Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Jalpit B. Prajapati

20 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel

Abstract:

Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

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19 Heat Transfer Analysis of Corrugated Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Ketankumar Gandabhai Patel, Jalpit Balvantkumar Prajapati

Abstract:

Plate type heat exchangers has many thin plates that are slightly apart and have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages that are good for heat transfer. This can be a more effective heat exchanger than the tube or shell heat exchanger due to advances in brazing and gasket technology that have made this plate exchanger more practical. Plate type heat exchangers are most widely used in food processing industries and dairy industries. Mostly fouling occurs in plate type heat exchanger due to deposits create an insulating layer over the surface of the heat exchanger, that decreases the heat transfer between fluids and increases the pressure drop. The pressure drop increases as a result of the narrowing of the flow area, which increases the gap velocity. Therefore, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger decreases with time, resulting in an undersized heat exchanger and causing the process efficiency to be reduced. Heat exchangers are often over sized by 70 to 80%, of which 30 % to 50% is assigned to fouling. The fouling can be reduced by varying some geometric parameters and flow parameters. Based on the study, a correlation will estimate for Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and chevron angle.

Keywords: heat transfer coefficient, single phase flow, mass flow rate, pressure drop

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18 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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17 Biologically Synthesized Palladium Nanoparticles Impregnated Porous Aluminium Catalyst in CO2 Detection

Authors: I. B. Patel, K. A. Mistry, A. H. Prajapati

Abstract:

Biologically synthesized colloidal Pd nanoparticles were impregnated on porous aluminium. In this paper, the obtained Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The effects of deposited films on the performances of Pd/Al2O3 in adsorption, reduction, and catalytic reaction of CO2 were investigated. The results showed that the deposited films can remarkably improve the dispersion of active components and enhance the reactivity of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The catalytic performance of Pd/Al2O3 in term of surface reaction is also enhanced in terms of sensitivity (SF = 850) obtained through conventional CBD method.

Keywords: palladium nanoparticles, Pd/Al2O3, carbon dioxide, aluminium catalyst

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16 Reclamation of Fly Ash Dykes Using Naturally Growing Plant Species

Authors: Neelima Meravi, Santosh Prajapati

Abstract:

The present study was conducted over a period of three years on fly ash dyke. The physicochemical analysis of fly ash (pH, WHC, BD, porosity, EC% OC & available P, heavy metal content etc.) was performed before and after the growth of plant species. Fly ash was analyzed after concentrated nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-7000b(Shimadzu) for heavy metals. The dyke was colonized by the propagules of native species over a period of time, and it was observed that fly ash was contaminated by heavy metals and plants were able to ameliorate the metal concentration of dyke. The growth of plant species also improved the condition of fly ash so that it can be used for agricultural purposes. Phytosociological studies of the fly ash dyke were performed so that these plants may be used for reclamation of fly ash for subsequent use in agriculture.

Keywords: fly ash, heavy metals, IVI, phytosociology, reclamation

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15 Challenges and Opportunities for Online Consumer Selling Process Development in Coming Years in World

Authors: Prakash Prajapati

Abstract:

E commerce is certainly one of the business alternatives that individual will have to analyze in the forthcoming years. E-commerce is said to bring about arched type conversion in the world for exchange market. Prognosis E-commerce is presenting dreadful business advancement in our country. Endorsed by ascending online user base & mobile phone presentation, Indian e-commerce has been splendid development in the last few years. Conceding India’s analytical dividend and spiraling internet admittance, the sector is contracted to scale higher heights. Although, India’s overall peddle opportunity is consequential, the sector is beset with some deliberate challenges. The current study has been proceeded to explore the present scenario, status & future advancement of e-commerce in India and review the challenges and opportunities of e-commerce in India.

Keywords: online selling, retail selling online, product process, business opportunity

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14 Study on Quality of Life among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in National Kidney Centre, Banasthali, Kathmandu

Authors: Tara Gurung, Suprina Prajapati

Abstract:

Health and well being of people is a crucial for accomplishing sustainable development goals of any country. The present study focuses on quality of life of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is a life sustaining treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis can bring about significant impairment in health related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life of hemodialysis patients undergoing hemodialysis. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was utilized in total 100 samples using random sampling technique. The findings revealed that the total quality of life of the patients was 30.41±3.99 out of 100. The total physical component score was statistically significant with education status of the patients where p value for t test was 0.03 (p=0.03) and occupation of the patients where p value for the ANOVA test was 0.007 (p=0.007). The study recommended that it would be better if awareness programs regarding chronic kidney disease and life style modification in hemodialysis patients is given to the patients so that it would help patients to maintain the HRQOL.

