Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 668

Search results for: piston engine

668 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
667 Enhancement of Tribological Behavior for Diesel Engine Piston of Solid Skirt by an Optimal Choice of Interface Material

Authors: M. Amara, M. Tahar Abbes, A. Dokkiche, M. Benbrike

Abstract:

Shear stresses generate frictional forces thus lead to the reduction of engine performance due to the power losses. This friction can also cause damage to the piston material. Thus, the choice of an optimal material for the piston is necessary to improve the elastohydrodynamical contacts of the piston. In this study, to achieve this objective, an elastohydrodynamical lubrication model that satisfies the best tribological behavior of the piston with the optimum choice of material is developed. Several aluminum alloys composed of different components are studied in this simulation. An application is made on the piston 60 x 120 mm Diesel engine type F8L413 currently mounted on Deutz trucks TB230 by using different aluminum alloys where alloys based on aluminum-silicon have better tribological performance.

Keywords: EHD lubricated contacts, friction, properties of materials, tribological performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
666 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
665 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh

Abstract:

Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
664 The Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coated Piston Crown on Engine Characteristics in a Spark Ignited Engine

Authors: A.Velavan, C. G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran

Abstract:

In present investigation, experiments were carried out to compare the effect of the ceramic coated piston crown and uncoated piston on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port injected Spark Ignited engine. The piston crown was coated with aluminium alloy in the form ceramic oxide layer of thickness 500 µm using micro-arc oxidation technique. This ceramic coating will act as a thermal barrier which reduces in-cylinder heat rejection and increases the durability of the piston by withstanding high temperature and pressure produced during combustion. Flame visualization inside the combustion chamber was carried out using AVL Visioscope combustion analyzer to predict the type of combustion occurs at different load condition. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the coated piston shows an improved thermal efficiency when compared to uncoated piston. This is because more heat presents in the combustion chamber which helps efficient combustion of the fuel. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced due to better combustion of the fuel whereas NOx emission was increased due to increase in combustion temperature for ceramic coated piston.

Keywords: coated piston, micro-arc oxidation, thermal barrier, thermal efficiency, visioscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
663 Nonuniformity of the Piston Motion in a Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, M. Bialy, M. Duk

Abstract:

One of the main disadvantages of radial engines is non-uniformity of operating cycles of each cylinder. This paper discusses the results of the kinematic analysis of pistons motion of the ASz-62IR radial engine. The ASz-62IR engine is produced in Poland and mounted in the M-18 Dromader and the An-2. The results are shown as the courses of the motion of the pistons. The discrepancies in the courses for individual pistons can result in different masses of the charge to fill the cylinders. Besides, pistons acceleration of individual cylinders is different, which triggers an additional vibration in the engine.

Keywords: nonuniformity, kinematic analysis, piston motion, radial engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
662 Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Crank-Piston System of a High-Power, Nine-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

Authors: Michal Biały, Konrad Pietrykowski, Rafal Sochaczewski

Abstract:

The kinematics and dynamics analysis of crank-piston system of aircraft engine. The object of the study was the high power aircraft engine ASz 62-IR. This engine is produced by a Polish company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A.". All analyzes were performed numerically using CAD and CAE environment. Three-dimensional model of the crank-piston system was developed based on real engine located in the Laboratory of Centre of Innovation and Advanced Technologies of Lublin University of Technology. During the development of the model, the technique of reverse engineering - 3D scanning was used. ASz 62-IR engine is characterized by a radial type of crank-piston system. In this system the cylinders are arranged radially around the circle. This crank-piston system consists of a main connecting rod and eight additional connecting rods. In addition, three-dimensional model consists of a piston pins, pistons and piston rings. As a result of the specific engine design, characteristics of the piston individual movement are slightly different from each other. But the model assumes that they are the same during the analysis. Three-dimensional model of the engine was implemented into the MSC Adams software. The environment of MSC Adams allows for multibody simulation of the dynamic phenomena. This determines the state parameters of the moving elements, among which the load or force distribution on each kinematic node can be distinguished. Materials and characteristic materials parameters were adopted on the basis of commonly used materials for engine parts. The mass values of individual elements were adopted on the basis of real engine parts. The piston gas forces were replaced by calculation of pressure variations recorded during engine tests on the engine test bench. The research the changes of forces acting in the individual kinematic pairs of crank-piston system. The model allows to determine the load on the crankshaft main bearings. This gives the possibility for the main supports forces analysis The model allows for testing and simulation of kinematics and dynamics of a radial aircraft engine. This is the first stage of the work, which aims to numerical simulation of vibration of multi-cylinder aircraft engine. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: aircraft engine, CAD, CAE, dynamics, kinematics, MSC Adams, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
661 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO₃, YTZ, mullite and alumina

