant engines octave band diagram because dB value of high frequency noise is more noticeable for human ears. To prove this, in this study we first will study calculating octave band of engines exhausts and then we will study acoustic behavior of materials that we will use in high frequencies and this will give us our optimum noise reduction plan.

Keywords: acoustic materials, eliminating engine noise, octave level diagram, power plant noise

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12 The Effect of Benson Relaxation Method on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients in 2012-2013, Kermanshah, Iran

Authors: Fateme Hadadian, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, Hosein Feizi

Abstract:

Background: High number of patients with end-stage renal disease worldwide, and Iran and the patients required hemodialysis, As well as symptoms and treatment process and its impact on quality of life The researcher had to take a step towards solving these problems. Methods: In randomized clinical trial in 60 hemodialysis patients admitted to hospital hemodialysis Imam Reza (AS) were studied. Using questionnaires dialysis patients' QOL, quality of life was measured in patients and controls were divided randomly into two groups. Benson's relaxation method for the experimental group and two months at home, once per day, respectively and the control group received no special action. Immediately after the end of the period with was used for evaluating the quality of life in both the experimental and control groups were survey and data using independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The general dimensions of quality of life scores before and after intervention, there was significant difference (P=0/001). But this difference was not significant after QOL (P=0/2). Between QOL scores before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0/02). Conclusion: Benson relaxation has the desired effect on quality of life in hemodialysis patients and can be used as a useful method to enhance the quality of life in hemodialysis patients, implementation and training will be given.

Keywords: hemodialysis, quality of life, Benson muscle relaxation, biomedicine

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11 A Hybrid Expert System for Generating Stock Trading Signals

Authors: Hosein Hamisheh Bahar, Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi, Akbar Esfahanipour

Abstract:

In this paper, a hybrid expert system is developed by using fuzzy genetic network programming with reinforcement learning (GNP-RL). In this system, the frame-based structure of the system uses the trading rules extracted by GNP. These rules are extracted by using technical indices of the stock prices in the training time period. For developing this system, we applied fuzzy node transition and decision making in both processing and judgment nodes of GNP-RL. Consequently, using these method not only did increase the accuracy of node transition and decision making in GNP's nodes, but also extended the GNP's binary signals to ternary trading signals. In the other words, in our proposed Fuzzy GNP-RL model, a No Trade signal is added to conventional Buy or Sell signals. Finally, the obtained rules are used in a frame-based system implemented in Kappa-PC software. This developed trading system has been used to generate trading signals for ten companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The simulation results in the testing time period shows that the developed system has more favorable performance in comparison with the Buy and Hold strategy.

Keywords: fuzzy genetic network programming, hybrid expert system, technical trading signal, Tehran stock exchange

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10 Effect of Lignocellulose-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Termite Gut on the Nutritive Value of Wheat Straw as Ruminant Feed

Authors: Ayoub Azizi-Shotorkhoft, Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Hosein Motamedi, Morteza Chaji, Hasan Fazaeli

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate nutritive value of wheat straw processed with termite gut symbiotic bacteria with lignocellulosic-degrading potential including Bacillus licheniformis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Microbacterium paludicola in vitro. These bacteria were isolated by culturing termite guts contents in different culture media containing different lignin and lignocellulosic materials that had been prepared from water-extracted sawdust and wheat straw. Results showed that incubating wheat straw with all of three isolated bacteria increased (P<0.05) acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) compared to control, and highest amount of APPL observed following treatment with B. licheniformis. Highest and lowest (P<0.05) in vitro gas production and ruminal organic matter digestibility were obtained when treating wheat straw with B. licheniformis and control, respectively. However, other fermentation parameters such as b (i.e., gas production from the insoluble fermentable fractions at 144h), c (i.e., rate of gas production during incubation), ruminal dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration were similar between experimental treatments (P>0.05). It is concluded that processing wheat straw with isolated bacteria improved its nutritive value as ruminants feed.

