Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 496

Search results for: rice bran oil

496 Effects of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: E. Ataye-Salehi, P. Taghinia, Z. Sheikholeslami

Abstract:

In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari bread (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased, but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control. But 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

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495 Impact of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: P. Taghinia, E. Ataye-Salehi, Z. Sheikholeslami

Abstract:

In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari breead (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control, but 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
494 Quantification and Thermal Behavior of Rice Bran Oil, Sunflower Oil and Their Model Blends

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma, Garima Sengar

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Rice bran oil is considered comparatively nutritionally superior than different fats/oils. Therefore, model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were explored for changes in the different physicochemical parameters. Repeated deep fat frying process was carried out by using dried potato in order to study the thermal behaviour of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil had shown good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although, the model blends constituting 60% RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils, physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): SnF (sunflower oil) was carried by different methods. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition and iodine value can be used for the quantification. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, frying, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
493 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
492 Functional Compounds Activity of Analog Rice Based on Purple Yam and Bran as Alternative Food for People with Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Authors: A. Iqbal Banauaji, Muchamad Sholikun

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolism disorder that tends to increase its prevalence in the world, including in Indonesia. The development of DM type 2 can cause oxidative stress characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body Increased oxidative stress causes type 2 diabetes mellitus to require intake of exogenous antioxidants in large quantities to inhibit oxidative damage in the body. Bran can be defined as a functional food because it consists of 11.39% fiberand 28.7% antioxidants and the purple yam consists of anthocyanin which functions as an antioxidant. With abundant amount and low price, purple yam and bran can be used for analog rice as the effort to diversify functional food. The antioxidant’s activity of analog rice from purple yam and bran which is measured by using DPPH’s method is 12,963%. The rough fiber’s level on the analog rice from purple yam is 2.985%. The water amount of analog rice from purple yam and bran is 8.726%. Analog rice from purple yam and bran has the similar texture as the usual rice, tasted slightly sweet, light purple colored, and smelled like bran.

Keywords: antioxidant, analog rice, functional food, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
491 Rice Bran Material Enrichment of Granulated Cane Brown Sugar to Increase Policosanol Contents

Authors: Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Hajime Tamaki, Yonathan Asikin, Koji Wada, Makoto Takahashi, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan

Abstract:

Rice bran and sugarcane are significant sources of wax containing policosanol (PC), the cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical available in the market. The processing of rice bran oil causes the loss of PC content into various waste products. Therefore, we hypothesise that defatted rice bran (DRB) as agricultural waste product and rice bran oil (RBO) retain a varying but significant amount of PC wax. Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) or cane brown sugar has been consumed worldwide and possesses various health benefits. Since PC wax is mainly in the outer layer rinds of cane, PC contents of the granulated sugar are reduced due to the peeling step. The study aimed to increase PC contents of the granular brown sugar by adding wax extracted from DRB and RBO and to investigate the toxicity of the developed products. The results showed that the total PC contents including long chain aldehyde of products were increased to the maximum level of 147.97 mg/100 g and 40.14 mg/100 g for extracted wax and rice bran oil addition, respectively. PC content of RBO was found to be 96.93 mg/100 g. DRB is promising source of policosanol (6,044.7 mg/100 g). The 28-day toxicity evaluations of the developed sugar revealed no adverse effects on the liver, spleen or kidney.

Keywords: enrichment, sugarcane, policosanol, defatted rice bran, wax

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
490 Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oil Using Various Heat Treatments

Authors: Supakan Rattanakon, Jakkrapan Boonpimon, Akkaragiat Bhuangsaeng, Aphiwat Ratriphruek

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Rice bran oil (RBO) has been found to lower the level of serum cholesterol, has antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic property, and attenuate allergic inflammation. These properties of RBO are due to antioxidant compositions, especially, phenolic compounds. The higher amount of these active compounds in RBO, the greater value of RBO is. Thermal process of rice bran before solvent RBO extraction has been found to have a higher phenolic contents. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to using different heating methods on rice bran before the solvent extraction. Then, % yield of RBO, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant property of two white Thai rice; KDML105 and RD6 were determined. The Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay was used to determine TPC and scavenging of free radicals (DPPH) was used to determine antioxidant property expressed as EC50. The result showed that thermal process did not increase % yield of RBO but increase the TPC with 1.41 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAEmg-1). The highest TPC was found in KDML105 by using sonicator. The highest antioxidant activity was found in RD6 using autoclave. The EC50 of RBO was 0.04 mg/mL. Further study should be performed on different pretreatments to increase the TPC and antioxidant property.