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
660 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar

Abstract:

An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: diesel engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions, coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
659 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, opposed-piston, aircraft, fuel injector

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658 The Using of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on a Low Heat Loss Si Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul

Abstract:

In this study, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) application is performed in order to reduce the engine emissions. Piston, exhaust, and intake valves of a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine were coated with chromium carbide (Cr3C2) at a thickness of 300 µm by using the Plasma Spray coating method which is a TBC method. Gasoline engine was converted into an LPG system. The study was conducted in 4 stages. In the first stage, the piston, exhaust, and intake valves of the gasoline engine were coated with Cr3C2. In the second stage, gasoline engine was converted into the LPG system and the emission values in this engine were recorded. In the third stage, the experiments were repeated under the same conditions with a standard (uncoated) engine and the results were recorded. In the fourth stage, data obtained from both engines were loaded on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and estimated values were produced for every revolution. Thus, mathematical modeling of coated and uncoated engines was performed by using ANN. While there was a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of LPG engine due to TBC, carbon monoxide (CO) values decreased.

Keywords: LPG fuel, thermal barrier coating, artificial neural network, mathematical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
657 Developing Interactive Media for Piston Engine Lectures to Improve Cadets Learning Outcomes: Literature Study

Authors: Jamaludin Jamaludin, Suparji Suparji, Lilik Anifah, I. Gusti Putu Asto Buditjahjanto, Eppy Yundra

Abstract:

Learning media is an important and main component in the learning process. By using currently available media, cadets still have difficulty understanding how the piston engine works, so they are not able to apply these concepts appropriately. This study aims to examine the development of interactive media for piston engine courses in order to improve student learning outcomes. The research method used is a literature study of several articles, journals and proceedings of interactive media development results from 2010-2020. The results showed that the development of interactive media is needed to support the learning process and influence the cognitive abilities of students. With this interactive media, learning outcomes can be improved and the learning process can be effective.

Keywords: interactive media, learning outcomes, learning process, literature study

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656 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: A. Majczak, G. Baranski, K. Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine testing, opposed piston

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
655 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla

Abstract:

The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
654 Radial Fuel Injection Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Engine

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska

Abstract:

Designing a new engine requires a large number of different cases to be considered. Especially different injector parameters and combustion chamber geometries. This is essential when developing an engine with unconventional build – compression ignition, two-stroke operating with direct side injection. Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling allows to test those different conditions and seek for the best conditions with correct combustion. This research presents the combustion results for different injector and combustion chamber cases. The shape of combustion chamber is different than for conventional engines as it requires side injection. This completely changes the optimal shape for the given condition compared to standard automotive heart shaped combustion chamber. Because the injection is not symmetrical there is a strong influence of cylinder swirl and piston motion on the injected fuel stream. The results present the fuel injection phenomena allowing to predict the right injection parameters for a maximum combustion efficiency and minimum piston heat loads. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, injection, opposed piston

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
653 Opposed Piston Engine Crankshaft Strength Calculation Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michał Gęca, Michał Bialy