Keywords: termite gut bacteria, wheat straw, nutritive value, ruminant

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9 Study of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagys Root (Asparagus Officinalis) On Testes Spematoxods Indexes in Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Negar Mahdavi, Hosein Tayefinas Abadi

Abstract:

Infertility is a more important problem in modern world. In the Western countries data showed that one couple from eight couples is infertile in human papulation. Role of male in infertility is higher than women e.g., 40%. Abnormal spermatozoid production, genital ducts abstraction, genital system flammation and disorder of erection are more important factor for male population infertility. Iranian Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) are used in Iranian traditional medicine as narcotic material for treatment of rheumatoid, headache, sexual inability and acute inflammation. In this survey, effect of asparagus root was studied on spermatozoid index in laboratory mouse. For this reason, hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, 100 ml/kg dose group, 200 ml/kg dose group and, 300ml/kg dose group. Then, mice are euthanized and testes are removed. Spermatozoids are going out from tail of epididymis and swim up in Ham's F10 tissue culture media. This research results were appeared that there are significant different (P<0.05) between 200 and 300 ml/kg with another treatment groups. Therefore, Aparagus root extract have can be to cause enhancement of spermatozoid quality and fertility improvement in laboratory mouse.

Keywords: histoligy, asparagus, testes, spermatozoid

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8 The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari Gharibdosti, Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Samira Alijani

Abstract:

To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.

Keywords: correlation, drought stress, factor analysis, rapeseed

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7 Simulation and Controller Tunning in a Photo-Bioreactor Applying by Taguchi Method

Authors: Hosein Ghahremani, MohammadReza Khoshchehre, Pejman Hakemi

Abstract:

This study involves numerical simulations of a vertical plate-type photo-bioreactor to investigate the performance of Microalgae Spirulina and Control and optimization of parameters for the digital controller by Taguchi method that MATLAB software and Qualitek-4 has been made. Since the addition of parameters such as temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide, biomass, and ... Some new physical parameters such as light intensity and physiological conditions like photosynthetic efficiency and light inhibitors are involved in biological processes, control is facing many challenges. Not only facilitate the commercial production photo-bioreactor Microalgae as feed for aquaculture and food supplements are efficient systems but also as a possible platform for the production of active molecules such as antibiotics or innovative anti-tumor agents, carbon dioxide removal and removal of heavy metals from wastewater is used. Digital controller is designed for controlling the light bioreactor until Microalgae growth rate and carbon dioxide concentration inside the bioreactor is investigated. The optimal values of the controller parameters of the S/N and ANOVA analysis software Qualitek-4 obtained With Reaction curve, Cohen-Con and Ziegler-Nichols method were compared. The sum of the squared error obtained for each of the control methods mentioned, the Taguchi method as the best method for controlling the light intensity was selected photo-bioreactor. This method compared to control methods listed the higher stability and a shorter interval to be answered.

Keywords: photo-bioreactor, control and optimization, Light intensity, Taguchi method

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6 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration, robot-assisted surgery, supervisory control

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5 Pilgrimage: Between Culture and Religion Case study of Pilgrimage in Shia tradition in Indonesia, Traditional Philosophy approach of Seyyed Hosein Nasr and Religious Experience of William James

Authors: Ma'ruf

Abstract:

Pilgrimage has a universal value, founded in every religion. No exception to Islam, has a ritual value, and became part of the religion, as well as the procession of a social culture in nature. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia, rooted in the society, because the Islam that entered into the archipelago through Sufism (tasawuf). In the Sufi tradition, the interconnecty of the human spirit (ruh) to the spirit (ruh) of God, must go through a guardian (wasilah) appointed by God himself ,the prophet Muhammad and wali. In the process of pilgrimage rituals usually by reading the prayer to praise God, the prophet and wali, then convey intent (hajat). In the pilgrimage procession, usually not only done in the house, but aslo completed the process by direct pilgrimage visiting the tombs of saints. The tradition of pilgrimage, especially in Indonesia continues to be maintained, and still attached to the traditions in Nahdiyin (NU followers). The relationship with God manifested in wasilah prayer to God, the prophet Muhammad, the best companions of the Prophet and Nine wali (Songo), who had been influential in spreading Islam in Java. The tradition of pilgrimage in Indonesia is also linked to the Shia community in Indonesia, along with a growing number of followers of the Shia in Indonesia, especially after the Islamic revolution of Iran after the 1979. Pilgrimage in the Shia community, Likewise NU members also pray with supplication of tawasul to the Prophet and Shia Imams. If NU members to make improvements pilgrimage to visit the tomb wali Songo in Java, residents Shia pilgrimage rituals abroad, usually one package with umrah trip, with a pilgrimage to the tomb of the prophet, proceed to the tomb of the Imam Shia, in Iran and Iraq. Trends of pilgrimage as a ritual in the Indonesian Shia tradition, together with the growing number of Shia residents increased, followed by increasing the awareness (syi’isme) - bond with the Imam, Shia. In every certain months (arbaeen, asyuro) Shia pilgrims routinely perform pilgrimage, along with increasing number spiritual travel.

