Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Sumit Roy

29 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

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28 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri, Sumit Roy

Abstract:

The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: coconut oil, alternative fuel, emissions, dual-fuel

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27 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

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26 A Conglomerate of Multiple Optical Character Recognition Table Detection and Extraction

Authors: Smita Pallavi, Raj Ratn Pranesh, Sumit Kumar

Abstract:

Information representation as tables is compact and concise method that eases searching, indexing, and storage requirements. Extracting and cloning tables from parsable documents is easier and widely used; however, industry still faces challenges in detecting and extracting tables from OCR (Optical Character Recognition) documents or images. This paper proposes an algorithm that detects and extracts multiple tables from OCR document. The algorithm uses a combination of image processing techniques, text recognition, and procedural coding to identify distinct tables in the same image and map the text to appropriate the corresponding cell in dataframe, which can be stored as comma-separated values, database, excel, and multiple other usable formats.

Keywords: table extraction, optical character recognition, image processing, text extraction, morphological transformation

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25 Stock Price Prediction Using Time Series Algorithms

Authors: Sumit Sen, Sohan Khedekar, Umang Shinde, Shivam Bhargava

Abstract:

This study has been undertaken to investigate whether the deep learning models are able to predict the future stock prices by training the model with the historical stock price data. Since this work required time series analysis, various models are present today to perform time series analysis such as Recurrent Neural Network LSTM, ARIMA and Facebook Prophet. Applying these models the movement of stock price of stocks are predicted and also tried to provide the future prediction of the stock price of a stock. Final product will be a stock price prediction web application that is developed for providing the user the ease of analysis of the stocks and will also provide the predicted stock price for the next seven days.

Keywords: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, Deep Learning, Long Short Term Memory, Time-series

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24 Ologen Collagen Matrix Implant in Uveitis Induced Glaucoma with Temporal Trabeculectomy

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

Abstract:

Temporal trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant was done in a 66-year-old lady with uveitic glaucoma. Serial IOP measurement was done to assess the efficacy of ologen implant in uveitic glaucoma. The patient had an IOP of 4mmhg day 1 postoperatively and Ologen implant was in place with a well-formed bleb. On follow up patient had an IOP of 14mmhg and unaided visual acuity of 6/12 on day 10 postoperatively. After 12 weeks of Trabeculectomy with Ologen implant, the IOP of the patient was 14 mmHg, the vision was 6/6 with -1.25 DS and -1.25 DC at 90 degrees. Trabeculectomy performed in patients with uveitic glaucoma has a higher chance of failure due to increased inflammation and fibrosis. Trabeculectomy with ologen implant done in a patient of uveitic glaucoma provides excellent postoperative results and the patient has a well-controlled IOP even after 56 weeks of surgery and a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6. Trabeculectomy with the ologen implant is superior to other surgeries in cases of secondary glaucoma with increased inflammation.

Keywords: glaucoma surgery, ologen implant, temporal trabeculectomy, uveitic glaucoma

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23 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

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22 Rayleigh Wave Propagation in an Orthotropic Medium under the Influence of Exponentially Varying Inhomogeneities

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishwakarma

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of inhomogeneity associated with the elastic constants and density of the orthotropic medium. The inhomogeneity is considered as exponential function of depth. The impact of gravity had been discussed. Using the concept of separation of variables, the system of a partial differential equation (equation of motion) has been converted into ordinary differential equation, which is coupled in nature. It further reduces to a biquadratic equation whose roots were found by using MATLAB. A suitable boundary condition is employed to derive the dispersion equation in a closed-form. Numerical simulations had been performed to show the influence of the inhomogeneity parameter. It was observed that as the numerical values of increases, the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves decreases at a particular wavenumber. Graphical illustrations were drawn to visualize the effect of the increasing and decreasing values of the inhomogeneity parameter. It can be concluded that it has a remarkable bearing on the phase velocity as well as damping velocity.

