Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Fateme Khodaei Chegeni

21 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Ali Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni

Abstract:

An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nano particles are analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability.In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamo meter and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nano particles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: engine, cerium oxide, biodiesel, deposit

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
20 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde

Abstract:

Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: sheep, amyloidosis, kidney, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
19 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).

Keywords: PAHs, thyroidal hormones, Liza klunzingeri, Hormuz Strait, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 569
18 Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds

Authors: Mohammad Khodaei, Mahmood Meratien, Alireza Valanezhad, Serdar Pazarlioglu, Serdar Salman, Ikuya Watanabe

Abstract:

Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.

Keywords: Spacer, Titanium Scaffold, Pore Morphology, Space Holder Technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
17 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA) on Some Reproductive Hormones in Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Leila Karshenas

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: CLA, ram, testosterone, DHT, Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
16 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Reproductive Axis of Ram

Authors: Behnaz Mahdavi, Hamidreza Khodaei, Alireza Banitaba

Abstract:

Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2) and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group) did not receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 gr and the third group received 1 gram of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 ml syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05). Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also, the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

Keywords: CLA, ram, testosterone, conjugated linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
15 Centrifuge Modeling of Monopiles Subjected to Lateral Monotonic Loading

Authors: H. R. Khodaei, M. Moradi, A. H. Tajik

Abstract:

The type of foundation commonly used today for berthing dolphins is a set of tubular steel piles with large diameters, which are known as monopiles. The design of these monopiles is based on the theories related with laterally loaded piles. One of the most common methods to analyze and design the piles subjected to lateral loads is the p-y curves. In the present study, centrifuge tests are conducted in order to obtain the p-y curves. Series of tests were designed in order to investigate the scaling laws in the centrifuge for monotonic loading. Also, two important parameters, the embedded depth L of the pile in the soil and free length e of the pile, as well as their ratios were studied via five experimental tests. Finally, the p-y curves of API are presented to be compared with the curves obtained from the tests so that the differences could be demonstrated. The results show that the p-y curves proposed by API highly overestimate the lateral load bearing capacity. It suggests that these curves need correction and modification for each site as the soil conditions change.

Keywords: centrifuge modeling, monopile, lateral loading, p-y curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
14 The Effect of Benson Relaxation Method on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients in 2012-2013, Kermanshah, Iran

Authors: Fateme Hadadian, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, Hosein Feizi

Abstract:

Background: High number of patients with end-stage renal disease worldwide, and Iran and the patients required hemodialysis, As well as symptoms and treatment process and its impact on quality of life The researcher had to take a step towards solving these problems. Methods: In randomized clinical trial in 60 hemodialysis patients admitted to hospital hemodialysis Imam Reza (AS) were studied. Using questionnaires dialysis patients' QOL, quality of life was measured in patients and controls were divided randomly into two groups. Benson's relaxation method for the experimental group and two months at home, once per day, respectively and the control group received no special action. Immediately after the end of the period with was used for evaluating the quality of life in both the experimental and control groups were survey and data using independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The general dimensions of quality of life scores before and after intervention, there was significant difference (P=0/001). But this difference was not significant after QOL (P=0/2). Between QOL scores before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0/02). Conclusion: Benson relaxation has the desired effect on quality of life in hemodialysis patients and can be used as a useful method to enhance the quality of life in hemodialysis patients, implementation and training will be given.

Keywords: hemodialysis, quality of life, Benson muscle relaxation, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
13 Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran

Authors: Maryam Khalili, Fateme Ghanei

Abstract:

As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.

Keywords: ecotourism, education, gamification, social interaction, urban design, virtual tour

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
12 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.