Keywords: antioxidant, rice bran oil, total phenol content, white rice

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489 The Effect of Extrusion Processing on Solubility and Molecular Weight of Water-Soluble Arabinoxylan

Authors: Abdulmannan Fadel

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Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which is one of the most important polysaccharides contained within cereal grains. Wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran contain a significant amount of arabinoxylan (7% in rice bran and 10-12% in wheat endosperm pentosan). Several methods have been used for arabinoxylan extraction with varying degrees of success e.g. enzymatic and alkaline treatment. Yet, the use of extrusion alone as a pre-treatment to increase the yield and reduce the molecular weight in wheat endosperm pentosan and rice bran has not been investigated. The samples (wheat pentosan and rice bran) were extruded using a Twin-screw extruder at a range of screw speeds (80 and 160 rpm) and barrel temperatures range (80 to 140°C) with a throughput of 30 Kg hr-1 and moisture content of 25%. Arabinoxylans were extracted with water and the extraction yield and molecular weight was determined using size exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography system. It was found that increasing screw speed from 80 rpm to 160 rpm, did not effect the extraction yield (p < 0.05) of arabinoxylan from either the wheat endosperm pentosan or the rice bran. However, the molecular weight of the extracted arabinoxylans from pentosan was found to decrease with increasing screw speed in wheat endosperm pentosan. These low molecular weight arabinoxylans have been suggested as immunomodulators.

Keywords: arabinoxylans, extrusion, wheat endosperm pentosan, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
488 Extraction of Rice Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation

Authors: Sudarat Jiamyangyuen, Tipawan Thongsook, Riantong Singanusong, Chanida Saengtubtim

Abstract:

Rice is a staple food as well as exported commodity of Thailand. Rice bran, a 10.5% constituent of rice grain, is a by-product of rice milling process. Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Therefore, this study aimed to increase value of defatted rice bran as obtained after extracting of rice bran oil. Conventionally, the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, which results in reduction of nutritious components in rice bran. Rice bran protein concentrate is suitable for those who are allergenic of protein from other sources eg. milk, wheat. In addition to its hypoallergenic property, rice bran protein also contains good quantity of lysine. Thus it may act as a suitable ingredient for infant food formulations while adding variety to the restricted diets of children with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to compare properties of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) extracted from defatted rice bran using enzymes together with precipitation step using polysaccharides (alginate and carrageenan) to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method. The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2% (v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield (32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.006) exhibited the highest protein (27.55%) and yield (6.62%). Precipitation using alginate was better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL) (samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10. There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate. However, control sample showed a higher of foaming and lower foam stability compared to those of sample precipitated with alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%) compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be beneficial in terms of adding to food products eg. healthy drink with high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be used to appropriately select the application of this value-added product from rice bran.

Keywords: alginate, carrageenan, rice bran, rice bran protein

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487 Separation of Oryzanol from Rice Bran Oil Using Silica: Equilibrium of Batch Adsorption

Authors: A. D. Susanti, W. B. Sediawan, S. K. Wirawan, Budhijanto, Ritmaleni

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Rice bran oil contains significant amounts of oryzanol, a natural antioxidant that considered has higher antioxidant activity than vitamin E (tocopherol). Oryzanol reviewed has several health properties and interested in pharmacy, nutrition, and cosmetics. For practical usage, isolation and purification would be necessary due to the low concentration of oryzanol in crude rice bran oil (0.9-2.9%). Batch chromatography has proved as a promising process for the oryzanol recovery, but productivity was still low and scale-up processes of industrial interest have not yet been described. In order to improve productivity of batch chromatography, a continuous chromatography design namely Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) concept have been proposed. The SMB concept has interested for continuous commercial scale separation of binary system (oryzanol and rice bran oil), and rice bran oil still obtained as side product. Design of SMB chromatography for oryzanol separation requires quantification of its equilibrium. In this study, equilibrium of oryzanol separation conducted in batch adsorption using silica as the adsorbent and n-hexane/acetone (9:1) as the eluent. Three isotherm models, namely the Henry, Langmuir, and Freundlich equations, have been applied and modified for the experimental data to establish appropriate correlation for each sample. It turned out that the model quantitatively describe the equilibrium experimental data and will directed for design of SMB chromatography.