Keywords: Rayleigh waves, orthotropic medium, gravity field, inhomogeneity

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21 Paratransit as Tool for Peri-Urban Connectivity: A Comparative Case Study of Indore and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Sumit Rahangdale

Abstract:

This research paper is a comparative study of two BRTS cities of Madhya Pradesh (INDIA), Bhopal and Indore. Indore is the largest and most populous city of Madhya Pradesh, with heavy traffic, while Bhopal though being the capital of Madhya Pradesh is comparatively less developed and shows less traffic The cities show similarity in case of peri-urban nature, but variation is observed in transportation fare, where Indore has been able to reduce it but Bhopal couldn’t, one of the reason for it is the para-transit services. Indore can be considered as a successful model due to the low fares and can be implemented in other parts of the city. The research paper tries to identify relation of para-transit services with the peri-urban connectivity and provide a solution for the Bhopal case study.

Keywords: demand-supply-fare relationship, mobility and accessibility, paratransit, peri-urban connectivity

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20 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda

Abstract:

The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

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19 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh

Abstract:

Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

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18 Effects of Stiffness on Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Forough Ataollahi, Sumit Pramanik, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Wan Abu Bakar Bin Wan Abas, Noor Azuan Bin Abu Osman

Abstract:

Endothelium proliferation is an important process in cardiovascular homeostasis and can be regulated by extracellular environment, as cells can actively sense mechanical environment. In this study, we evaluated endothelial cell proliferation on PDMS/alumina (Al2O3) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 5% and 10% Al2O3 at curing temperature 50˚C for 4 h and then characterized by mechanical, structural and morphological analyses. Higher stiffness was found in the composites compared to the pure PDMS substrate. Cell proliferation of the cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells on substrate materials were evaluated via Resazurin assay and 1, 1’-Dioctadecyl-1, 3, 3, 3’, 3’-Tetramethylindocarbocyanine Perchlorate-Acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The results revealed that stiffer substrates promote more endothelial cells proliferation to the less stiff substrates. Therefore, this study firmly hypothesizes that the stiffness elevates endothelial cells proliferation.

Keywords: stiffness, proliferation, bovine aortic endothelial cells, extra cellular matrix, vascular

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17 Analysing Implementation of Best Practices in Construction Contracts for Dispute Avoidance

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

Abstract:

Disputes and litigation are becoming inherent to the construction industry in India, and despite construction being one of the major drivers of growth, there have not been many reforms in the government construction contracts. Many of the disputes arising from the government contracts, can be avoided by the proper drafting of contracts and their administration. This study aims to 1) identify the best practices in the construction contract as reviewed from the research papers and additional literature on contract management, 2) obtain perspectives from the industry experts on the implementation of these best practices with regards to likely challenges and relative benefits for implementing the best practices in construction contracts. The best practices for disputes arising due to delay events have been identified through extensive literature survey. The industry perspective is gathered by way of a questionnaire survey to understand the applicability of the identified best practices, the benefits that are likely to be obtained and the challenges that are likely to be faced in the implementation of these practices. The study concludes with the recommended best practices that can be implemented based on the perspectives obtained from the survey. The findings of the study can be used by the industry professionals while drafting construction contracts with a view to avoid disputes related to delay events.

Keywords: best practices, construction contract, delay, dispute avoidance

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16 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Keywords: compound parabolic concentrator, energy, photovoltaic thermal, temperature dependent electrical efficiency

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15 Identifying Reforms Required in Construction Contracts from Resolved Disputed Cases

Authors: K. C. Iyer, Yogita Manan Bindal, Sumit Kumar Bakshi

Abstract:

The construction industry is plagued with disputes and litigation in India with many stalled projects seeking dispute resolution. This has an adverse effect on the performance and overall project delivery and impacts future investments within the industry. While construction industry is the major driver of growth, there has not been major reforms in the government construction contracts. The study is aimed at identifying the proactive means of dispute avoidance, focusing on reforms required within the construction contracts, by studying 49 arbitration awards of construction disputes. The claims presented in the awards are aggregated to study the causes linked to the contract document and are referred against the prospective recommendation and practices as surveyed from literature review of research papers. Within contract administration, record keeping has been a major concern as they are required by the parties to substantiate the claims or the counterclaims and therefore are essential in any dispute redressal process. The study also observes that the right judgment is inhibited when the record keeping is improper and due to lack of coherence between documents, the dispute resolution period is also prolonged. The finding of the research will be relevant to industry practitioners in contract drafting with a view to avoid disputes.

