Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: M Marouf Wani

18 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

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17 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Physicochemical Properties of Starches Extracted from Newly Released Rice Varieties Grown in North Temperate Regions of India

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Ashwar, Asima Shah, S. A. Rather, Asir Gani, S.M. Wani, I.D. Wani, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani


Starches isolated from two newly released rice varieties (K-322 & K-448) were subject to irradiation at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy doses. Comparative study between native (not irradiated) and irradiated starch samples was carried out to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties due to gamma irradiation. Significant decrease was found in apparent amylose content, pH, swelling power, syneresis, and pasting properties, whereas carboxyl content, water absorption capacity, transmittance and solubility were found to increase with the increase in irradiation dose. Granule morphology of native and irradiated starches under scanning electron microscope revealed that granules were polygonal or irregular in shape. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. X-ray diffraction pattern showed A type of pattern in native as well as irradiated starches.

Keywords: rice starch, gamma irradiation, morphological properties, pasting properties, physicochemical properties.

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16 Effect of the Binary and Ternary Exchanges on Crystallinity and Textural Properties of X Zeolites

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, K. Marouf-Khelifa, R. Marouf, J. Schott, A. Khelifa


The ionic exchange of the NaX zeolite by Cu2+ and/or Zn2+ cations is progressively driven while following the development of some of its characteristic: crystallinity by XR diffraction, profile of isotherms, RI criterion, isosteric adsorption heat and microporous volume using both the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) equation and the t-plot through the Lippens–de Boer method which also makes it possible to determine the external surface area. Results show that the cationic exchange process, in the case of Cu2+ introduced at higher degree, is accompanied by crystalline degradation for Cu(x)X, in contrast to Zn2+-exchanged zeolite X. This degradation occurs without significant presence of mesopores, because the RI criterion values were found to be much lower than 2.2. A comparison between the binary and ternary exchanges shows that the curves of CuZn(x)X are clearly below those of Zn(x)X and Cu(x)X, whatever the examined parameter. On the other hand, the curves relating to CuZn(x)X tend towards those of Cu(x)X. This would again confirm the sensitivity of the crystalline structure of CuZn(x)X with respect to the introduction of Cu2+ cations. An original result is the distortion of the zeolitic framework of X zeolites at middle exchange degree, when Cu2+ competes with another divalent cation, such as Zn2+, for the occupancy of sites distributed within zeolitic cavities. In other words, the ternary exchange accentuates the crystalline degradation of X zeolites. An unexpected result also is the no correlation between crystal damage and the external surface area.

Keywords: adsorption, crystallinity, ion exchange, zeolite

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15 Tribological Characterization of ZrN Coatings on Titanium Modified Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani


Tribological characterization of ZrN coatings deposited on titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D-9) substrates has been investigated. The coatings were deposited in the deposition temperature range 300–873 K, using the pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. Scratch adhesion tests were carried out using Rc indenter under various conditions of load. Detailed tribological studies were conducted to understand the friction and wear behaviour of these coatings. For all tribological studies steel and ceramic balls were used as counter face material. 3D-Surface profiles of all wear tracks was carried out using 3D universal profiler.

Keywords: ZrN, Surafce coating, thin film, tribology, friction and wear

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14 Fracture Properties Investigation of Artocarpus odoratissimus Composite with Polypropylene (PP)

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Al Fareez Bin Aslie, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


Wood plastic composites (WPC) were made using matrix of polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic resin with wood fiber from Artocarpus Odoratissimus as filler. The purpose of this project is to investigate the fracture properties of Artocarpus odoratissimus composite with PP. The WPC were manufactured by hot-press technique with varying formulations which are 10:0 (100% pure PP), 50:50 (40 g of wood fiber and 40 g of PP) and 60:40 (48 g of wood fiber and 32 g of PP). The mechanical properties were investigated. Tensile and flexural were carried out according to ASTM D 638 and ASTM D 790. The results were analysed to calculate the tensile strength. Tensile strength at break is ranged from 13.2 N/mm2 to 21.7 N/mm2 while, the flexural strength obtained is varying from 14.7 N/mm2 to 31.1 N/mm2. The results of the experiment showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composite were increased with the adding of wood fiber material. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), have been done to study the fracture behavior of the WPC specimens.