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the crankshaft strength simulation. The crankshaft was taken from the opposed piston engine. Calculations were made using finite element method (FEM) in Abaqus software. This program allows to perform strength tests of individual machine parts as well as their assemblies. The crankshaft that was used in the calculations will be used in the two-stroke aviation research aircraft engine. The assumptions for the calculations were obtained from the AVL Boost software, from one-dimensional engine cycle model and from the multibody model using the method developed in the MSC Adams software. The research engine will be equipped with 3 combustion chambers and two crankshafts. In order to shorten the calculation time, only one crankcase analysis was performed. The cut of the shaft has been selected with the greatest forces resulting from the engine operation. Calculations were made for two cases. For maximum piston force when maximum bending load occurs and for the maximum torque. Cast iron material was adopted. For this material, Poisson's number, density, and Young's modulus were determined. The computational grid contained of 1,977,473 Tet elements. This type of elements was chosen because of the complex design of the crankshaft. Results are presented in the form of stress distributions maps and displacements on the surface and inside the geometry of the shaft. The results show the places of tension stresses, however, no stresses are exceeded at any place. The shaft can thus be applied to the engine in its present form. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft diesel engine, crankshaft, finite element method, two-stroke engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
652 Effect of Piston and its Weight on the Performance of a Gun Tunnel via Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: A. A. Ahmadi, A. R. Pishevar, M. Nili

Abstract:

As the test gas in a gun tunnel is non-isentropically compressed and heated by a light weight piston. Here, first consideration is the optimum piston weight. Although various aspects of the influence of piston weight on gun tunnel performance have been studied, it is not possible to decide from the existing literature what piston weight is required for optimum performance in various conditions. The technique whereby the piston is rapidly brought to rest at the end of the gun tunnel barrel, and the resulted peak pressure is equal in magnitude to the final equilibrium pressure, is called the equilibrium piston technique. The equilibrium piston technique was developed to estimate the equilibrium piston mass; but this technique cannot give an appropriate estimate for the optimum piston weight. In the present work, a gun tunnel with diameter of 3 in. is described and its performance is investigated numerically to obtain the effect of piston and its weight. Numerical results in the present work are in very good agreement with experimental results. Significant influence of the existence of a piston is shown by comparing the gun tunnel results with results of a conventional shock tunnel in the same dimension and same initial condition. In gun tunnel, an increase of around 250% in running time is gained relative to shock tunnel. Also, Numerical results show that equilibrium piston technique is not a good way to estimate suitable piston weight and there will be a lighter piston which can increase running time of the gun tunnel around 60%.

Keywords: gun tunnel, hypersonic flow, piston, shock tunnel

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651 Design & Development of a Static-Thrust Test-Bench for Aviation/UAV Based Piston Engines

Authors: Syed Muhammad Basit Ali, Usama Saleem, Irtiza Ali

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines have been pioneers in the aviation industry, use of piston engines for aircraft propulsion, from propeller-driven bi-planes to turbo-prop, commercial, and cargo airliners. To provide an adequate amount of thrust piston engine rotates the propeller at a specific rpm, allowing enough mass airflow. Thrust is the only forward-acting force of an aircraft that helps heavier than air bodies to fly, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Test-benches have been a bench-mark in the aerospace industry to analyse the results before a flight, having paramount significance in reliability and safety engineering, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Calculation of thrust from a piston engine also depends on environmental changes, the diameter of the propeller, and the density of air. The project would be centered on piston engines used in the aviation industry for light aircraft and UAVs. A static thrust test bench involves various units, each performing a designed purpose to monitor and display. Static thrust tests are performed on the ground, and safety concerns hold paramount importance. The execution of this study involves research, design, manufacturing, and results based on reverse engineering initiating from virtual design, analytical analysis, and simulations. The final evaluation of results gathered from various methods such as co-relation between conventional mass-spring and digital loadcell. On average, we received 17.5kg of thrust (25+ engine run-ups – around 40 hours of engine run), only 10% deviation from analytically calculated thrust –providing 90% accuracy.

