Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: adulteration

24 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
23 Static Light Scattering Method for the Analysis of Raw Cow's Milk

Authors: V. Villa-Cruz, H. Pérez-Ladron de Guevara, J. E. Diaz-Díaz

Abstract:

Static Light Scattering (SLS) was used as a method to analyse cow's milk raw, coming from the town of Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico. This method is based on the analysis of the dispersion of light laser produced by a set of particles in solution. Based on the above, raw milk, which contains particles of fat globules, with a diameter of 2000 nm and particles of micelles of protein with 300 nm in diameter were analyzed. For this, dilutions of commercial milk were made (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.3%) to obtain a pattern of laser light scattering and also made measurements of raw cow's milk. Readings were taken in a sweep initial angle 10° to 170°, results were analyzed with the program OriginPro 7. The SLS method gives us an estimate of the percentage of fat content in milk samples. It can be concluded that the SLS method, is a quick method of analysis to detect adulteration in raw cow's milk.

Keywords: light scattering, milk analysis, adulteration in milk, micelles, OriginPro

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
22 Efficiency of PCR-RFLP for the Identification of Adulteries in Meat Formulation

Authors: Hela Gargouri, Nizar Moalla, Hassen Hadj Kacem

Abstract:

Meat adulteration affecting the safety and quality of food is becoming one of the main concerns of public interest across the world. The drastic consequences on the meat industry highlighted the urgent necessity to control the products' quality and to point out the complexity of both supply and processing circuits. Due to the expansion of this problem, the authentic testing of foods, particularly meat and its products, is deemed crucial to avoid unfair market competition and to protect consumers from fraudulent practices of meat adulteration. The adoption of authentication methods by the food quality-control laboratories is becoming a priority issue. However, in some developing countries, the number of food tests is still insignificant, although a variety of processed and traditional meat products are widely consumed. Little attention has been paid to provide an easy, fast, reproducible, and low-cost molecular test, which could be conducted in a basic laboratory. In the current study, the 359 bp fragment of the cytochrome-b gene was mapped by PCR-RFLP using firstly fresh biological supports (DNA and meat) and then turkey salami as an example of commercial processed meat. This technique has been established through several optimizations, namely: the selection of restriction enzymes. The digestion with BsmAI, SspI, and TaaI succeed to identify the seven included animal species when meat is formed by individual species and when the meat is a mixture of different origin. In this study, the PCR-RFLP technique using universal primer succeed to meet our needs by providing an indirect sequencing method identifying by restriction enzymes the specificities characterizing different species on the same amplicon reducing the number of potential tests.

Keywords: adulteration, animal species, authentication, meat, mtDNA, PCR-RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
21 Performance of an Automotive Engine Running on Gasoline-Condensate Blends

Authors: Md. Ehsan, Cyrus Ashok Arupratan Atis

Abstract:

Significantly lower cost, bulk availability, absence of identification color additives and relative ease of mixing with fuels have made gas-field condensates a lucrative option as adulterant for gasoline in Bangladesh. Widespread adulteration of fuels with gas-field condensates being a problem existing mainly in developing countries like Bangladesh, Nigeria etc., research works regarding the effect of such fuel adulteration are very limited. Since the properties of the gas-field condensate vary widely depending on geographical location, studies need to be based on local condensate feeds. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of blending of gas-field condensates with gasoline(octane) in terms of - fuel properties, engine performance and exhaust emission. Condensate samples collected from Kailashtila gas field were blended with octane, ranging from 30% to 75% by volume. However for blends with above 60% condensate, cold starting of engine became difficult. Investigation revealed that the condensate samples had significantly higher distillation temperatures compared to octane, but were not far different in terms of heating value and carbon residues. Engine tests showed Kailashtila blends performing quite similar to octane in terms of power and thermal efficiency. No noticeable knocking was observed from in-cylinder pressure traces. For all the gasoline-condensate blends the test engine ran with relatively leaner air-fuel mixture delivering slightly lower CO emissions but HC and NOx emissions were similar to octane. Road trials of a test vehicle in real traffic condition and on a standard gradient using 50%(v/v) gasoline-condensate blend were also carried out. The test vehicle did not exhibit any noticeable difference in drivability compared to octane.