Keywords: Artocarpus odoratissimus, polypropylene thermoplastic, wood fiber, WPC

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13 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari


This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: axial loading, computational mechanics, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode

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12 A New Learning Automata-Based Algorithm to the Priority-Based Target Coverage Problem in Directional Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaharuddin Salleh, Sara Marouf, Hosein Mohammadi


Directional sensor networks (DSNs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their extensive applications in a wide range of situations. One of the most important problems associated with DSNs is covering a set of targets in a given area and, at the same time, maximizing the network lifetime. This is due to limitation in sensing angle and battery power of the directional sensors. This problem gets more complicated by the possibility that targets may have different coverage requirements. In the present study, this problem is referred to as priority-based target coverage (PTC). As sensors are often densely deployed, organizing the sensors into several cover sets and then activating these cover sets successively is a promising solution to this problem. In this paper, we propose a learning automata-based algorithm to organize the directional sensors into several cover sets in such a way that each cover set could satisfy coverage requirements of all the targets. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrated that the algorithms were able to contribute to solving the problem.

Keywords: directional sensor networks, target coverage problem, cover set formation, learning automata

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11 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry


In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.

Keywords: knowledge management, hospitals, knowledge management practices, knowledge management tools, performance

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10 Identification and Quantification of Acid Sites of M(X)X Zeolites (M= Cu2+ and/or Zn2+,X = Level of Exchange): An In situ FTIR Study Using Pyridine Adsorption/Desorption

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, J. Comparot, K. Marouf-Khelifa, A. Khelifa


X zeolites were prepared by ion-exchange with Cu2+ and/or Zn2+ cations, at different concentrations of the exchange solution, and characterised by thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorption. The acidity of the samples was investigated by pyridine adsorption–desorption followed by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Desorption was carried out at 150, 250 and 350 °C. The objective is to estimate the nature and concentration of acid sites. A comparison between the binary (Cu(x)X, Zn(x)X) and ternary (CuZn(x)X) exchanges was also established (x = level of exchange) through the Cu(43)X, Zn(48)X and CuZn(50)X samples. Lewis acidity decreases overall with desorption temperature and the level of exchange. As the latter increases, there is a conversion of some Lewis sites into those of Brønsted during thermal treatment. In return, the concentration of Brønsted sites increases with the degree of exchange. The Brønsted acidity of CuZn(50)X at 350 °C is more important than the sum of those of Cu(43)X and Zn(48)X. The found values were 73, 32 and 15 μmol g-1, respectively. Besides, the concentration of Brønsted sites for CuZn(50)X increases with desorption temperature. These features indicate the presence of a synergistic effect amplifying the strength of these sites when Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations compete for the occupancy of sites distributed inside zeolitic cavities.

Keywords: acidity, adsorption, pyridine, zeolites

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9 Sustainability Modelling and Sustainability Evaluation of a Mechanical System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment: A Digraph and Matrix Approach

Authors: Anand Ankush, Wani Mohammed Farooq


A procedure based on digraph and matrix method is developed for modelling and evaluation of sustainability of Mechanical System in a concurrent engineering environment.The sustainability parameters of a Mechanical System are identified and are called sustainability attributes. Consideration of attributes and their interrelations is rudiment in modeling and evaluation of sustainability index. Sustainability attributes of a Mechanical System are modelled in termsof sustainability digraph. The graph is represented by a one-to-one matrix for sustainability expression which is based on sustainability attributes. A variable sustainability relationship permanent matrix is defined to develop sustainability expression(VPF-t) which is also useful in comparing two systems in a concurrent environment. The sustainability index of Mechanical System is obtained from permanent of matrix by substituting the numerical values of attributes and their interrelations. A higher value of index implies better sustainability of system.The ideal value of index is obtained from matrix expression which is useful in assessing relative sustainability of a Mechanical System in a concurrent engineering environment. The procedure is not only useful for evaluation of sustainability of a Mechanical System at conceptual design stage but can also be used for design and development of systems at system design stage. A step-by-step procedure for evaluation of sustainability index is also suggested and is illustrated by means of an example.