Keywords: health and well bing, hemodialysis, patients quality of life

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13 Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Hardik Patel

Abstract:

Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.

Keywords: MMR, TWR, OC, DOE, ANOVA, minitab

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12 Induction of Innovation (Districts) in (Spatial) Planning and Policy

Authors: Meera Prajapati

Abstract:

Technological innovation is important for economic and spatial rejuvenation. Innovation districts from the last decades around university towns offer interesting examples. Planning directs the interplay between economic and urban development in these innovation districts that appear in particular regions with economic benefits as a result of incentives to attract multinational industries in innovation centres, research parks, universities, bio incubator assets, etc. The inclination of the OECED towards developing entrepreneurship and innovation to harness a boost in growth requires sustainable living conditions. This research aims to understand ‘how innovation or knowledge centres affected development policies and helped cities to become a high-tech region?’ Therefore, the economic policies of cities are investigated as well as the location logic of centres and their intertwining with supporting services (health, education, living environment, etc.). Case studies (Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)) position Pune (India) in terms of the planning components of innovation.

Keywords: innovation districts, high-tech regions, smart cities, urban planning and policies

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11 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran

Abstract:

Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

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10 India’s Demonetization and Its Impact on Modi’s “Neighborhood First” Policy

Authors: Umang Prajapati

Abstract:

Elected prime minister of India Narendra Modi has very largely focused on improving ties with the neighbors since day one of his regime. This was the most significant initiative to focus on major Asian powers also emphasizing on the two decades old look east policy. The “neighborhood first policy” as termed by the media has been a corner stone in improving ties with the immediate neighbors of the country through several bilateral talks with the nations individually. However, the announcement of demonetisation policy in India, ceasing the usage of 500 and 1000 rupee notes has rattled countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar who encourage Indian currency parallel to theirs. According to the ministry of commerce and industry (MCI), India’s total trade with neighboring countries stood at US$21.6 in the fiscal year 2015-16, India has good surplus trade surplus with its neighbors and has a strong interest in ensuring smooth trade flows. India might have this benefit, but yet this policy can create issues between India and neighboring countries. The demonetisation policy might benefit in the long run, but in the short run, this might create border issues. While there would be more countries affected by this policy, this paper will emphasize on the problems faced by the countries and the impact of demonetisation on all other neighboring countries.

Keywords: bilateral trades, demonetization, neighborhood policy, value of rupee

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9 Simulation and Experimental Research on Pocketing Operation for Toolpath Optimization in CNC Milling

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Avadhoot Rajurkar

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufacturing industries augment their production lines with modern machining centers backed by CAM software. Several attempts are being made to cut down the programming time for machining complex geometries. Special programs/software have been developed to generate the digital numerical data and to prepare NC programs by using suitable post-processors for different machines. By selecting the tools and manufacturing process then applying tool paths and NC program are generated. More and more complex mechanical parts that earlier were being cast and assembled/manufactured by other processes are now being machined. Majority of these parts require lots of pocketing operations and find their applications in die and mold, turbo machinery, aircraft, nuclear, defense etc. Pocketing operations involve removal of large quantity of material from the metal surface. The modeling of warm cast and clamping a piece of food processing parts which the used of Pro-E and MasterCAM® software. Pocketing operation has been specifically chosen for toolpath optimization. Then after apply Pocketing toolpath, Multi Tool Selection and Reduce Air Time give the results of software simulation time and experimental machining time.

Keywords: toolpath, part program, optimization, pocket

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8 Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0

Authors: Naveen Kumar, Shyambihari Prajapati

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through IoT and forms Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have enormous amount of information to be presented which becomes complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in context of Industry 4.0. Authors conclude that information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in Industry 4.0 context will become main challenges for the interface designers.

Keywords: Industry4.0, sensor dashboard design, cyber-physical production system, Interface designer

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7 Technical and Economic Evaluation of Harmonic Mitigation from Offshore Wind Power Plants by Transmission Owners

Authors: A. Prajapati, K. L. Koo, F. Ghassemi, M. Mulimakwenda

Abstract:

In the UK, as the volume of non-linear loads connected to transmission grid continues to rise steeply, the harmonic distortion levels on transmission network are becoming a serious concern for the network owners and system operators. This paper outlines the findings of the study conducted to verify the proposal that the harmonic mitigation could be optimized and can be managed economically and effectively at the transmission network level by the Transmission Owner (TO) instead of the individual polluter connected to the grid. Harmonic mitigation studies were conducted on selected regions of the transmission network in England for recently connected offshore wind power plants to strategize and optimize selected harmonic filter options. The results – filter volume and capacity – were then compared against the mitigation measures adopted by the individual connections. Estimation ratios were developed based on the actual installed and optimal proposed filters. These estimation ratios were then used to derive harmonic filter requirements for future contracted connections. The study has concluded that a saving of 37% in the filter volume/capacity could be achieved if the TO is to centrally manage the harmonic mitigation instead of individual polluter installing their own mitigation solution.