Keywords: plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
11 Reasons for Language Words in the Quran and Literary Approaches That Are Persian

Authors: Fateme Mazbanpoor, Sayed Mohammad Amiri

Abstract:

In this article, we will examine the Persian words in Quran and study the reasons of their presence in this holy book. Writers of this paper extracted about 70 Persian words of Quran by referring to resources. (Alalfaz ol Moarab ol Farsieh Edishir, Almoarabol Javalighi, Almahzab va Etghan Seuti; Vocabulary involved in Quran Arthur Jeffry;, and etc…), some of these words are: ‘Abarigh, ‘Estabragh’,’Barzakh’, ‘Din’,’Zamharir, ‘Sondos’ ‘Sejil’,’ Namaregh’, ‘Fil’ etc. These Persian words have entered Arabic and finally entered Quran in two ways: 1) directly from Persian language, 2) via other languages. The first way: because of the Iranian dominance on Hira, Yemen, whole Oman and Bahrein land in Sasanian period, there were political, religious, linguistic, literary, and trade ties between these Arab territories causing the impact of Persian on Arabic; giving way to many Persian-loan words into Arabic in this period of time. The second way: Since the geographical and business conditions of the areas were dominated by Iran, Hejaz had lots of deals and trades with Mesopotamia and Yemen. On the other hand, Arabic language which was relatively a young language at that time, used to be impressed by Semitic languages in order to expand its vocabulary (Syrian and Aramaic were influenced by the languages of Iran). Consequently, due to the long relationship between Iranian and Arabs, some of the Persian words have taken longer ways through Aramaic and Syrian to find their way into Quran.

Keywords: Quran, Persian word, Arabic language, Persian

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
10 Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Increased Fat around the Muscle Durability by Reducing the Oxidation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid. Despite the fact that 28 different isomers of CLA have already been identified, but the main isomer found in natural diets more than ninety percent CLA on intake of food constitutes demonstrates. CLA is known to be a substance that readily available by rumen microorganisms in some ruminants such as cattle and sheep would likely be made. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of CLA on lipid metabolism and enhanced fat around the muscle durability by reducing the process of oxidation. In order to implement this research, 80 female mice of the Balb/C, with 55 days of age were employed in the experiment. Treatments include various levels of CLA. Over the course of this study blood samples was also taken from the tail vein of the studied mice. Some other relevant parameters such as serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and liver enzymes were also determined. The oxidative stability of fats TBARS technique was investigated at different intervals. The findings of the research were analyzed by statistical software of SAS 98. The results, CLA had no significant effect on liver enzymes (P > 0.05). However, it showed a statistically significant impact on triglycerides and total cholesterol. Ratio of LDL to HDL declined remarkably. Histological studies demonstrated reduced accumulation of fat in the tissues surrounding muscles.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, fat metabolism, fat retention, oxidation process

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
9 Effects of SNP in Semen Diluents on Motility, Viability and Lipid Peroxidation of Sperm of Bulls

Authors: Hamid Reza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi, Alireza Banitaba

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in all sexual activities of animals. It is made in body from NO syntheses enzyme and L-arginin molecule. NO can make band with sulfur-iron complexes and due to production of steroid sexual hormones related to enzymes which have this complex, NO can change the activity of these enzymes. NO affects many cells including endothelial cells of veins, macrophages and mast cells. These cells are found in testis leydig cells and therefore are important source of NO in testis tissue. Minimizing damages to sperm at the time of sperm freezing and thawing is really important. The goal of this study was to determine the function of NO before freezing and its effects on quality and viability of sperms after thawing and incubation. 4 Holstein bulls were selected from the age of 4, and artificial insemination was done for 3 weeks (2 times a week). Treatments were 0, 10, 50 and 100 nm of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Data analysis was performed by SAS98 program. Also, mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test (P<0.05). Concentrations used were found to increase motility and viability of spermatozoa at 1, 2 and 3 hours after thawing significantly (P<0.05) but there was no significant difference at zero time. SNP levels reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane, increased acrosome health and improved samples membranes especially in 50 and 100 nm treatments. According to results, adding SNP to semen diluents increases motility and viability of spermatozoa. Also, it reduces lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane and improves sperm function.