Keywords: condensates, engine performance, fuel adulteration, gasoline-condensate blends

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
20 Detection the Abundance of Chicken Skin in Hamburger in Tehran

Authors: Ghazanfari Masoumeh, Hajimohammadi Bahador, Eskandari Soheyl, Karimian Khosroshahi Nader

Abstract:

Consumption of ready to cook meat products such as hamburgers, sausages and etc is being increased in the worldwide specially in the big cities , so safety and quality required for food products is very important and vital for consumers with consideration of meat price and increasing demands for meat products, possibility of substitution of cheep and unauthorized textures such as undesirable enclosures animals (massacre, lung tissue, breast of spleen, the organs abdominal cavity, gizzard chicken, skin, etc. ) have increased in the recent years, in this study 30 industrial and 30 handmade hamburgers in fast food restaurants detected out of Iranian national standard for hamburger No. 2304 in using the unauthorized textures. The purpose of this study was to determine using of chicken skin in produced hamburgers from chicken meat in Tehran base on histology methods. The rates of skin used were, 2 % in industrial and 9 % in handmade formula samples. Statistically using the unauthorized textures had significant higher rate in handmade (P < 0.05) in compare with the industrial samples. The results showed the handmade hamburgers with higher adulteration rate and non-compliance with the hamburger national standard could be a potentially health hazard.

Keywords: histology, adulteration, unauthorized textures, undesirable enclosures animals

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
19 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams

Abstract:

Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
18 Authentication and Traceability of Meat Products from South Indian Market by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: J. U. Santhosh Kumar, V. Krishna, Sebin Sebastian, G. S. Seethapathy, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker

Abstract:

Food is one of the basic needs of human beings. It requires the normal function of the body part and a healthy growth. Recently, food adulteration increases day by day to increase the quantity and make more benefit. Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. Particularly in the meat industry, products from animals are susceptible targets for fraudulent labeling due to the economic profit that results from selling cheaper meat as meat from more profitable and desirable species. This work presents an overview of the main PCR-based techniques applied to date to verify the authenticity of beef meat and meat products from beef species. We were analyzed 25 market beef samples in South India. We examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. We found all sample were sold as beef meat as Bos Taurus. However, interestingly Male meats are more valuable high price compare to female meat, due to this reason most of the markets samples are susceptible. We were used sex determination gene of cattle like TSPY(Y-encoded, testis-specific protein TSPY is a Y-specific gene). TSPY homologs exist in several mammalian species, including humans, horses, and cattle. This gene is Y coded testis protein genes, which only amplify the male. We used multiple PCR products form species-specific “fingerprints” on gel electrophoresis, which may be useful for meat authentication. Amplicons were obtained only by the Cattle -specific PCR. We found 13 market meat samples sold as female beef samples. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of meat products.

Keywords: authentication, meat products, species-specific, TSPY

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
17 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
16 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
15 Detection of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Honey by Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

Authors: Mercedes Bertotto, Marcelo Bello, Hector Goicoechea, Veronica Fusca

Abstract:

The National Service of Agri-Food Health and Quality (SENASA), controls honey to detect contamination by synthetic or natural chemical substances and establishes and controls the traceability of the product. The utility of near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of adulteration of honey with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was investigated. First of all, a mixture of different authentic artisanal Argentinian honey was prepared to cover as much heterogeneity as possible. Then, mixtures were prepared by adding different concentrations of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to samples of the honey pool. 237 samples were used, 108 of them were authentic honey and 129 samples corresponded to honey adulterated with HFCS between 1 and 10%. They were stored unrefrigerated from time of production until scanning and were not filtered after receipt in the laboratory. Immediately prior to spectral collection, honey was incubated at 40°C overnight to dissolve any crystalline material, manually stirred to achieve homogeneity and adjusted to a standard solids content (70° Brix) with distilled water. Adulterant solutions were also adjusted to 70° Brix. Samples were measured by NIR spectroscopy in the range of 650 to 7000 cm⁻¹. The technique of specular reflectance was used, with a lens aperture range of 150 mm. Pretreatment of the spectra was performed by Standard Normal Variate (SNV). The ant colony optimization genetic algorithm sample selection (ACOGASS) graphical interface was used, using MATLAB version 5.3, to select the variables with the greatest discriminating power. The data set was divided into a validation set and a calibration set, using the Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. A combined method of Potential Functions (PF) was chosen together with Partial Least Square Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Different estimators of the predictive capacity of the model were compared, which were obtained using a decreasing number of groups, which implies more demanding validation conditions. The optimal number of latent variables was selected as the number associated with the minimum error and the smallest number of unassigned samples. Once the optimal number of latent variables was defined, we proceeded to apply the model to the training samples. With the calibrated model for the training samples, we proceeded to study the validation samples. The calibrated model that combines the potential function methods and PLSDA can be considered reliable and stable since its performance in future samples is expected to be comparable to that achieved for the training samples. By use of Potential Functions (PF) and Partial Least Square Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) classification, authentic honey and honey adulterated with HFCS could be identified with a correct classification rate of 97.9%. The results showed that NIR in combination with the PT and PLS-DS methods can be a simple, fast and low-cost technique for the detection of HFCS in honey with high sensitivity and power of discrimination.

Keywords: adulteration, multivariate analysis, potential functions, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
14 Colorimetric Detection of Melamine in Milk Sample by Using In-Situ Formed Silver Nanoparticles by Tannic Acid

Authors: Md Fazle Alam, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Hina Younus

Abstract:

Melamine toxicity which causes renal failure and death of humans and animals have recently attracted worldwide attention. Developing an easy, fast and sensitive method for the routine melamine detection is the need of the hour. Herein, we have developed a rapid, sensitive, one step and selective colorimetric method for the detection of melamine in milk samples based upon in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via tannic acid at room temperature. These AgNPs thus formed were characterized by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), zetasizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Under optimal conditions, melamine could be selectively detected within the concentration range of 0.05-1.4 µM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10.1 nM, which is lower than the strictest melamine safety requirement of 1 ppm. This assay does not utilize organic cosolvents, enzymatic reactions, light sensitive dye molecules and sophisticated instrumentation, thereby overcoming some of the limitations of conventional methods.

Keywords: milk adulteration, melamine, silver nanoparticles, tannic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
13 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar

Abstract:

Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal, and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
12 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Country, Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar

Abstract:

Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
11 Analytical Authentication of Butter Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics

Authors: M. Bodner, M. Scampicchio

Abstract:

Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to distinguish between butter samples and non-butter samples. Further, quantification of the content of margarine in adulterated butter samples was investigated. Fingerprinting region (1400-800 cm–1) was used to develop unsupervised pattern recognition (Principal Component Analysis, PCA), supervised modeling (Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy, SIMCA), classification (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA) and regression (Partial Least Squares Regression, PLS-R) models. PCA of the fingerprinting region shows a clustering of the two sample types. All samples were classified in their rightful class by SIMCA approach; however, nine adulterated samples (between 1% and 30% w/w of margarine) were classified as belonging both at the butter class and at the non-butter one. In the two-class PLS-DA model’s (R2 = 0.73, RMSEP, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction = 0.26% w/w) sensitivity was 71.4% and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100%. Its threshold was calculated at 7% w/w of margarine in adulterated butter samples. Finally, PLS-R model (R2 = 0.84, RMSEP = 16.54%) was developed. PLS-DA was a suitable classification tool and PLS-R a proper quantification approach. Results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with PLS-R can be used as a rapid, simple and safe method to identify pure butter samples from adulterated ones and to determine the grade of adulteration of margarine in butter samples.