Keywords: C-type filter, harmonics, optimization, offshore wind farms, interconnectors, HVDC, renewable energy, transmission owner

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6 Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth

Authors: Priyakant Vaghela, Jagdish Prajapati

Abstract:

Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.

Keywords: asymmetric spur gear tooth, G2 continuity, pressure angle, stress concentration at the root of tooth, tooth root stress

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5 3G or 4G: A Predilection for Millennial Generation of Indian Society

Authors: Rishi Prajapati

Abstract:

3G is the abbreviation of third generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 3G is a mode that finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile internet access, fixed wireless internet access, video calls and mobile TV. It also provides mobile broadband access to smartphones and mobile modems in laptops and computers. The first 3G networks were introduced in 1998, followed by 4G networks in 2008. 4G is the abbreviation of fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 4G is termed to be the advanced form of 3G. 4G was firstly introduced in South Korea in 2007. Many abstracts have floated researches that depicted the diversity and similarity between the third and the fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, whereas this abstract reflects the study that focuses on analyzing the preference between 3G versus 4G given by the elite group of the Indian society who are known as adolescents or the Millennial Generation aging from 18 years to 25 years. The Millennial Generation was chosen for this study as they have the easiest access to the latest technology. A sample size of 200 adolescents was selected and a structured survey was carried out which had several closed ended as well as open ended questions, to aggregate the result of this study. It was made sure that the effect of environmental factors on the subjects was as minimal as possible. The data analysis comprised of primary data collection reflecting it as quantitative research. The rationale behind this research is to give brief idea of how 3G and 4G are accepted by the Millennial Generation in India. The findings of this research would materialize a framework which depicts whether Millennial Generation would prefer 4G over 3G or vice versa.

Keywords: fourth generation, wireless telecommunication technology, Indian society, millennial generation, market research, third generation

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4 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy

Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati

Abstract:

In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported. In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.

Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy

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3 Effects of Hypolipidemic Agents in Aminoglycoside-Induced Experimental Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Evidence

Authors: Balakumar Pitchai, Xiang Llan Ang, Sunil Prajapati, Varatharajan Rajavel, Sundram Karupiah, Mohd Baidi Bahari

Abstract:

The study examined the pretreatment and post-treatment effects of low-doses of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin in gentamicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to rats for 8 days. In the pretreatment protocol, low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) treatments were started a day before the administration of gentamicin and continued for 8 days. In the post-treatment protocol, rats administered gentamicin were treated with low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 6 days after the completion of 8 days protocol of gentamicin administration. Gentamicin-associated acute nephrotoxicity in rats was assessed in terms of biochemical analysis and renal histopathological studies. Gentamicin-administered rats showed marked renal functional changes as assessed in terms of a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels as compared to normal rats. The renal dysfunction noted in gentamicin administered rats was accompanied with elevated serum uric acid level as compared to normal rats while there was no significant change in lipid profile. Low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment in gentamicin-administered rats afforded a significant renal functional improvements and renoprotection while its post-treatment showed no significant renoprotection. On the other hand, pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin partially reduced gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine level, but its post-treatment did not afford renal functional improvements in gentamicin-administered rats. However, all pre and post-treatments with low-doses of fenofibrate or rosuvastatin significantly reduced the elevated serum uric acid concentration in gentamicin-administered rats. Renal histopathological analysis showed a discernible incidence of acute tubular necrosis in gentamicin-administered rats which were markedly reduced by low-dose fenofibrate or low-dose rosuvastatin pretreatments; but, not by their post-treatments. In conclusion, low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment considerably prevented gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis and renal functional abnormalities in rats while its post-treatment resulted in no significant renoprotective action. In spite of effective prevention of gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis, the pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin had only a partial and fractional protection on renal functional abnormalities. The post-treatment with low-dose rosuvastatin was ineffective in affording a renoprotection in gentamicin-administered rats.