Keywords: construction contract, contract administration, contract management, dispute avoidance

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14 A Hybrid Data Mining Algorithm Based System for Intelligent Defence Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling

Authors: Shivam Dwivedi, Sumit Prakash Gupta, Durga Toshniwal

Abstract:

It is a challenging task in today’s date to keep defence forces in the highest state of combat readiness with budgetary constraints. A huge amount of time and money is squandered in the unnecessary and expensive traditional maintenance activities. To overcome this limitation Defence Intelligent Mission Readiness and Maintenance Scheduling System has been proposed, which ameliorates the maintenance system by diagnosing the condition and predicting the maintenance requirements. Based on new data mining algorithms, this system intelligently optimises mission readiness for imminent operations and maintenance scheduling in repair echelons. With modified data mining algorithms such as Weighted Feature Ranking Genetic Algorithm and SVM-Random Forest Linear ensemble, it improves the reliability, availability and safety, alongside reducing maintenance cost and Equipment Out of Action (EOA) time. The results clearly conclude that the introduced algorithms have an edge over the conventional data mining algorithms. The system utilizing the intelligent condition-based maintenance approach improves the operational and maintenance decision strategy of the defence force.

Keywords: condition based maintenance, data mining, defence maintenance, ensemble, genetic algorithms, maintenance scheduling, mission capability

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13 Rathke’s Cleft Cyst Presenting as Unilateral Visual Field Defect

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

Abstract:

A Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size from 2 to 40mm in diameter. A 38-year-old male presented to the outpatient department with loss of vision in the inferior quadrant of the left eye since 15 days. Visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/9 in the left eye. Visual field analysis by HFA-24-2 revealed an inferior field defect extending to the supero-temporal quadrant in the left eye. MRI brain and orbit was advised to the patient and it revealed a well defined cystic pituitary adenoma indenting left optic nerve near optic chiasm consistent with the diagnosis of Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to neurosurgery department for further management. Symptoms vary greatly between individuals having RCCs. RCCs can be non-functioning, functioning, or both. Besides headaches, neurocognitive deficits are almost always present but have a high rate of immediate reversal if the cyst is properly treated or drained.

Keywords: pituitary tumors, rathke’s cleft cyst, visual field defects, vision loss

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12 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari

Abstract:

The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

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11 Forensic Necropsy-Importance in Wildlife Conservation

Authors: G. V. Sai Soumya, Kalpesh Solanki, Sumit K. Choudhary

Abstract:

Necropsy is another term used for an autopsy, which is known as death examination in the case of animals. It is a complete standardized procedure involving dissection, observation, interpretation, and documentation. Government Bodies like National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) have given standard operating procedures for commencing the necropsies. Necropsies are rarely performed as compared to autopsies performed on human bodies. There are no databases which maintain the count of autopsies in wildlife, but the research in this area has shown a very small number of necropsies. Long back, wildlife forensics came into existence but is coming into light nowadays as there is an increase in wildlife crime cases, including the smuggling of trophies, pooching, and many more. Physical examination in cases of animals is not sufficient to yield fruitful information, and thus postmortem examination plays an important role. Postmortem examination helps in the determination of time since death, cause of death, manner of death, factors affecting the case under investigation, and thus decreases the amount of time required in solving cases. Increasing the rate of necropsies will help forensic veterinary pathologists to build standardized provision and confidence within them, which will ultimately yield a higher success rate in solving wildlife crime cases.

Keywords: necropsy, wildlife crime, postmortem examination, forensic application

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10 talk2all: A Revolutionary Tool for International Medical Tourism

Authors: Madhukar Kasarla, Sumit Fogla, Kiran Panuganti, Gaurav Jain, Abhijit Ramanujam, Astha Jain, Shashank Kraleti, Sharat Musham, Arun Chaudhury

Abstract:

Patients have often chosen to travel for care — making pilgrimages to academic meccas and state-of-the-art hospitals for sophisticated surgery. This culture is still persistent in the landscape of US healthcare, with hundred thousand of visitors coming to the shores of United States to seek the high quality of medical care. One of the major challenges in this form of medical tourism has been the language barrier. Thus, an Iraqi patient, with immediate needs of communicating the healthcare needs to the treating team in the hospital, may face huge barrier in effective patient-doctor communication, delaying care and even at times reducing the quality. To circumvent these challenges, we are proposing the use of a state-of-the-art tool, Talk2All, which can translate nearly one hundred international languages (and even sign language) in real time. The tool is an easy to download app and highly user friendly. It builds on machine learning principles to decode different languages in real time. We suggest that the use of Talk2All will tremendously enhance communication in the hospital setting, effectively breaking the language barrier. We propose that vigorous incorporation of Talk2All shall overcome practical challenges in international medical and surgical tourism.