Keywords: adulterated butter, margarine, PCA, PLS-DA, PLS-R, SIMCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
10 Clarification of Taxonomic Confusions among Adulterated Drugs Coffee Seena and Seena Weed through Systematic and Pharmaceutical Markers

Authors: Shabnum Shaheen, Nida Haroon, Farah Khan, Sumera Javad, Mehreen Jalal, Samina Sarwar

Abstract:

Coffee Senna is pharmaceutically very important and used for multiple health disorders such as gastric pains, indigestion, snakebites, asthma and fever, tuberculosis and menstrual problems. However, its immense medicinal value and great demand lead to adulteration issue which could be injurious for users. Some times its adulterant Seena weed (Senna occidentalis L.) is used as its substitute which definitely not as effective as Coffee Senna. Hence, the present study was undertaken to provide some tools for systematic and pharmaceutical authentication of a shrubby plant Coffee Senna (Cassia occidentalis Linn.). These parameters included macro and micro morphological characters, anatomical and palynomorph characterization, solubility, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis. By the application of these parameters acquired results revealed that, these two plants are distinct from each other. The Coffee Seena was found to be an annual shrub with trilobed pollen, diacytic, paracytic and anisocytic stomata whereas the Seena weed stands out as an annual or perennial herb with spheroidal and circular pollen and paracytic type of stomata. The powdered drug of Coffee seena is dark grayish green whereas the powdered drug of Seena weed is light green in color. These findings are constructive in authentic identification of these plants.

Keywords: coffee senna, Senna weed, taxonomic evaluation, pharmaceutical markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
9 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Xiaohua Wang, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Jie Wang, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu

Abstract:

Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.

Keywords: 1H NMR, multivariate analysis, organic, conventional, 13C isotopic ratio, soy sauce

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8 Duplex Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Beef and Pork

Authors: Mi-Ju Kim, Hae-Yeong Kim

Abstract:

Product mislabeling and adulteration have been increasing the concerns in processed meat products. Relatively inexpensive pork meat compared to meat such as beef was adulterated for economic benefit. These food fraud incidents related to pork were concerned due to economic, religious and health reasons. In this study, a rapid on-site detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed for the simultaneous identification of beef and pork. Each specific LAMP primer for beef and pork was designed targeting on mitochondrial D-loop region. The LAMP assay reaction was performed at 65 ℃ for 40 min. The specificity of each primer for beef and pork was evaluated using DNAs extracted from 13 animal species including beef and pork. The sensitivity of duplex LAMP assay was examined by serial dilution of beef and pork DNAs, and reference binary mixtures. This assay was applied to processed meat products including beef and pork meat for monitoring. Each set of primers amplified only the targeted species with no cross-reactivity with animal species. The limit of detection of duplex real-time LAMP was 1 pg for each DNA of beef and pork and 1% pork in a beef-meat mixture. Commercial meat products that declared the presence of beef and/or pork meat on the label showed positive results for those species. This method was successfully applied to detect simultaneous beef and pork meats in processed meat products. The optimized duplex LAMP assay can identify simultaneously beef and pork meat within less than 40 min. A portable real-time fluorescence device used in this study is applicable for on-site detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Thus, this developed assay was considered to be an efficient tool for monitoring meat products.

Keywords: beef, duplex real-time LAMP, meat identification, pork

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
7 Social Medical Club: A Social Business Policy to Ensure Quality Health Services to the Underprivileged Areas of Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Hasan Al Banna, Nazmus Sakib, Anjan Roy

Abstract:

From the perspective of the underdeveloped countries such as Bangladesh, health issue can readily be pointed out as the most demanding but the least promoted concern due to lack of initiatives from both government and NGOs. Furthermore an worldwide scenario is that most death and suffering from various pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases occur due to delay diagnosis, and this happen for the lacking of regular health check-up facility or tradition. In this epistle, an innovative proposal on social business can be introduced to ensure the one-stop medical facility to the door-step of the rural society and create jobs for the educated rural youths to serve their own people. To illustrate the policy, this newly proposed organization will work as a health club which will offer a life-time membership to villagers within a very affordable fee of 250 BDT (2.63 Euro) per month. In this package the members will get the facility of tri-monthly full health check-up by specialist doctors, a health record book and computerized health database for each member and anytime medical consultancy for the members only. We will also organize free medical campaign and workshops on nutrition, sanitation, adulteration, pregnancy-care, child-health etc with the assistance of different sponsors. Among other services that will be provided on payment include emergency ambulance facility in low rents, quality diagnostic lab and 24-hour dispensary facility. Likewise, this policy will involve local educated people by recruiting them after providing intensive courses on nursing and other medical instrumental skills. Henceforth, the engagement of local youth will make the program more acceptable to the rural community. In the later part of this paper, a survey report on Daragram union of Manikganj district, Bangladesh, having population above 25000, will be presented to delineate the scenario how this policy can repay the initial capital expense of BDT 7 million (around 73381 Euro) within 5 years and how I can realistically earn handsome revenue from the first month of business. To recapitulate, this policy is very promising to enlighten the underprivileged community by providing health assurance, and alleviating unemployment besides the investor’s financial profit.

Keywords: create job for the rural people, handsome financial profit, quality health services, underprivileged areas of underdeveloped countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
6 Assessment of Milk Quality in Vehari: Evaluation of Public Health Concerns

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Waheed Aslam Khan, Muhammad Nadeem, Iftikhar Ahmad, Zakir Ali

Abstract:

Milk is an important and fundamental nutrition source of human diet. In Pakistan, the milk used by the consumer is of low quality and is often contaminated due to the lack of quality controls. Mycotoxins produced from molds which contaminate the agriculture commodities of animal feed. Mycotoxins are poisons which affect the animals when they consume contaminated feeds. Aflatoxin AFM1 is naturally occurring form of mycotoxins in milk which is carcinogenic. To assess public awareness regarding milk Aflatoxin contamination, a population-based survey using a questionnaire was carried out from general public and from farmers of both rural and urban areas. It was revealed from the data that people of rural area were more satisfied about quality of available milk but the awareness level about milk contamination was found lower in both areas. Total 297 samples of milk were collected from rural (n=156) and urban (n=141) areas of district Vehari during June-July 2015. Milk samples were collected from three different point sources; farmer, milkman and milkshop. These point sources had three types of dairy milk including cow milk, buffalo milk and mixed milk. After performing ELISA test 18 samples with positive ELISA results were maintain per source for further analysis for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Higher percentages of samples were found exceeding the permissible limit for urban area. In rural area about 15% samples and from urban area about 35% samples were exceeded the permissible limit of AFM1 with 0.05µg/kg set by European Union. From urban areas about 55% of buffalo, 33% of cows and 17% of mixed milk samples were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level as compared with 17%, 11% and 17% for milk samples from rural areas respectively. Samples from urban areas 33%, 44% and 28% were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level for farmer, milkman and of milk shop respectively as compared with 28% and 17% of farmer and milkman’s samples from rural areas respectively. The presence of AFM1 in milk samples demands the implementation of strict regulations and also urges the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. Regulations regarding aflatoxins contamination and adulteration should be strictly imposed to prevent health problems related to milk quality. Permissible limits for aflatoxin should be enforced strongly in Pakistan so that economic loss due to aflatoxin contamination can be reduced.

Keywords: Vehari, aflatoxins AFM1, milk, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
5 Quantification of Lawsone and Adulterants in Commercial Henna Products

Authors: Ruchi B. Semwal, Deepak K. Semwal, Thobile A. N. Nkosi, Alvaro M. Viljoen

Abstract:

The use of Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraeae), commonly known as henna, has many medicinal benefits and is used as a remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, cancer, inflammation, headache, jaundice and skin diseases in folk medicine. Although widely used for hair dyeing and temporary tattooing, henna body art has popularized over the last 15 years and changed from being a traditional bridal and festival adornment to an exotic fashion accessory. The naphthoquinone, lawsone, is one of the main constituents of the plant and responsible for its dyeing property. Henna leaves typically contain 1.8–1.9% lawsone, which is used as a marker compound for the quality control of henna products. Adulteration of henna with various toxic chemicals such as p-phenylenediamine, p-methylaminophenol, p-aminobenzene and p-toluenodiamine to produce a variety of colours, is very common and has resulted in serious health problems, including allergic reactions. This study aims to assess the quality of henna products collected from different parts of the world by determining the lawsone content, as well as the concentrations of any adulterants present. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to determine the lawsone concentrations in 172 henna products. Separation of the chemical constituents was achieved on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution (0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile). The results from UPLC-MS revealed that of 172 henna products, 11 contained 1.0-1.8% lawsone, 110 contained 0.1-0.9% lawsone, whereas 51 samples did not contain detectable levels of lawsone. High performance thin layer chromatography was investigated as a cheaper, more rapid technique for the quality control of henna in relation to the lawsone content. The samples were applied using an automatic TLC Sampler 4 (CAMAG) to pre-coated silica plates, which were subsequently developed with acetic acid, acetone and toluene (0.5: 1.0: 8.5 v/v). A Reprostar 3 digital system allowed the images to be captured. The results obtained corresponded to those from UPLC-MS analysis. Vibrational spectroscopy analysis (MIR or NIR) of the powdered henna, followed by chemometric modelling of the data, indicates that this technique shows promise as an alternative quality control method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the data by observing clustering and identifying outliers. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were constructed for the quantification of lawsone. In conclusion, only a few of the samples analysed contain lawsone in high concentrations, indicating that they are of poor quality. Currently, the presence of adulterants that may have been added to enhance the dyeing properties of the products, is being investigated.

Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, paraphenylenediamine, temporary tattooing, lawsone

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
4 Detection of Some Drugs of Abuse from Fingerprints Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ragaa T. Darwish, Maha A. Demellawy, Haidy M. Megahed, Doreen N. Younan, Wael S. Kholeif

Abstract:

The testing of drug abuse is authentic in order to affirm the misuse of drugs. Several analytical approaches have been developed for the detection of drugs of abuse in pharmaceutical and common biological samples, but few methodologies have been created to identify them from fingerprints. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) plays a major role in this field. The current study aimed at assessing the possibility of detection of some drugs of abuse (tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital) from fingerprints using LC-MS in drug abusers. The aim was extended in order to assess the possibility of detection of the above-mentioned drugs in fingerprints of drug handlers till three days of handling the drugs. The study was conducted on randomly selected adult individuals who were either drug abusers seeking treatment at centers of drug dependence in Alexandria, Egypt or normal volunteers who were asked to handle the different studied drugs (drug handlers). An informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Participants were classified into 3 groups; control group that consisted of 50 normal individuals (neither abusing nor handling drugs), drug abuser group that consisted of 30 individuals who abused tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) and drug handler group that consisted of 50 individuals who were touching either the powder of drugs of abuse: tramadol, clonazepam or phenobarbital (10 individuals for each drug) or the powder of the control substances which were of similar appearance (white powder) and that might be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse: acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (10 individuals for each drug). Samples were taken from the handler individuals for three consecutive days for the same individual. The diagnosis of drug abusers was based on the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-V) and urine screening tests using immunoassay technique. Preliminary drug screening tests of urine samples were also done for drug handlers and the control groups to indicate the presence or absence of the studied drugs of abuse. Fingerprints of all participants were then taken on a filter paper previously soaked with methanol to be analyzed by LC-MS using SCIEX Triple Quad or QTRAP 5500 System. The concentration of drugs in each sample was calculated using the regression equations between concentration in ng/ml and peak area of each reference standard. All fingerprint samples from drug abusers showed positive results with LC-MS for the tested drugs, while all samples from the control individuals showed negative results. A significant difference was noted between the concentration of the drugs and the duration of abuse. Tramadol, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were also successfully detected from fingerprints of drug handlers till 3 days of handling the drugs. The mean concentration of the chosen drugs of abuse among the handlers group decreased when the days of samples intake increased.