Keywords: aviation, aeronautics, static thrust, test bench, aircraft maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
650 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari

Abstract:

An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

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649 Efficient Energy Management: A Novel Technique for Prolonged and Persistent Automotive Engine

Authors: Chakshu Baweja, Ishaan Prakash, Deepak Giri, Prithwish Mukherjee, Herambraj Ashok Nalawade

Abstract:

The need to prevent and control rampant and indiscriminate usage of energy in present-day realm on earth has motivated active research efforts aimed at understanding of controlling mechanisms leading to sustained energy. Although much has been done but complexity of the problem has prevented a complete understanding due to nonlinear interaction between flow, heat and mass transfer in terrestrial environment. Therefore, there is need for a systematic study to clearly understand mechanisms controlling energy-spreading phenomena to increase a system’s efficiency. The present work addresses the issue of sustaining energy and proposes a devoted technique of optimizing energy in the automotive domain. The proposed method focus on utilization of the mechanical and thermal energy of an automobile IC engine by converting and storing energy due to motion of a piston in form of electrical energy. The suggested technique utilizes piston motion of the engine to generate high potential difference capable of working as a secondary power source. This is achieved by the use of a gear mechanism and a flywheel.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, energy, electromagnetic induction, efficiency, gear ratio, hybrid vehicle, engine shaft

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648 Characterization and Effect of Using Pumpkin Seeds Oil Methyl Ester (PSME) as Fuel in a LHR Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul, Ugur Ozturk

Abstract:

In order to decrease the hazardous emissions of the internal combustion engines and to improve the combustion and thermal efficiency, thermal barrier coatings are applied. In this experimental study, cylinder, piston, exhaust, and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material, and this earned the engine LHR feature. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) was produced by the transesterification method. In addition, dimethoxymethane additive materials were used to improve the properties of diesel fuel, pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) and its mixture. Dimethoxymethane was blended with test fuels, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 4% and 8%. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's CO, HC, and smoke density values decreased; but, NOx and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increased.

Keywords: boriding, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
647 Experimental Investigation on Effect of the Zirconium + Magnesium Coating of the Piston and Valve of the Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine to the Engine Performance and Emission

Authors: Erdinç Vural, Bülent Özdalyan, Serkan Özel

Abstract:

The four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine has been used in this study, the pistons and valves of the engine have been stabilized, the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in different ratios has been added in the power of zirconium (ZrO2) magnesium oxide (MgO), and has been coated with the plasma spray method. The pistons and valves of the combustion chamber of the engine are coated with 5 different (ZrO2 + MgO), (ZrO2 + MgO + 25% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 75% Al2O3), (Al2O3) sample. The material tests have been made for each of the coated engine parts with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Cu Kα radiation surface analysis methods. The engine tests have been repeated for each sample in any electric dynamometer in full power 1600 rpm, 2000 rpm, 2400 rpm and 2800 rpm engine speeds. The material analysis and engine tests have shown that the best performance has been performed with (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3). Thus, there is no significant change in HC and Smoke emissions, but NOx emission is increased, as the engine improves power, torque, specific fuel consumption and CO emissions in the tests made with sample A3.

Keywords: ceramic coating, material characterization, engine performance, exhaust emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
646 Numerical Analysis of Charge Exchange in an Opposed-Piston Engine

Authors: Zbigniew Czyż, Adam Majczak, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