Keywords: traditional approach, religious experience, culture, religion, pilgrimage, Syria

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4 Designing, Manufacturing and Testing a Portable Tractor Unit Biocoal Harvester Combine of Agriculture and Animal Wastes

Authors: Ali Moharrek, Hosein Mobli, Ali Jafari, Ahmad Tabataee Far

Abstract:

Biomass is a material generally produced by plants living on soil or water and their derivatives. The remains of agricultural and forest products contain biomass which is changeable into fuel. Besides, you can obtain biogas and ethanol from the charcoal produced from biomass through specific actions. this technology was designed for as a useful Native Fuel and Technology in Energy disasters Management Due to the sudden interruption of the flow of heat energy One of the problems confronted by mankind in the future is the limitations of fossil energy which necessitates production of new energies such as biomass. In order to produce biomass from the remains of the plants, different methods shall be applied considering factors like cost of production, production technology, area of requirement, speed of work easy utilization, ect. In this article we are focusing on designing a biomass briquetting portable machine. The speed of installation of the machine on a tractor is estimated as 80 MF 258. Screw press is used in designing this machine. The needed power for running this machine which is estimated as 17.4 kW is provided by the power axis of tractor. The pressing speed of the machine is considered to be 375 RPM Finally the physical and mechanical properties of the product were compared with utilized material which resulted in appropriate outcomes. This machine is designed for Gathering Raw materials of the ground by Head Section. During delivering the raw materials to Briquetting section, they Crushed, Milled & Pre Heated in Transmission section. This machine is a Combine Portable Tractor unit machine and can use all type of Agriculture, Forest & Livestock Animals Resides as Raw material to make Bio fuel. The Briquetting Section was manufactured and it successfully made bio fuel of Sawdust. Also this machine made a biofuel with Ethanol of sugarcane Wastes. This Machine is using P.T.O power source for Briquetting and Hydraulic Power Source for Pre Processing of Row Materials.

Keywords: biomass, briquette, screw press, sawdust, animal wastes, portable, tractors

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3 An Investigation on Interactions between Social Security with Police Operation and Economics in the Field of Tourism

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Namdari, Hosein Torki

Abstract:

Security as an abstract concept, has involved human being from the beginning of creation to the present, and certainly to the future. Accordingly, battles, conflicts, challenges, legal proceedings, crimes and all issues related to human kind are associated with this concept. Today by interviewing people about their life, the security of societies and Social crimes are interviewed too. Along with the security as an infrastructure and vital concept, the economy and related issues e.g. welfare, per capita income, total government revenue, export, import and etc. is considered another infrastructure and vital concept. These two vital concepts (Security and Economic) have linked together complexly and significantly. The present study employs analytical-descriptive research method using documents and Statistics of official sources. Discovery and explanation of this mutual connection are comprising a profound and extensive research; so management, development and reform in system and relationships of the scope of this two concepts are complex and difficult. Tourism and its position in today's economy is one of the main pillars of the economy of the 21st century that maybe associate with the security and social crimes more than other pillars. Like all human activities, economy of societies and partially tourism dependent on security especially in the public and social security. On the other hand, the true economic development (generally) and the growth of the tourism industry (dedicated) are a security generating and supporting for it, because a dynamic economic infrastructure prevents the formation of centers of crime and illegal activities by providing a context for socio-economic development for all segments of society in a fair and humane. This relationship is a formula of the complexity between the two concept of economy and security. Police as a revealed or people-oriented organization in the field of security directly has linked with the economy of a community and is very effective In the face of the tourism industry. The relationship between security and national crime index, and economic indicators especially ones related to tourism is confirming above discussion that is notable. According to understanding processes about security and economic as two key and vital concepts are necessary and significant for sovereignty of governments.