Keywords: adsorption, equilibrium, oryzanol, rice bran oil, simulated moving bed

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486 Comparison Conventional with Microwave-Assisted Drying Method on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Bran Noodle

Authors: Chien-Chun Huang, Yi-U Chiou, Chiun-C.R. Wang

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For longer shelf life of noodles, air-dried method is the traditional way for the noodle preparation. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There are few researches about the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional and microwave-assisted drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no characteristic of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles preparing by low power (0.5 KW) microwave facility. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated into noodles preparation. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased, with the increases of rice bran proportion. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: microwave-assisted drying method, physicochemical characteristics, rice bran noodles, sensory evaluation

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485 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Different Blends of Rice Bran Oil and Ethanol

Authors: Perminderjit Singh, Randeep Singh

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The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multifuel engine when fueled with different blends of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol are investigated and compared with the results of standard diesel. Biodiesel produced from rice bran oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. The experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, 50% load and at compression ratios of 16.5:1, 17:1, 17.5:1 and 18:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives the best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, the maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for waste cooking oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency at 50% load for rice bran oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B40 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in the reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions.

Keywords: biodiesel, rice bran oil, transesterification, ethanol, compression ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
484 Amino Acid Profile, Protein Digestibility, Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Protein Concentrate of Local Varieties (Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila) of Rice Brands from Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Chinma, S. O. Azeez, J. C. Anuonye, O. B. Ocheme, C. M. Yakubu, S. James, E. U. Ohuoba, I. A. Baba

Abstract:

There is growing interest in the use of rice bran protein in food formulation due to its hypoallergenic protein, high nutritional value and health promoting potentials. For the first time, the amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant, and functional properties of protein concentrate from some local varieties of rice bran from Nigeria were studied for possible food applications. Protein concentrates were prepared from rice bran and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that protein content of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 69.24%, 69.97%, 68.73%, and 71.62%, respectively while total essential amino acid were 52.71, 53.03, 51.86, and 55.75g/100g protein, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of protein concentrate from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. DPPH radical inhibition of protein from Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 48.15%, 48.90%, 47.56%, and 53.29%, respectively while ferric reducing ability power were 0.52, 0.55, 0.47 and 0.67mmol TE per gram, respectively. Protein concentrate from Jamila had higher onset (92.57oC) and denaturation temperature (102.13oC), and enthalpy (0.72J/g) than Jeep (91.46oC, 101.76oC, and 0.68J/g, respectively), Kwandala (90.32oC, 100.54oC and 0.57J/g, respectively), and Yardass (88.94oC, 99.45oC, and 0.51J/g, respectively). In vitro digestibility of protein from Kwandala, Yardas, Jeep, and Jamila were 90.70%, 91.39%, 90.57% and 91.63% respectively. Oil absorption capacity of Kwandala, Yardass, Jeep, and Jamila were 3.61, 3.73, 3.40, and 4.23g oil/g sample respectively, while water absorption capacity were 4.19, 4.32, 3.55 and 4.48g water/g sample, respectively. Protein concentrates had low bulk density (0.37-0.43g/ml). Protein concentrate from Jamila rice bran had the highest foam capacity (37.25%), followed by Yardass (34.20%), Kwandala (30.14%) and Jeep (28.90%). Protein concentrates showed low emulsifying and gelling capacities. In conclusion, protein concentrate prepared from these local rice bran varieties could serve as functional ingredients in food formulations and for enriching low protein foods.

Keywords: rice bran protein, amino acid profile, protein digestibility, antioxidant and functional properties

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483 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil

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482 Effect of Extrusion Parameters on the Rheological Properties of Ready-To-Eat Extrudates Developed from De-Oiled Rice Bran

Authors: Renu Sharma, D. C. Saxena, Tanuja Srivastava

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Mechanical properties of ready-to-eat extrudates are perceived by the consumers as one of the quality criteria. Texture quality of any product has a strong influence on the sensory evaluation as well as on the acceptability of the product. The main texture characteristics influencing the product acceptability are crispness, elasticity, hardness and softness. In the present work, the authors investigated one of the most important textural characteristics of extrudates i.e. hardness. A five-level, four-factor central composite rotatable design was employed to investigate the effect of temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content and feed composition mainly rice bran content and their interactions, on the mechanical hardness of extrudates. Among these, feed moisture was found to be a prominent factor affecting the product hardness. It was found that with the increase of feed moisture content, the rice bran proportion leads to increase in hardness of extrudates whereas the increase of temperature leads to decrease of hardness of product. A good agreement between the predicted (26.49 N) and actual value (28.73N) of the response confirms the validation of response surface methodology (RSM)-model.