Keywords: language translation, communication, machine learning, medical tourism

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9 Establishment of Landslide Warning System Using Surface or Sub-Surface Sensors Data

Authors: Neetu Tyagi, Sumit Sharma

Abstract:

The study illustrates the results of an integrated study done on Tangni landslide located on NH-58 at Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Geological, geo-morphological and geotechnical investigations were carried out to understand the mechanism of landslide and to plan further investigation and monitoring. At any rate, the movements were favored by continuous rainfall water infiltration from the zones where the phyllites/slates and Dolomites outcrop. The site investigations were carried out including the monitoring of landslide movements and of the water level fluctuations due to rainfall give us a better understanding of landslide dynamics that have been causing in time soil instability at Tangni landslide site. The Early Warning System (EWS) installed different types of sensors and all sensors were directly connected to data logger and raw data transfer to the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) server room with the help of File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The slip surfaces were found at depths ranging from 8 to 10 m from Geophysical survey and hence sensors were installed to the depth of 15m at various locations of landslide. Rainfall is the main triggering factor of landslide. In this study, the developed model of unsaturated soil slope stability is carried out. The analysis of sensors data available for one year, indicated the sliding surface of landslide at depth between 6 to 12m with total displacement up to 6cm per year recorded at the body of landslide. The aim of this study is to set the threshold and generate early warning. Local peoples already alert towards landslide, if they have any types of warning system.

Keywords: early warning system, file transfer protocol, geo-morphological, geotechnical, landslide

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
8 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

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7 The Effect of Geographical Differentials of Epidemiological Transition on Health-Seeking Behavior in India

Authors: Sumit Kumar Das, Laishram Ladusingh

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the differential of epidemiological transition across fifteen agro-climatic zones of India and its effect on health-seeking behavior. Data and Methods: Unit level data on consumption expenditure on health of India from three decadal rounds conducted by National Sample Survey Organization are used for the analysis. These three rounds are 52nd (1995-96), 60th (2004-05) and 71st (2014-15). The age-adjusted prevalence rate for communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases are estimated for fifteen agro-climatic zones of India for three time periods. Bivariate analysis is used to find out determinants of health-seeking behavior. Multilevel logistic regression is used to examine factors effecting on household health-seeking behavior. Result: The prevalence of communicable diseases is increasing in most of the zones of India. Every South Indian zones, Gujarat plains, and lower Gangetic plain are facing the severe attack of dual burden of diseases. Demand for medical advice has increased in southern zones, and east zones, reliance on private healthcare facilities are increasing in most of the zone. Demographic characteristics of the household head have a significant impact on health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: Proper program implementation is required considering the disease prevalence and differential in the pattern of health seeking behavior. Along with initiation and strengthening of programs for non-communicable, existing programs for communicable diseases need to monitor and supervised strictly.

Keywords: agro-climatic zone, epidemiological transition, health-seeking behavior, multilevel regression

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6 Drilling Quantification and Bioactivity of Machinable Hydroxyapatite : Yttrium phosphate Bioceramic Composite

Authors: Rupita Ghosh, Ritwik Sarkar, Sumit K. Pal, Soumitra Paul

Abstract:

The use of Hydroxyapatite bioceramics as restorative implants is widely known. These materials can be manufactured by pressing and sintering route to a particular shape. However machining processes are still a basic requirement to give a near net shape to those implants for ensuring dimensional and geometrical accuracy. In this context, optimising the machining parameters is an important factor to understand the machinability of the materials and to reduce the production cost. In the present study a method has been optimized to produce true particulate drilled composite of Hydroxyapatite Yttrium Phosphate. The phosphates are used in varying ratio for a comparative study on the effect of flexural strength, hardness, machining (drilling) parameters and bioactivity.. The maximum flexural strength and hardness of the composite that could be attained are 46.07 MPa and 1.02 GPa respectively. Drilling is done with a conventional radial drilling machine aided with dynamometer with high speed steel (HSS) and solid carbide (SC) drills. The effect of variation in drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed), cutting tool, batch composition on torque, thrust force and tool wear are studied. It is observed that the thrust force and torque varies greatly with the increase in the speed, feed and yttrium phosphate content in the composite. Significant differences in the thrust and torque are noticed due to the change of the drills as well. Bioactivity study is done in simulated body fluid (SBF) upto 28 days. The growth of the bone like apatite has become denser with the increase in the number of days for all the composition of the composites and it is comparable to that of the pure hydroxyapatite.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Drilling, Hydroxyapatite, Yttrium Phosphate