The paper presents a description of geometric models, computational algorithms, and results of numerical analyses of charge exchange in a two-stroke opposed-piston engine. The research engine was a newly designed internal Diesel engine. The unit is characterized by three cylinders in which three pairs of opposed-pistons operate. The engine will generate a power output equal to 100 kW at a crankshaft rotation speed of 3800-4000 rpm. The numerical investigations were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT solver. Numerical research, in contrast to experimental research, allows us to validate project assumptions and avoid costly prototype preparation for experimental tests. This makes it possible to optimize the geometrical model in countless variants with no production costs. The geometrical model includes an intake manifold, a cylinder, and an outlet manifold. The study was conducted for a series of modifications of manifolds and intake and exhaust ports to optimize the charge exchange process in the engine. The calculations specified a swirl coefficient obtained under stationary conditions for a full opening of intake and exhaust ports as well as a CA value of 280° for all cylinders. In addition, mass flow rates were identified separately in all of the intake and exhaust ports to achieve the best possible uniformity of flow in the individual cylinders. For the models under consideration, velocity, pressure and streamline contours were generated in important cross sections. The developed models are designed primarily to minimize the flow drag through the intake and exhaust ports while the mass flow rate increases. Firstly, in order to calculate the swirl ratio [-], tangential velocity v [m/s] and then angular velocity ω [rad / s] with respect to the charge as the mean of each element were calculated. The paper contains comparative analyses of all the intake and exhaust manifolds of the designed engine. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, engine swirl, fluid mechanics, mass flow rates, numerical analysis, opposed-piston engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
645 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Marcin Szlachetka, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: aircraft, piston engine, heat, emission

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644 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: Md. Salim Kaiser

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads, the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads

Keywords: wear, friction, gravimetric analysis, aluminium-silicon alloys, SEM, EDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
643 The Verification Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the research to verify the combustion in aircraft piston engine Asz62-IR. This engine was modernized and a type of ignition system was developed. Due to the high costs of experiments of a nine-cylinder 1,000 hp aircraft engine, a simulation technique should be applied. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics to simulate the combustion process is a reasonable solution. Accordingly, the tests for varied ignition advance angles were carried out and the optimal value to be tested on a real engine was specified. The CFD model was created with the AVL Fire software. The engine in the research had two spark plugs for each cylinder and ignition advance angles had to be set up separately for each spark. The results of the simulation were verified by comparing the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of the indicated pressure of the engine mounted on a test stand were compared. The real course of pressure was measured with an optical sensor, mounted in a specially drilled hole between the valves. It was the OPTRAND pressure sensor, which was designed especially to engine combustion process research. The indicated pressure was measured in cylinder no 3. The engine was running at take-off power. The engine was loaded by a propeller at a special test bench. The verification of the CFD simulation results was based on the results of the test bench studies. The course of the simulated pressure obtained is within the measurement error of the optical sensor. This error is 1% and reflects the hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor. The real indicated pressure measured in the cylinder and the pressure taken from the simulation were compared. It can be claimed that the verification of CFD simulations based on the pressure is a success. The next step was to research on the impact of changing the ignition advance timing of spark plugs 1 and 2 on a combustion process. Moving ignition timing between 1 and 2 spark plug results in a longer and uneven firing of a mixture. The most optimal point in terms of indicated power occurs when ignition is simultaneous for both spark plugs, but so severely separated ignitions are assured that ignition will occur at all speeds and loads of engine. It should be confirmed by a bench experiment of the engine. However, this simulation research enabled us to determine the optimal ignition advance angle to be implemented into the ignition control system. This knowledge allows us to set up the ignition point with two spark plugs to achieve as large power as possible.

Keywords: CFD model, combustion, engine, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
642 Modeling of Combustion Process in the Piston Aircraft Engine Using a MCFM-3Z Model