Keywords: sperm motility, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
8 Function of Quranic Family Lifestyle in the Development of Modern Islamic Civilization

Authors: Zeinabossadat Hosseini, Fateme Qorbani

Abstract:

The universal community has suffered from the lack of a sustainable and prosperous civilization in the world, and human distance from religious doctrines exposes the civilization of society to decline and collapse. To build a sustainable Islamic civilization, it is essential to understand and strengthen the core foundations of this subject. Islam, which claims to be integral in ensuring human prosperity and the creation of a new Islamic civilization, it can only develop this civilization if it has the necessary foundations. On the other hand, the family is one of the most important and effective foundations for effective individual and community life, and according to the influential role of the family on human behavioral and cognitive domains, it is impossible to define and explain the development of Islamic civilization without regard to the family category. The family can be effective in this important matter through its direct and indirect role in the education of individuals, and its members have the highest interaction and impact on each other. Development of the teachings of Islam in the form of verses and traditions can guide people towards the Islamic lifestyle and thus Islamic civilization and the Pure life (Tayyibah life-Al-Nahl/97). This article provides a descriptive-analytical approach to the conclusion that modern Islamic civilization promises the prosperity of the world and the hereafter. It will bring peace and prosperity to the world as well as advancement, fight against poverty, unity, and solidarity of Muslims, preservation of human dignity, as well as the growth of spirituality. It can also be deduced that the foundations of Islamic civilization in Qur'anic Tayyibah life and in today's term, the Islamic lifestyle, can be identified and implemented in the family structure, And the components of this blissful life can be found in this focus. The Tayyibah life will be realized by relying on the right faith and practice, paying attention to the rulings, divine command mentioned in the verses, as well as the traditions, altruism, nurturing a commitment to the community.

Keywords: family, development of modern Islamic civilization, quranic lifestyle, Tayyibah life

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
7 Exploring Women's Needs Referring to Health Care Centers for Doing Pap Smear Test

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi, Fateme Aslibigi, Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Nematshahrbabaki

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Cancer of the cervix, one of cancer-related death, is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. It develops over time but it is one of the most preventable types of cancer and there is the available proper screening program for its preventing. Since Pap smear test is vital to prevent and control of disease but women do not accomplish it regularly. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore women's needs referring to health care centers for doing Pap smear test. Material and methods: In this study, an inductive qualitative method with content analysis approach was used. This survey was done in varamin city (is located capital of Iran) in year 2014. Through the purposive sampling 15 women's view of point referring to health care centers of for doing Pap smear test was surveyed. Inclusion criteria were: 20-50 years old married women, having experience Pap smear test and attendance to participate in the Study. Recorded semi- structured interviews were typed and analyzed through of content analysis method. To obtain trustworthiness and rigor of the data, the criteria of credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability was used. Results: During the data analysis, four main categories of “role of health care team”, “role of organizations”, “social support” and “policies and administration system” were developed. The participants emphasized on making motivational rules and coordination among organizations to do behaviors related to women health. Conclusion: The findings of study showed that doing Pap smear test are attributed to appropriate and intimate interactions with health professionals, family support, encouraging legislation and policies and coordination and notification of organizations. Therefore, designers and stockholders of policies and health system should more consider to growth and involve other organizations toward women's health.

Keywords: qualitative approach, pap smear test, women, health care centers

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
6 Effects of Adding Sodium Nitroprusside in Semen Diluents on Motility, Viability and Lipid Peroxidation of Sperm of Holstein Bulls

Authors: Leila Karshenas, Hamid Reza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi

Abstract:

We know that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in all sexual activities of animals. It is made in body from NO synthase enzyme and L-arginin molecule. NO can bound with sulfur-iron complexes and because production of steroid sexual hormones is related to enzymes which have this complex, NO can change the activity of these enzymes. NO affects many cells including endothelial cells of veins, macrophages and mast cells. These cells are found in testis leydig cells and therefore are important source of NO in testis tissue. Minimizing damages to sperm at the time of sperm freezing and thawing is really important. The goal of this study was to determine the function of NO before freezing and its effects on quality and viability of sperms after thawing and incubation. 4 Holstein bulls were selected from the age of 4, and artificial insemination was done for 3 weeks (2 times a week). Treatments were 0, 10, 50 and 100 nm of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Data analysis was performed by SAS98 program. Also, mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test (P<0.05). Concentrations used was found to increase motility and viability of spermatozoa at 1, 2 and 3 hours after thawing significantly (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference at zero time. SNP levels reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane, increased acrosome health and improved sample membranes especially in 50 and 100 nm treatments. According to results, adding SNP to semen diluents increases motility and viability of spermatozoa. Also, it reduces lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane and improves sperm function.