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5 Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis for Safety at Road Crossing at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy

Abstract:

A clear understanding of pedestrian behaviour at road crossing at intersections is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at any intersection. Pedestrian road crossing behaviour is studied at Motijheel and Kakrail intersections where Motijheel intersection is a controlled roundabout, and Kakrail intersection is a signalized intersection. Around 60 people at each intersection were interviewed for a questionnaire survey and video recording at different time of a day was done for observation at each intersection. In case of Motijeel intersection, we got pedestrian road crossings were much higher than Kakrail intersection. It is because the number of workplaces here is higher than Kakrail. From questionnaire survey, it is found that 80% of pedestrians crosses at intersection to avail buses and their loading and unloading locations are at intersection, whereas at Kakrail intersection only 25% pedestrian crosses the road for buses as buses do not slow down here. At Motijheel intersection 25 to 40% of pedestrians choose to jump over the barricade for crossing instead of using overbridge for saving time and labour. On the other hand, the pedestrians using overbridge told that they use overbridge for safety. Moreover, pedestrian crosses at the same pace for both red and green interval with vehicle movement in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 km/h and gaps between vehicle were more than 4 m. Here pedestrian crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. In Kakrail intersection the road crossing situation can be classified into 4 categories. In case of red time, pedestrians do not wait to cross the road, and crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 5.4 to 7.4 km/h, and gaps between vehicle vary from 1.5 to 2 m, most of the pedestrians initially choose to wait and try to cross the road in group with crossing speed 2.7 to 3.5 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 10.8 to 18 km/h, and gaps between vehicles varies from 2 to 3 m most of the people waits and cross the road in group with crossing speed 3.5 to 5.4 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 25.2 to 32.4 km/h and gaps between vehicles vary from 4 to 6 m most of the pedestrians choose to wait until red time. In Kakrail intersection 87% of people said that they cross the road with risk and 60% of pedestrians told that it is risky to get on and off the bus at this intersection. Planned location of loading and unloading area for buses can improve the pedestrian road crossing behaviour at intersections.

Keywords: crossing speed, pedestrian behaviour, road crossing, use of overbridge

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4 Identification and Management of Septic Arthritis of the Untouched Glenohumeral Joint

Authors: Sumit Kanwar, Manisha Chand, Gregory Gilot

Abstract:

Background: Septic arthritis of the shoulder has infrequently been discussed. Focus on infection of the untouched shoulder has not heretofore been described. We present four patients with glenohumeral septic arthritis. Methods: Case 1: A 59 year old male with left shoulder pain in the anterior, posterior and superior aspects. Case 2: A 60 year old male with fever, chills, and generalized muscle aches. Case 3: A 70 year old male with right shoulder pain about the anterior and posterior aspects. Case 4: A 55 year old male with global right shoulder pain, swelling, and limited ROM. Results: In case 1, the left shoulder was affected. Physical examination, swelling was notable, there was global tenderness with a painful range of motion (ROM). The lab values indicated an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 96, and a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 304.30. Imaging studies were performed and MRI indicated a high suspicion for an abscess with osteomyelitis of the humeral head. Our second case’s left arm was affected. He had swelling, global tenderness and painful ROM. His ESR was 38, CRP was 14.9. X-ray showed severe arthritis. Case 3 differed with the right arm being affected. Again, global tenderness and painful ROM was observed. His ESR was 94, and CRP was 10.6. X-ray displayed an eroded glenoid space. Our fourth case’s right shoulder was affected. He had global tenderness and painful, limited ROM. ESR was 108 and CRP was 2.4. X-ray was non-significant. Discussion: Monoarticular septic arthritis of the virgin glenohumeral joint is seldom diagnosed in clinical practice. Common denominators include elevated ESR, painful, limited ROM, and involvement of the dominant arm. The male population is more frequently affected with an average age of 57. Septic arthritis is managed with incision and drainage or needle aspiration of synovial fluid supplemented with 3-6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Due to better irrigation and joint visualization, arthroscopy is preferred. Open surgical drainage may be indicated if the above methods fail. Conclusion: If a middle-aged male presents with vague anterior or posterior shoulder pain, elevated inflammatory markers and a low grade fever, an x-ray should be performed. If this displays degenerative joint disease, the complete further workup with advanced imaging, such as an MRI, CT scan, or an ultrasound. If these imaging modalities display anterior space joint effusion with soft tissue involvement, we can suspect septic arthritis of the untouched glenohumeral joint and surgery is indicated.