Keywords: digraph, matrix method, mechanical system, sustainability

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8 High-Temperature Tribological Characterization of Nano-Sized Silicon Nitride + 5% Boron Nitride Ceramic Composite

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani


Tribological studies on nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN were carried out in dry air at high temperatures to clarify the lack of consensus in the bibliographic data concerning the Tribological behavior of Si3N4 ceramics and effect of doped hexagonal boron nitride on coefficient of friction and wear coefficient at different loads and elevated temperatures. The composites were prepared via high energy mechanical milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering using Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering additives. After sintering, the average crystalline size of Si3N4 was observed to be 50 nm. Tribological tests were performed with temperature and Friction coefficients 0.16 to 1.183 and 0.54 to 0.71 were observed for Nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN composite under normal load of 10N-70 N and over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC respectively. Specific wear coefficients from 1.33x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 4.42x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 were observed for Nano-sized Si3N4 + 5% BN composite against Si3N4 ball as tribo-pair counterpart over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC while as under normal load of 10N to70N Specific wear coefficients of 6.91x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 1.70x 10-4 were observed. The addition of BN to the Si3N4 composite resulted in a slight reduction of the friction coefficient and lower values of wear coefficient.

Keywords: ceramics, tribology, friction and wear, solid lubrication

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7 Management of Insect Pests Using Baculovirus Based Biopesticides in India

Authors: Mudasir Gani, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Kamlesh Bali, Abdul Rouf Wani


The gypsy moth (Lymantria obfuscata) and tent caterpillar (Malacosoma indicum) are serious pests that attack a wide range of fruit and forest trees in Jammu & Kashmir range of North-Western Himalayas in India. Investigations were carried out to isolate and bioprospect naturally occurring nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) as potent biopesticides against these pests. The biological and molecular characterization of NPV isolates from different ecosystems was conducted, and the polh, lef-8 and lef-9 genes were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The L. obfuscata NPV was more closely related to the L. dispar NPV, whereas M. indicum NPV was more closely related to the M. californicum NPV in the NCBI taxonomy database. Among different isolates, Bhaderwah isolates exhibited highest virus activity (LD₅₀ = 250 POBs/larvae) and speed of kill (ST₅₀ = 6.80 days) against L. obfuscata whereas Mahor isolates proved most virulent against M. indicum, with lowest LD₅₀ (257 POBs/larva) and ST₅₀ (6.80 days). The in vivo mass production for highest productivity and quality revealed that the optimum yield was obtained when 3rd instar larvae were inoculated with a viral dose of 1.44 × 105 POBs/larva and allowed to incubate for nine days for L. obfuscata. However, for M. indicum larvae, a viral dose of 2.88 × 10⁶ POBs/larva and incubation period of 10 days were found optimum. It was found that harvesting of moribund larvae yields good quality NPV. The field application of L. obfuscata NPV and M. indicum NPV against the respective host populations on apple and willow with the pre-standardized dosage of 1 × 10¹² POBs/acre reduced the larval population density up to 25-63%.

Keywords: baculoviruses, biopesticides, Lymantria obfuscata, Malacosoma indicum

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6 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique


Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: bagasse ash, compressive strength, self-compacting concrete, splitting tensile strength

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5 Mapping the Core Processes and Identifying Actors along with Their Roles, Functions and Linkages in Trout Value Chain in Kashmir, India

Authors: Stanzin Gawa, Nalini Ranjan Kumar, Gohar Bilal Wani, Vinay Maruti Hatte, A. Vinay


Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) are the two species of trout which were once introduced by British in waters of Kashmir has well adapted to favorable climatic conditions. Cold water fisheries are one of the emerging sectors in Kashmir valley and trout holds an important place Jammu and Kashmir fisheries. Realizing the immense potential of trout culture in Kashmir region, the state fisheries department started privatizing trout culture under the centrally funded scheme of RKVY in which they provide 80 percent subsidy for raceway construction and supply of feed and seed for the first year since 2009-10 and at present there are 362 private trout farms. To cater the growing demand for trout in the valley, it is important to understand the bottlenecks faced in the propagation of trout culture. Value chain analysis provides a generic framework to understand the various activities and processes, mapping and studying linkages is first step that needs to be done in any value chain analysis. In Kashmir, it is found that trout hatcheries play a crucial role in insuring the continuous supply of trout seed in valley. Feed is most limiting factor in trout culture and the farmer has to incur high cost in payment and in the transportation of feed from the feed mill to farm. Lack of aqua clinic in the Kashmir valley needs to be addressed. Brood stock maintenance, breeding and seed production, technical assistance to private farmer, extension services have to be strengthened and there is need to development healthier environment for new entrepreneurs. It was found that trout farmers do not avail credit facility as there is no well define credit scheme for fisheries in the state. The study showed weak institutional linkages. Research and development should focus more on applied science rather than basic science.

Keywords: trout, Kashmir, value chain, linkages, culture

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4 Survival of Micro-Encapsulated Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mutton Nuggets and Their Assessments in Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Conditions

Authors: Rehana Akhter, Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, S. M. Wani


During recent years probiotic food products receive market interest as health-promoting, functional foods, which are believed to contribute health benefits. In order to deliver the health benefits by probiotic bacteria, it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g to 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. However a major challenge in relation to the application of probiotic cultures in food matrix is the maintenance of viability during processing which might lead to important losses in viability as probiotic cultures are very often thermally labile and sensitive to acidity, oxygen or other food constituents for example, salts. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads with the objective of enhancing their survivability and preventing exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and where then inoculated in mutton nuggets. Micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) resulting in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survivability when compared with free cell counterparts. A high encapsulation yield was found due to the encapsulation procedure. After incubation at low pH-values, micro encapsulation yielded higher survival rates compared to non-encapsulated probiotic cells. The viable cell numbers of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were 107-108 CFU/g higher compared to free cells after 90 min incubation at pH 2.5. The viable encapsulated cells were inoculated into mutton nuggets at the rate of 108 to 1010 CFU/g. The micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei achieved higher survival counts (105-107 CFU/g) than the free cell counterparts (102-104 CFU/g). Thus micro encapsulation offers an effective means of delivery of viable probiotic bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric, intestinal juice and processing conditions during nugget preparation.

Keywords: survival, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, micro-encapsulation, nugget

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3 Utilization Of Guar Gum As Functional Fat Replacer In Goshtaba, A Traditional Indian Meat Product

Authors: Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Rehana Akhter, S. M. Wani, Adil Gani


Modern trend towards convenience foods has resulted in increased production and consumption of restructured meat products and are of great importance to the meat industry. In meat products fat plays an important role in cooking properties, texture & sensory scores, however, high fat contents in particular animal fats provide high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and are associated with several types of non communicable diseases such as obesity, hypertension and coronary heart diseases. Thus, fat reduction has generally been seen as an important strategy to produce healthier meat products. This study examined the effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 10% and substituting mutton back fat with guar gum (0.5%, 1% & 1.5%) on cooking properties, proximate composition, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory characteristics of goshtaba- a traditional meat product of J & K, India were investigated and compared with high fat counterparts. Reduced- fat goshtaba samples containing guar gum had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher yield, less shrinkage, more moisture retention and more protein content than the control sample. TBARs and protein oxidation (carbonyl content) values of the control was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples and showed a positive correlation between lipid and protein oxidation. Hardness, gumminess & chewiness of the control (20%) were significantly higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples. Microstructural differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05) between control and treated samples due to an increased moisture content in the reduced fat samples. Sensory evaluation showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in texture, flavour and overall acceptability scores of treatment products; however the scores for 0.5% and 1% treated samples were in the range of acceptability. Guar gum may also be used as a source of soluble dietary fibre in food products and a number of clinical studies have shown a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on consumption of guar gum, with the mechanism being attributed to an increased transit time in the stomach and small intestine, which may have been due to the viscosity of the meal hindering the access of glucose to the epithelium.