Keywords: sperm motility, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
5 Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Hormones and Factors Involved in Murine Ovulation

Authors: Leila Karshenas, Hamidreza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi

Abstract:

Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and factors involved in ovulation. In this case-control study, 80 (50±2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into four groups (C as the controls and T1, T2 and T3 as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for 120 days. Later on, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. Furthermore, the effects of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were investigated. The data were analyzed by SAS software.CLA significantly decreased serum levels of FSH (p<0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p<0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels but this effect was statistically insignificant. The significantly negative effects of CLA were seen on the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p<0.01).It seems that CLA may play an effective role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA adversely affected female reproduction and it had negative effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, nitric oxide, ovary, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
4 The Relationship between Size of Normal and Cystic Bovine Ovarian Follicles with Follicular Fluid Levels of Nitric Oxide and Estradiol

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi, Leila Karshenas

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small fast acting neurotransmitter, which is synthesized From L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Studies show that NO affects a wide range of reproductive functions. Steroidal hormones synthesis, LH surge during ovulation, follicular growth and ovulation are all affected by NO. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NO and estradiol (E2) production in ovarian follicles and cysts in bovines. Two experiment groups were formed and serum and follicular fluid levels Of NO and estradiol (E2) was measured. In the first group, follicular fluids were obtained from 30 slaughtered cows. Follicles were divided into three groups according to follicular diameter: Small follicles, <5 mm, medium-sized follicles, 5 to 10 mm, and large follicles, >10 mm. 30 follicles were randomly selected within each group. Blood samples were obtained via jugular vein. NO concentrations in blood and ovarian follicular fluids were measured by Griess reaction method and radio-immunoassay respectively. In the second group: 12 cows in follicular phase and with cystic follicles were selected and a cystic follicle was obtained from each. NO and E2 levels were measured as done for the first experiment group. The data were analyzed by SAS software using ANOVA and Duncan’s test. NO concentrations of follicular fluids from large follicles were significantly higher than those of the medium and small-sized ones. There were significant differences in the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (Stable metabolites of NO) between large and cystic follicles, with extremely low NO and high E2 levels in cystic follicles (p<0.01).The results suggest that paracrine effects of NO may play an important role in the control of ovarian follicle growth and development of cystic follicles in bovines. It seems that NO dictates its effects through inhibition of ovarian steroidal synthesis.

Keywords: nitric oxide, estradiol, cystic follicle, cow, oogenesis, oocyte maturation, follicular fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
3 Influence of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Hormones of Axis of Female Reproduction System Involved in Ovulation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand

Abstract:

Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef, and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of various doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and parameters involved in ovulation. In this case-control research, 80 (50 ± 2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (C as control treatment and T1, T2 and T3 are considered as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group, and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet, but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for four months. After that, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. In addition, the impacts of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were studied. The data were analyzed by SAS software. CLA considerably decreased serum levels of FSH (p < 0.05), LH, estradiol, NO, leptin and TNFα (p < 0.01). In addition, CLA decreased progesterone levels, but this effect was statistically not significant. The significantly adverse effects of CLA were observed in the ovarian production of PGE2 and PGF2α (p < 0.01). It seems that CLA may play an important role in reducing the ovulation rate in mice as CLA negatively affected female reproduction and it had adverse effects on systemic and local hormones involved in ovulation.

Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, nitric oxide, ovary, ovulation, prostaglandin, gonadotropin

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2 Broadband Optical Plasmonic Antennas Using Fano Resonance Effects

Authors: Siamak Dawazdah Emami, Amin Khodaei, Harith Bin Ahmad, Hairul A. Adbul-Rashid

Abstract:

The Fano resonance effect on plasmonic nanoparticle materials results in such materials possessing a number of unique optical properties, and the potential applicability for sensing, nonlinear devices and slow-light devices. A Fano resonance is a consequence of coherent interference between superradiant and subradiant hybridized plasmon modes. Incident light on subradiant modes will initiate excitation that results in superradiant modes, and these superradient modes possess zero or finite dipole moments alongside a comparable negligible coupling with light. This research work details the derivation of an electrodynamics coupling model for the interaction of dipolar transitions and radiation via plasmonic nanoclusters such as quadrimers, pentamers and heptamers. The directivity calculation is analyzed in order to qualify the redirection of emission. The geometry of a configured array of nanostructures strongly influenced the transmission and reflection properties, which subsequently resulted in the directivity of each antenna being related to the nanosphere size and gap distances between the nanospheres in each model’s structure. A well-separated configuration of nanospheres resulted in the structure behaving similarly to monomers, with spectra peaks of a broad superradiant mode being centered within the vicinity of 560 nm wavelength. Reducing the distance between ring nanospheres in pentamers and heptamers to 20~60 nm caused the coupling factor and charge distributions to increase and invoke a subradiant mode centered within the vicinity of 690 nm. Increasing the outside ring’s nanosphere distance from the centered nanospheres caused the coupling factor to decrease, with the coupling factor being inversely proportional to cubic of the distance between nanospheres. This phenomenon led to a dramatic decrease of the superradiant mode at a 200 nm distance between the central nanosphere and outer rings. Effects from a superradiant mode vanished beyond a 240 nm distance between central and outer ring nanospheres.

Keywords: fano resonance, optical antenna, plasmonic, nano-clusters

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1 Evaluation of Rheological Properties, Anisotropic Shrinkage, and Heterogeneous Densification of Ceramic Materials during Liquid Phase Sintering by Numerical-Experimental Procedure

Authors: Hamed Yaghoubi, Esmaeil Salahi, Fateme Taati

Abstract:

The effective shear and bulk viscosity, as well as dynamic viscosity, describe the rheological properties of the ceramic body during the liquid phase sintering process. The rheological parameters depend on the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of the material such as relative density, temperature, grain size, and diffusion coefficient and activation energy. The main goal of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the response of an incompressible viscose ceramic material during liquid phase sintering process such as stress-strain relations, sintering and hydrostatic stress, the prediction of anisotropic shrinkage and heterogeneous densification as a function of sintering time by including the simultaneous influence of gravity field, and frictional force. After raw materials analysis, the standard hard porcelain mixture as a ceramic body was designed and prepared. Three different experimental configurations were designed including midpoint deflection, sinter bending, and free sintering samples. The numerical method for the ceramic specimens during the liquid phase sintering process are implemented in the CREEP user subroutine code in ABAQUS. The numerical-experimental procedure shows the anisotropic behavior, the complete difference in spatial displacement through three directions, the incompressibility for ceramic samples during the sintering process. The anisotropic shrinkage factor has been proposed to investigate the shrinkage anisotropy. It has been shown that the shrinkage along the normal axis of casting sample is about 1.5 times larger than that of casting direction, the gravitational force in pyroplastic deformation intensifies the shrinkage anisotropy more than the free sintering sample. The lowest and greatest equivalent creep strain occurs at the intermediate zone and around the central line of the midpoint distorted sample, respectively. In the sinter bending test sample, the equivalent creep strain approaches to the maximum near the contact area with refractory support. The inhomogeneity in Von-Misses, pressure, and principal stress intensifies the relative density non-uniformity in all samples, except in free sintering one. The symmetrical distribution of stress around the center of free sintering sample, cause to hinder the pyroplastic deformations. Densification results confirmed that the effective bulk viscosity was well-defined with relative density values. The stress analysis confirmed that the sintering stress is more than the hydrostatic stress from start to end of sintering time so, from both theoretically and experimentally point of view, the sintering process occurs completely.

Keywords: anisotropic shrinkage, ceramic material, liquid phase sintering process, rheological properties, numerical-experimental procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 193