Keywords: glenohumeral joint, identification, infection, septic arthritis, shoulder

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3 Estimation of Delay Due to Loading–Unloading of Passengers by Buses and Reduction of Number of Lanes at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City

Authors: Sumit Roy, A. Uddin

Abstract:

One of the significant reasons that increase the delay time in the intersections at heterogeneous traffic condition is a sudden reduction of the capacity of the roads. In this study, the delay for this sudden capacity reduction is estimated. Two intersections at Dhaka city were brought in to thestudy, i.e., Kakrail intersection, and SAARC Foara intersection. At Kakrail intersection, the sudden reduction of capacity in the roads is seen at three downstream legs of the intersection, which are because of slowing down or stopping of buses for loading and unloading of passengers. At SAARC Foara intersection, sudden reduction of capacity was seen at two downstream legs. At one leg, it was due to loading and unloading of buses, and at another leg, it was for both loading and unloading of buses and reduction of the number of lanes. With these considerations, the delay due to intentional stoppage or slowing down of buses and reduction of the number of lanes for these two intersections are estimated. Here the delay was calculated by two approaches. The first approach came from the concept of shock waves in traffic streams. Here the delay was calculated by determining the flow, density, and speed before and after the sudden capacity reduction. The second approach came from the deterministic analysis of queues. Here the delay is calculated by determining the volume, capacity and reduced capacity of the road. After determining the delay from these two approaches, the results were compared. For this study, the video of each of the two intersections was recorded for one hour at the evening peak. Necessary geometric data were also taken to determine speed, flow, and density, etc. parameters. The delay was calculated for one hour with one-hour data at both intersections. In case of Kakrail intersection, the per hour delay for Kakrail circle leg was 5.79, and 7.15 minutes, for Shantinagar cross intersection leg they were 13.02 and 15.65 minutes, and for Paltan T intersection leg, they were 3 and 1.3 minutes for 1st and 2nd approaches respectively. In the case of SAARC Foara intersection, the delay at Shahbag leg was only due to intentional stopping or slowing down of busses, which were 3.2 and 3 minutes respectively for both approaches. For the Karwan Bazar leg, the delays for buses by both approaches were 5 and 7.5 minutes respectively, and for reduction of the number of lanes, the delays for both approaches were 2 and 1.78 minutes respectively. Measuring the delay per hour for the Kakrail leg at Kakrail circle, it is seen that, with consideration of the first approach of delay estimation, the intentional stoppage and lowering of speed by buses contribute to 26.24% of total delay at Kakrail circle. If the loading and unloading of buses at intersection is made forbidden near intersection, and any other measures for loading and unloading of passengers are established far enough from the intersections, then the delay at intersections can be reduced at significant scale, and the performance of the intersections can be enhanced.