Keywords: economic, police, tourism, social security

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2 Evaluation of Antibody Titer Produced in Layer Chicken after Vaccination with an Experimental Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal Vaccine

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Hosein Hosseini, Ali Shirazi, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory infections are the most important diseases that affect poultry. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections including alveolar inflation and pneumonia in birds. The aim of this study was to evaluated antibody titer against Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal in layer chicken sera after vaccination with an experimental ORT vaccine that produced in Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Cultured bacteria were inactivated by formalin, and controlled tests were conducted on it. The obtained antigens were formulated using Montanide oil and were homogenized using homogenizer. Eighty SPF chickens were kept until the age of 14 days under existing standards for temperature, humidity, and light. At the age of 14 days, chickens were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 chickens injected with prepared ORT vaccine, the second group, as control group, included 15 chickens injected with sterile PBS to get stress of infection and the third group included 15 chickens with no injection performed to them. All 3 groups were kept in separate cages at same room. Blood samples were regularly taken from the chickens every week for serum separation and evaluation of antibody titer. During the fifth week post vaccination, booster vaccine was injected into the chickens of vaccinated group. The chickens were inspected every day in terms of mortality as well as any injection site reactions. Three weeks after the booster injection, blood samples were taken from all chickens of all groups, and sera were isolated. The sera of immunized (vaccinated) SPF chickens with ORT vaccine as well as that of SPF chickens in the control groups were reviewed according to the recommendations of ELISA kit manufacturer to examine the chicken’s humeral immune response to the studied vaccine. Potency, stability and sterility tests were also performed on the above mentioned vaccine. Results obtained indicate high antibody titer in sera of chickens vaccinated with experimental ORT vaccine as compared with the control groups that emphasize the ability of experimentally prepared ORT vaccine to stimulate humoral immune response of chicken. After the second injection, antibody titer increased and remained almost stable up to 9 weeks after the injection. ORT vaccine can cause potency in chickens and can protect them against disease.

Keywords: antibody, layer chicken, Ornithobactrium rhinotracitis, vaccine

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1 Comparison between Two Software Packages GSTARS4 and HEC-6 about Prediction of the Sedimentation Amount in Dam Reservoirs and to Estimate Its Efficient Life Time in the South of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Faramarzi, Hosein Mahjoob

Abstract:

Building dams on rivers for utilization of water resources causes problems in hydrodynamic equilibrium and results in leaving all or part of the sediments carried by water in dam reservoir. This phenomenon has also significant impacts on water and sediment flow regime and in the long term can cause morphological changes in the environment surrounding the river, reducing the useful life of the reservoir which threatens sustainable development through inefficient management of water resources. In the past, empirical methods were used to predict the sedimentation amount in dam reservoirs and to estimate its efficient lifetime. But recently the mathematical and computational models are widely used in sedimentation studies in dam reservoirs as a suitable tool. These models usually solve the equations using finite element method. This study compares the results from tow software packages, GSTARS4 & HEC-6, in the prediction of the sedimentation amount in Dez dam, southern Iran. The model provides a one-dimensional, steady-state simulation of sediment deposition and erosion by solving the equations of momentum, flow and sediment continuity and sediment transport. GSTARS4 (Generalized Sediment Transport Model for Alluvial River Simulation) which is based on a one-dimensional mathematical model that simulates bed changes in both longitudinal and transverse directions by using flow tubes in a quasi-two-dimensional scheme to calibrate a period of 47 years and forecast the next 47 years of sedimentation in Dez Dam, Southern Iran. This dam is among the highest dams all over the world (with its 203 m height), and irrigates more than 125000 square hectares of downstream lands and plays a major role in flood control in the region. The input data including geometry, hydraulic and sedimentary data, starts from 1955 to 2003 on a daily basis. To predict future river discharge, in this research, the time series data were assumed to be repeated after 47 years. Finally, the obtained result was very satisfactory in the delta region so that the output from GSTARS4 was almost identical to the hydrographic profile in 2003. In the Dez dam due to the long (65 km) and a large tank, the vertical currents are dominant causing the calculations by the above-mentioned method to be inaccurate. To solve this problem, we used the empirical reduction method to calculate the sedimentation in the downstream area which led to very good answers. Thus, we demonstrated that by combining these two methods a very suitable model for sedimentation in Dez dam for the study period can be obtained. The present study demonstrated successfully that the outputs of both methods are the same.

Keywords: Dez Dam, prediction, sedimentation, water resources, computational models, finite element method, GSTARS4, HEC-6

Procedia PDF Downloads 215