Keywords: goshtaba, guar gum, traditional, fat reduction, acceptability

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2 Internationalization of Higher Education in Malaysia-Rationale for Global Citizens

Authors: Irma Wani Othman


The internationalization of higher education in Malaysia mainly focuses to place the implementation of the strategic, comprehensive and integrated range of stakeholders in order to highlight the visibility of Malaysia as a hub of academic excellence. While the concept of 'global citizenship' is used as a two-pronged strategy of aggressive marketing by universities which includes; (i) the involvement of the academic expatriates in stimulating international activities of higher education and (ii) an increase in international student enrollment capacity for the enculturation of science and the development of first class mentality. In this aspect, aspirations for a transnational social movement through global citizenship status to establish the identity of the university community without borders (borderless universities) - regardless of skin colour, thus rationalize and liberalize the universal principles of life and cultural traditions of a nation. The education system earlier referred by the spirit of nationalism is now progressing due to globalization, hence forming a system of higher education that is relevant and generated by the need of all time. However, debates arose when the involvement of global citizenship is said to threaten the ultimate university autonomy in determining the direction of academic affairs and governance of their human resources. Stemming from this debate, this study aims to explore the experience of 'global citizenship' that the academic expatriates and international students in shaping the university's strategic needs and interests which are in line with the transition of contemporary higher education. The objective of this study is to examine the acculturation experience of the global citizen in the form of transnational higher education system and suggest policy and policing IHE which refers directly to the experience of the global citizen. This study offers a detailed understanding of how the university communities assess their expatriation experience, thus becoming useful information for learning and transforming education. The findings also open an advanced perspective on the international mobility of human resources and the implications on the implementation of the policy of internationalization of higher education. The contribution of this study is expected to give new input, thus shift the focus of contextual literature for the internationalization of the education system. Instead of focusing on the purpose of generating income of a university, to a greater understanding of subjective experience in utilizing international human resources hence contributing to the prominent transnational character of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization, global citizens, Malaysia higher education, academic expatriate, international students

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1 Immune Responses and Pathological Manifestations in Chicken to Oral Infection with Salmonella typhimurium

Authors: Mudasir Ahmad Syed, Raashid Ahmd Wani, Mashooq Ahmad Dar, Uneeb Urwat, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is a primary avian pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in younger chickens and economic losses. However, the Salmonella Typhimurium is also able to cause infection in humans, described by typhoid fever and acute gastro-intestinal disease. A study was conducted at days to investigate pathological, histopathological, haemato-biochemical, immunological and expression kinetics of NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein) gene family (NRAMP1 and NRAMP2) in broiler chickens following experimental infection of Salmonella Typhimurium at 0,1,3,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days respectively. Infection was developed in birds through oral route at 2×108 CFU/ml. Clinical symptoms appeared 4 days post infection (dpi) and after one-week birds showed progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and lowering of head. On postmortem examination, liver showed congestion, hemorrhage and necrotic foci on surface, while as spleen, lungs and intestines revealed congestion and hemorrhages. Histopathological alterations were principally observed in liver in second week post infection. Changes in liver comprised of congestion, areas of necrosis, reticular endothelial hyperplasia in association with mononuclear cell and heterophilic infiltration. Hematological studies confirm a significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBC count, Hb concentration and PCV. White blood cell count showed significant increase throughout the experimental study. An increase in heterophils was found up to 7dpi and a decreased pattern was observed afterwards. Initial lymphopenia followed by lymphocytosis was found in infected chicks. Biochemical studies showed a significant increase in glucose, AST and ALT concentration and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total protein and albumin level in the infected group. Immunological studies showed higher titers of IgG in infected group as compared to control group. The real time gene expression of NRAMPI and NRAMP2 genes increased significantly (P<0.05) in infected group as compared to controls. The peak expression of NRAMP1 gene was seen in liver, spleen and caecum of infected birds at 3dpi, 5dpi and 7dpi respectively, while as peak expression of NRAMP2 gene in liver, spleen and caecum of infected chicken was seen at 9dpi, 5dpi and 9dpi respectively. This study has role in diagnostics and prognostics in the poultry industry for the detection of salmonella infections at early stages of poultry development.

Keywords: biochemistry, histopathology, NRAMP, poultry, real time expression, Salmonella Typhimurium

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