Keywords: delay, deterministic queue analysis, shock wave, passenger loading-unloading

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2 Relocating Migration for Higher Education: Analytical Account of Students' Perspective

Authors: Sumit Kumar

Abstract:

The present study aims to identify the factors responsible for the internal migration of students other than push & pull factors; associated with the source region and destination region, respectively, as classified in classical geography. But in this classification of factors responsible for the migration of students, an agency of individual and the family he/she belongs to, have not been recognized which has later become the centre of the argument for describing and analyzing migration in New Economic theory of migration and New Economics of labour migration respectively. In this backdrop, the present study aims to understand the agency of an individual and the family members regarding one’s migration for higher education. Therefore, this study draws upon New Economic theory of migration and New Economics of labour migration for identifying the agency of individual or family in the context of migration. Further, migration for higher education consists not only the decision to migrate but also where to migrate (location), which university, which college and which course to pursue, also. In order to understand the role of various individuals at various stage of student migration, present study seeks help from the social networking approach for migration which identifies the individuals who facilitate the process of migration by reducing negative externalities of migration through sharing information and various other sorts of help to the migrant. Furthermore, this study also aims to rank those individuals who have helped migrants at various stages of migration for higher education in taking a decision, along with the factors responsible for their migration on the basis of their perception. In order to fulfill the above mentioned objectives of this study, quantification of qualitative data (perception of respondents) has been done employing through frequency distribution analysis. Qualitative data has been collected at two levels but questionnaire survey was the tool for data collection at both the occasions. Twenty five students who have migrated to other state for the purpose of higher education have been approached for pre-questionnaire survey consisting open-ended questions while one hundred students belonging to the same clientele have been approached for questionnaire survey consisting close-ended questions. This study has identified social pressure, peer group pressure and parental pressure; variables not constituting push & pull factors, very important for students’ migration. They have been even assigned better ranked by the respondents than push factors. Further, self (migrant themselves) have been ranked followed by parents by the respondents when it comes to take various decisions attached with the process of migration. Therefore, it can be said without sounding cynical that there are other factors other than push & pull factors which do facilitate the process of migration for higher education not only at the level to migrate but also at other levels intrinsic to the process of migration for higher education.

Keywords: agency, migration for higher education, perception, push and pull factors

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1 Development & Standardization of a Literacy Free Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients Post Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Ashima Nehra, Sumit Sinha, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra Mohan Pandey

Abstract:

Background: Cognitive rehabilitation aims to retrain brain injured individuals with cognitive deficits to restore or compensate lost functions. As illiterates or people with low literacy levels represent a significant proportion of the world, specific rehabilitation modules for such populations are indispensable. Literacy is significantly associated with all neuropsychological measures and retraining programs widely use written or spoken techniques which essentially require the patient to read or write. So, the aim of the study was to develop and standardize a literacy free neuropsychological rehabilitation program for improving cognitive functioning in patients with mild and moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Several studies have pointed out to the impairments seen in memory, executive functioning, and attention and concentration post-TBI, so the rehabilitation program focussed on these domains. Visual item memorization, stick constructions, symbol cancellations, and colouring techniques were used to construct the retraining program. Methodology: The development of the program consisted of planning, preparing, analyzing, and revising the different modules. The construction focussed on areas of retraining immediate and delayed visual memory, planning ability, focused and divided attention, concentration, and response inhibition (to control irritability and aggression). A total of 98 home based retraining modules were prepared in the 4 domains (42 for memory, 42 for executive functioning, 7 for attention and concentration, and 7 for response inhibition). The standardization was done on 20 healthy controls to review, select and edit items. For each module, the time, errors made and errors per second were noted down, to establish the difficulty level of each module and were arranged in increasing level of difficulty over a period of 6 weeks. The retraining tasks were then administered on 11 brain injured individuals (5 after Mild TBI and 6 after Moderate TBI). These patients were referred from the Trauma Centre to Clinical Neuropsychology OPD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Results: The time was taken, errors made and errors per second were analysed for all domains. Education levels were divided into illiterates, up to 10 years, 10 years to graduation and graduation and above. Mean and standard deviations were calculated. Between group and within group analysis was done using the t-test. The performance of 20 healthy controls was analyzed and only a significant difference was observed on the time taken for the attention tasks and all other domains had non-significant differences in performance between different education levels. Comparing the errors, time taken between patient and control group, there was a significant difference in all the domains at the 0.01 level except the errors made on executive functioning, indicating that the tool can successfully differentiate between healthy controls and patient groups. Conclusions: Apart from the time taken for symbol cancellations, the entire cognitive rehabilitation program is literacy free. As it taps the major areas of impairment post-TBI, it could be a useful tool to rehabilitate the patient population with low literacy levels across the world. The next step is already underway to test its efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in a randomized clinical controlled trial.

Keywords: cognitive rehabilitation, illiterates, India, traumatic brain injury

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