Keywords: gentamicin-nephrotoxicity, low-dose fenofibrate, low-dose rosuvastatin, renoprotection

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2 Qualitative Analysis of Occupant’s Satisfaction in Green Buildings

Authors: S. Srinivas Rao, Pallavi Chitnis, Himanshu Prajapati

Abstract:

The green building movement in India commenced in 2003. Since then, more than 4,300 projects have adopted green building concepts. For last 15 years, the green building movement has grown strong across the country and has resulted in immense tangible and intangible benefits to the stakeholders. Several success stories have demonstrated the tangible benefit experienced in green buildings. However, extensive data interpretation and qualitative analysis are required to report the intangible benefits in green buildings. The emphasis is now shifting to the concept of people-centric design and productivity, health and wellbeing of occupants are gaining importance. This research was part of World Green Building Council’s initiative on 'Better Places for People' which aims to create a world where buildings support healthier and happier lives. The overarching objective of this study was to understand the perception of users living and working in green buildings. The study was conducted in twenty-five IGBC certified green buildings across India, and a comprehensive questionnaire was designed to capture occupant’s perception and experience in the built environment. The entire research focussed on the eight attributes of healthy buildings. The factors considered for the study include thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, ergonomics, greenery, fitness, green transit and sanitation and hygiene. The occupant’s perception and experience were analysed to understand their satisfaction level. The macro level findings of the study indicate that green buildings have addressed attributes of healthy buildings to a larger extent. Few important findings of the study focussed on the parameters such as visual comfort, fitness, greenery, etc. The study indicated that occupants give tremendous importance to the attributes such as visual comfort, daylight, fitness, greenery, etc. 89% occupants were comfortable with the visual environment, on account of various lighting element incorporated as part of the design. Tremendous importance to fitness related activities is highlighted by the study. 84% occupants had actively utilised sports and meditation facilities provided in their facility. Further, 88% occupants had access to the ample greenery and felt connected to the natural biodiversity. This study aims to focus on the immense advantages gained by users occupying green buildings. This will empower green building movement to achieve new avenues to design and construct healthy buildings. The study will also support towards implementing human-centric measures and in turn, will go a long way in addressing people welfare and wellbeing in the built environment.

Keywords: health and wellbeing, green buildings, Indian green building council, occupant’s satisfaction

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1 Multiparticulate SR Formulation of Dexketoprofen Trometamol by Wurster Coating Technique

Authors: Bhupendra G. Prajapati, Alpesh R. Patel

Abstract:

The aim of this research work is to develop sustained release multi-particulates dosage form of Dexketoprofen trometamol, which is the pharmacologically active isomer of ketoprofen. The objective is to utilization of active enantiomer with minimal dose and administration frequency, extended release multi-particulates dosage form development for better patience compliance was explored. Drug loaded and sustained release coated pellets were prepared by fluidized bed coating principle by wurster coater. Microcrystalline cellulose as core pellets, povidone as binder and talc as anti-tacking agents were selected during drug loading while Kollicoat SR 30D as sustained release polymer, triethyl citrate as plasticizer and micronized talc as an anti-adherent were used in sustained release coating. Binder optimization trial in drug loading showed that there was increase in process efficiency with increase in the binder concentration. 5 and 7.5%w/w concentration of Povidone K30 with respect to drug amount gave more than 90% process efficiency while higher amount of rejects (agglomerates) were observed for drug layering trial batch taken with 7.5% binder. So for drug loading, optimum Povidone concentration was selected as 5% of drug substance quantity since this trial had good process feasibility and good adhesion of the drug onto the MCC pellets. 2% w/w concentration of talc with respect to total drug layering solid mass shows better anti-tacking property to remove unnecessary static charge as well as agglomeration generation during spraying process. Optimized drug loaded pellets were coated for sustained release coating from 16 to 28% w/w coating to get desired drug release profile and results suggested that 22% w/w coating weight gain is necessary to get the required drug release profile. Three critical process parameters of Wurster coating for sustained release were further statistically optimized for desired quality target product profile attributes like agglomerates formation, process efficiency, and drug release profile using central composite design (CCD) by Minitab software. Results show that derived design space consisting 1.0 to 1.2 bar atomization air pressure, 7.8 to 10.0 gm/min spray rate and 29-34°C product bed temperature gave pre-defined drug product quality attributes. Scanning Image microscopy study results were also dictate that optimized batch pellets had very narrow particle size distribution and smooth surface which were ideal properties for reproducible drug release profile. The study also focused on optimized dexketoprofen trometamol pellets formulation retain its quality attributes while administering with common vehicle, a liquid (water) or semisolid food (apple sauce). Conclusion: Sustained release multi-particulates were successfully developed for dexketoprofen trometamol which may be useful to improve acceptability and palatability of a dosage form for better patient compliance.

Keywords: dexketoprofen trometamol, pellets, fluid bed technology, central composite design

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