Keywords: drugs of abuse, fingerprints, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, tramadol

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
3 Islam and Democracy: A Paradoxical Study of Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi

Authors: Waseem Makai

Abstract:

The term ‘political Islam’ now seem to have gained the centre stage in every discourse pertaining to Islamic legitimacy and compatibility in modern civilisations. A never ceasing tradition of the philosophy of caliphate that has kept overriding the options of any alternate political institution in the Muslim world still permeates a huge faction of believers. Fully accustomed with the proliferation of changes and developments in individual, social and natural dispositions of the world, Islamic theologians retaliated to this flux through both conventional and modernist approaches. The so-called conventional approach was quintessential of the interpretations put forth by Syed Maududi, with new comprehensive, academic and powerful vigour, as never seen before. He generated the avant-garde scholarship which would bear testimony to his statements, made to uphold the political institution of Islam as supreme and noble. However, it was not his trait to challenge the established views but to codify them in such a bracket which a man of the 20th century would find captivating to his heart and satisfactory to his rationale. The delicate microcosms like selection of a caliph, implementation of Islamic commandments (Sharia), interest free banking sectors, imposing tax (Jazyah) on non-believers, waging the holy crusade (Jihad) for the expansion of Islamic boundaries, stoning for committing adulteration and capital punishment for apostates were all there in his scholarship which he spent whole of his life defending in the best possible manner. What and where did he went wrong with all this, was supposedly to be notified later, by his once been disciple, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Ghamidi is being accused of struggling between Scylla and Charybdis as he tries to remain steadfast to his basic Islamic tenets while modernising their interpretations to bring them in harmony with the Western ideals of democracy and liberty. His blatant acknowledgement of putting democracy at a high pedestal, calling the implementation of Sharia a non-mandatory task and denial to bracket people in the categories of Zimmi and Kaafir fully vindicates his stance against conventional narratives like that of Syed Maududi. Ghamidi goes to the extent of attributing current forms of radicalism and extremism, as exemplified in the operations of organisations like ISIS in Iraq and Syria and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan, to such a version of political Islam as upheld not only by Syed Maududi but by other prominent theologians like Ibn-Timyah, Syed Qutub and Dr. Israr Ahmad also. Ghamidi is wretched, in a way that his allegedly insubstantial claims gained him enough hostilities to leave his homeland when two of his close allies were brutally murdered. Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi, both stand poles apart in their understanding of Islam and its political domain. Who has the appropriate methodology, scholarship and execution in his mode of comprehension, is an intriguing task, worth carrying out in detail.

Keywords: caliphate, democracy, ghamidi, maududi

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2 Awareness of Organic Products in Bangladesh: A Marketing Perspective

Authors: Sheikh Mohammed Rafiul Huque

Abstract:

Bangladesh since its inception has been an economy that is fuelled by agriculture and agriculture has significant contribution to the GDP of Bangladesh. The agriculture of Bangladesh predominantly and historically dependent on organic sources of raw material though the place has taken in decades by inorganic sources of raw materials due to the high demand of food for rapidly growing of population. Meanwhile, a new market segment, which is niche market, has been evolving in the urban area in favor of organic products, though 71.1% population living in rural areas is dependent mainly on conventional products. The new market segment is search of healthy and safer source of food and they could believe that organic products are the solution of that. In Bangladesh, food adulteration is very common practices among the shop-keepers to extend the shelf life of raw vegetables and fruits. The niche group of city dwellers is aware about the fact and gradually shifting their buying behavior to organic products. A recent survey on organic farming revealed that 16,200 hectares under organic farming in recent time, which was only 2,500 hectares in 2008. This study is focused on consumer awareness of organic products and tried to explore the factors affecting organic food consumption among high income group of people. The hypothesis is developed to explore the effect of gender (GENDER), ability to purchase (ABILITY) and health awareness (HEALTH) on purchase intention (INTENTION). A snowball sampling was administered among the high income group of people in Dhaka city among 150 respondents. In this sampling process the study could identify only those samples who has consume organic products. A Partial Least Square (PLS) method was used to analyze data using path analysis. It was revealed from the analysis that coefficient determination R2 is 0.829 for INTENTION endogenous latent variable. This means that three latent variables (GENDER, ABILITY, and HEALTH) significantly explain 82.9% of the variance in INTENTION of purchasing organic products. Moreover, GENDER solely explains 6.3% and 8.6% variability of ABILITY and HEALTH respectively. The inner model suggests that HEALTH has strongest negative effect on INTENTION (-0.647) followed by ABILITY (0.344) and GENDER (0.246). The hypothesized path relationship between ABILITY->INTENTION, HEALTH->INTENTION and GENDER->INTENTION are statistically significant. Furthermore, the hypothesized path relationship between GENDER->ABILITY (0.262) and GENDER->HEALTH (-0.292) also statistically significant. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate how an organic product producer can improve his participatory guarantee system (PGS) while marketing the products. The study focuses on understanding gender (GENDER), ability (ABILITY) and health (HEALTH) factors while positioning the products (INTENTION) in the mind of the consumer. In this study, the respondents are found to care about high price and ability to purchase variables with loading -0.920 and 0.898. They are good indicators of ability to purchase (ABILITY). The marketers should consider about price of organic comparing to conventional products while marketing, otherwise, that will create negative intention to buy with a loading of -0.939. Meanwhile, it is also revealed that believability of chemical free component in organic products and health awareness affects health (HEALTH) components with high loading -0.941 and 0.682. The study analyzes that low believability of chemical free component and high price of organic products affects intension to buy. The marketers should not overlook this point while targeting the consumers in Bangladesh.