Keywords: deoiled rice bran, extrusion, rheological properties, RSM

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481 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

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Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol

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480 Functionality and Application of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Oil in Water Emulsions: Their Stabilities to Environmental Stresses

Authors: R. Charoen, S. Tipkanon, W. Savedboworn, N. Phonsatta, A. Panya

Abstract:

Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared from defatted rice bran of two different Thai rice cultivars (Plai-Ngahm-Prachinburi; PNP and Khao Dok Mali 105; KDM105) using an enzymatic method. This research aimed to optimize enzyme-assisted protein extraction. In addition, the functional properties of RBPH and their stabilities to environmental stresses including pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 mM to 500 mM) and the thermal treatment (30 °C to 90 °C) were investigated. Results showed that enzymatic process for protein extraction of defatted rice bran was as follows: enzyme concentration 0.075 g/ 5 g of protein, extraction temperature 50 °C and extraction time 4 h. The obtained protein hydrolysate powders had a degree of hydrolysis (%) of 21.05% in PNP and 19.92% in KDM105. The solubility of protein hydrolysates at pH 4-6 was ranged from 27.28-38.57% and 27.60-43.00% in PNP and KDM105, respectively. In general, antioxidant activities indicated by total phenolic content, FRAP, ferrous ion-chelating (FIC), and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) of KDM105 had higher than PNP. In terms of functional properties, the emulsifying activity index (EAI) was was 8.78 m²/g protein in KDM105, whereas PNP was 5.05 m²/g protein. The foaming capacity at 5 minutes (%) was 47.33 and 52.98 in PNP and KDM105, respectively. Glutamine, Alanine, Valine, and Leucine are the major amino acid in protein hydrolysates where the total amino acid of KDM105 gave higher than PNP. Furthermore, we investigated environmental stresses on the stability of 5% oil in water emulsion (5% oil, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by RBPH (3.5%). The droplet diameter of emulsion stabilized by KDM105 was smaller (d < 250 nm) than produced by PNP. For environmental stresses, RBPH stabilized emulsions were stable at pH around 3 and 5-6, at high salt (< 400 mM, pH 7) and at temperatures range between 30-50°C.

Keywords: functional properties, oil in water emulsion, protein hydrolysates, rice bran protein

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479 In vivo Iron Availability and Profile Lipid Composition in Anemic Rats Fed on Diets with Black Rice Bran Extract

Authors: Nurlaili E. P., Astuti M., Marsono Y., Naruki S.

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Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. Nutritional anemia caused mainly by iron deficiency is the most recognized nutritional problem in both countries as well as affluent societies. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has become the most important cereal crop for the improvement of human health due to the starch, protein, oil, and the majority of micronutrients, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, the iron availability and profile lipid were evaluated for the extracts from Cibeusi varieties (black rices) of ancient rice brans. Results: The quality of K, B, R, E diets groups shows the same effect on the growth of rats. This indicate that groups is as efficiently utilized by the body as E diets. Hematocrit and MCHC levels of rats fed K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). MCV and MCH levels of rats K, B, R were significantly (P< 0.05) with E groups but rats K, B, R were not significantly (P< 0.05). The iron content in the serum of rats fed with K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). The highest level of iron in the serum was founded in the B group. The iron content in the liver of rats fed with K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P< 0.05). The highest level of iron in the liver was founded in the R group. HDL cholesterol levels were significantly (P< 0.05) between rats of fed B, E with K, R, but K and R were not significantly (P< 0.05). LDL cholesterol levels of rats fed K and E significantly (P< 0.05) with B and R. Conclusions: the bran of pigmented rice varieties has, with some exceptions, greater antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. The results also show that pigmented rice extracts acted as pro-oxidants in the lipid peroxidation assay, possibly by mechanisms described for the pro-oxidant activities of tocopherol and ascorbic. Pigmented rice bran extracts more effectively increases iron stores and reduces the prevalence of iron deficiency. And reduces cholesterol, TG and LDL cholesterol and increses HDL cholesterol.

Keywords: anemia, black rice bran extract, iron, profile lipid

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478 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto

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The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents, rice bran

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477 Study of White Salted Noodles Air Dehydration Assisted by Microwave as Compared to Conventional Air Dried Process

Authors: Chiun-C. R. Wang, I-Yu Chiu

Abstract:

Drying is the most difficult and critical step to control in the dried salted noodles production. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method for the noodle preparation. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted and conventional air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There is very few research associated with the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional air and microwave-assisted air drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, and sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no significant difference of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles between low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted salted noodles and control set. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave was applied or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated in the preparation of salted noodles. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. Meanwhile, the higher power of microwave-assisted air dried noodles indicated the larger air cell inside the noodles and appeared little burnt stripe on the surface of noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and overall acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased with the increases of rice bran proportion in the salted noodles. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and more acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: white salted noodles, microwave-assisted air drying processing, cooking yield, appearance, texture profiles, scanning electrical microscopy, sensory evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
476 Effect of Whey Protein-Rice Bran Oil Incorporated Zataria multiflora Extract Edible Coating on Chemical, Physical and Microbial Quality of Chicken Egg