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Konrad Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Modeling of a combustion process in a 9-cylinder aircraft engine is presented. The simulations of the combustion process in the IC engine have provided the information on the spatial and time distributions of selected quantities within the combustion chamber of the engine. The numerical analysis results have been compared with the results of indication process of the engine on the test stand. Modeling of combustion process an auto-ignited IC engine in the AVL Fire was carried out within the study. For the calculations, a ECFM-3Z model was used. Verification of simulation results was carried out by comparison of the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of indicated pressure, obtained from the simulations and during the engine tests mounted on a test stand were compared. The engine was braked by the propeller, which results in an adequate external power characteristics. The test object is a modified ASz-62IR engine with the injection system. The engine was running at take-off power. To check the optimum ignition timing regarding power, calculations, tests were performed for 7 different moments of ignition. The analyses of temperature distribution in the cylinder depending on the moments of ignition were carried out. Additional the course of pressure in the cylinder at different angles of ignition delays of the second spark plug were examined. The swirling of the mixture in the combustion chamber was also analysed. It has been shown that the largest vortexes occur in the middle of the chamber, and gets smaller, closer to the combustion chamber walls. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, internal combustion engine, aircraft engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
641 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: G. Barański, P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker

Abstract:

The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
640 Operation Cycle Model of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Duk, L. Grabowski, P. Magryta

Abstract:

Today's very important element relating to air transport is the environment impact issues. Nowadays there are no emissions standards for turbine and piston engines used in air transport. However, it should be noticed that the environmental effect in the form of exhaust gases from aircraft engines should be as small as possible. For this purpose, R&D centers often use special software to simulate and to estimate the negative effect of engine working process. For cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology and the Polish aviation company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A., to achieve more effective operation of the ASz62IR engine, one of such tools have been used. The AVL Boost software allows to perform 1D simulations of combustion process of piston engines. ASz62IR is a nine-cylinder aircraft engine in a radial configuration. In order to analyze the impact of its working process on the environment, the mathematical model in the AVL Boost software have been made. This model contains, among others, model of the operation cycle of the cylinders. This model was based on a volume change in combustion chamber according to the reciprocating movement of a piston. The simplifications that all of the pistons move identically was assumed. The changes in cylinder volume during an operating cycle were specified. Those changes were important to determine the energy balance of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine which is fundamental for a model of the operating cycle. The calculations for cylinder thermodynamic state were based on the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the mass in the cylinder was calculated from the sum of inflowing and outflowing masses including: cylinder internal energy, heat from the fuel, heat losses, mass in cylinder, cylinder pressure and volume, blowdown enthalpy, evaporation heat etc. The model assumed that the amount of heat released in combustion process was calculated from the pace of combustion, using Vibe model. For gas exchange, it was also important to consider heat transfer in inlet and outlet channels because of much higher values there than for flow in a straight pipe. This results from high values of heat exchange coefficients and temperature coefficients near valves and valve seats. A Zapf modified model of heat exchange was used. To use the model with the flight scenarios, the impact of flight altitude on engine performance has been analyze. It was assumed that the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet correspond to the values resulting from the model for International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Comparing this model of operation cycle with the others submodels of the ASz62IR engine, it could be noticed, that a full analysis of the performance of the engine, according to the ISA conditions, can be made. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, operation cycle, aircraft engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
639 Diesel Engine Performance Optimization to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions Issues

Authors: hadi kargar, bahador shabani

Abstract:

In this article, 16 cylinder motor combustion CFD modeling with a diameter of 165 mm and 195 mm along the way to help the FIRE software to optimize its function to work. A three-dimensional model of the processes that formed inside the cylinder made that involves mixing the fuel and air, ignition and spraying. In this three-dimensional model, all chemical species, density of air fuel spraying and spray with full profile intended to detailed results from mixing the fuel and air, igniting the ignition advance, spray, and mixed media in different times and get fit by moving the piston. Optimal selection of the model for the shape of the piston and spraying fuel specifications (including the management of spraying, the number of azhneh hole, start time of spraying and spraying angle) to achieve the best fuel consumption and minimal pollution. The spray hole 6 and 7 in three different configurations with five spraying and gives the best geometry and various performances in the simulation. 6 hole spray angle, finally spraying 72.5 degrees and two forms of spraying a better performance in comparison with other items of their own.

Keywords: spray, FIRE, CFD, optimize, diesel engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 298