Keywords: health awareness, organic products, purchase ability, purchase intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
1 qPCR Method for Detection of Halal Food Adulteration

Authors: Gabriela Borilova, Monika Petrakova, Petr Kralik

Abstract:

Nowadays, European producers are increasingly interested in the production of halal meat products. Halal meat has been increasingly appearing in the EU's market network and meat products from European producers are being exported to Islamic countries. Halal criteria are mainly related to the origin of muscle used in production, and also to the way products are obtained and processed. Although the EU has legislatively addressed the question of food authenticity, the circumstances of previous years when products with undeclared horse or poultry meat content appeared on EU markets raised the question of the effectiveness of control mechanisms. Replacement of expensive or not-available types of meat for low-priced meat has been on a global scale for a long time. Likewise, halal products may be contaminated (falsified) by pork or food components obtained from pigs. These components include collagen, offal, pork fat, mechanically separated pork, emulsifier, blood, dried blood, dried blood plasma, gelatin, and others. These substances can influence sensory properties of the meat products - color, aroma, flavor, consistency and texture or they are added for preservation and stabilization. Food manufacturers sometimes access these substances mainly due to their dense availability and low prices. However, the use of these substances is not always declared on the product packaging. Verification of the presence of declared ingredients, including the detection of undeclared ingredients, are among the basic control procedures for determining the authenticity of food. Molecular biology methods, based on DNA analysis, offer rapid and sensitive testing. The PCR method and its modification can be successfully used to identify animal species in single- and multi-ingredient raw and processed foods and qPCR is the first choice for food analysis. Like all PCR-based methods, it is simple to implement and its greatest advantage is the absence of post-PCR visualization by electrophoresis. qPCR allows detection of trace amounts of nucleic acids, and by comparing an unknown sample with a calibration curve, it can also provide information on the absolute quantity of individual components in the sample. Our study addresses a problem that is related to the fact that the molecular biological approach of most of the work associated with the identification and quantification of animal species is based on the construction of specific primers amplifying the selected section of the mitochondrial genome. In addition, the sections amplified in conventional PCR are relatively long (hundreds of bp) and unsuitable for use in qPCR, because in DNA fragmentation, amplification of long target sequences is quite limited. Our study focuses on finding a suitable genomic DNA target and optimizing qPCR to reduce variability and distortion of results, which is necessary for the correct interpretation of quantification results. In halal products, the impact of falsification of meat products by the addition of components derived from pigs is all the greater that it is not just about the economic aspect but above all about the religious and social aspect. This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (QJ1530107).

Keywords: food fraud, halal food, pork, qPCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 140