Authors: Majid Javanmard

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In this study, the effects of coating with whey protein concentrate (7.5% w/v) alone and/or in combination with rice bran oil (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 g in 100 ml coating solution) and Zataria multiflora extract (1 and 2 μL in 100 ml coating solution) on the quality attributes and egg shelf life were carefully observed and analyzed. Weight loss, Haugh index, yolk index, pH, air cell depth, shell strength and the impact of this coating on the microbial load of the eggs surface were studied at the end of each week (during the 4 weeks of storage in a room environment temperature and humidity). After 4 weeks of storage, it was observed that the weight loss in all of the treated eggs with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil (experimental group) was significantly lower than that of the control group(P < 0/05). With regard to Haugh index and yolk index, egg shelf life increased about 4 weeks compared with the control samples. Haugh Index changes revealed that the coated samples remained at grade A after 3 weeks of storage, while the control samples were relegated from grade AA to B after one week. Haugh and yolk Indices in all coated eggs were more than those of the control group. In the coated groups, Haugh and yolk indices of the coated samples with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 g rice bran oil and with whey protein concentrate and 0.2g of rice bran oil and 1 micro liter of Zataria multiflora extract were more than those of the other coated eggs and the control group eggs. PH values of the control group were higher than those of the coated groups during the storage of the eggs. The shell strength of the coated group was more than that of the control group (uncoated) and in coated samples, whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil coated samples had high shell strength. In the other treatments, no significant differences were observed. The depth of the air cell of the coated groups was determined to be less than that of the control group during the storage period. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 1 μL of Zataria multiflora extract. The results showed that 1 μL concentration of Zataria multiflora extract reduces the microbial load of the egg shell surface to 87% and 2 μL reduced total bacterial load to zero. In sensory evaluation, from evaluator point of view, the coated eggs had more overall acceptance than the uncoated group (control), and in the treatment group coated eggs, those containing a low percentage of rice bran oil had higher overall acceptability. In conclusion, coating as a practical and cost effective method can maintain the quality parameters of eggs and lead to durability of supply conditions in addition to the product marketability.

Keywords: edible coating, chicken egg, whey protein concentrate, rice bran oil, Zataria multiflora extract, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
475 Characterization of Fatty Acid Glucose Esters as Os9BGlu31 Transglucosidase Substrates in Rice

Authors: Juthamath Komvongsa, Bancha Mahong, Kannika Phasai, Sukanya Luang, Jong-Seong Jeon, James Ketudat-Cairns

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Os9BGlu31 is a rice transglucosidase that transfers glucosyl moieties to various acceptors such as carboxylic acids and alcohols, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, in vitro. The role of Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase in rice plant metabolism has not been reported to date. Methanolic extracts of rice bran and flag leaves were found to contain substrates to which Os9BGlu31 could transfer glucose from 4-nitrophenyl β -D-glucopyranoside donor. The semi-purified substrate from rice bran was found to contain oleic acid and linoleic acid and the pure fatty acids were found to act as acceptor substrates for Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase to form 1-O-acyl glucose esters. Os9BGlu31 showed higher activity with oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) than stearic acid (18:0), and had both higher kcat and higher Km for linoleic than oleic acid in the presence of 8 mM 4NPGlc donor. This transglucosidase reaction is reversible, Os9bglu31 knockout rice lines of flag leaves were found to have higher amounts of fatty acid glucose esters than wild type control lines, these data conclude that fatty acid glucose esters act as glucosyl donor substrates for Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase in rice.

Keywords: fatty acid, fatty acid glucose ester, transglucosidase, rice flag leaf, homologous knockout lines, tandam mass spectrometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
474 Oryzanol Recovery from Rice Bran Oil: Adsorption Equilibrium Models Through Kinetics Data Approachments

Authors: A.D. Susanti, W. B. Sediawan, S.K. Wirawan, Budhijanto, Ritmaleni

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Oryzanol content in rice bran oil (RBO) naturally has high antioxidant activity. Its reviewed has several health properties and high interested in pharmacy, cosmetics, and nutrition’s. Because of the low concentration of oryzanol in crude RBO (0.9-2.9%) then its need to be further processed for practical usage, such as via adsorption process. In this study, investigation and adjustment of adsorption equilibrium models were conducted through the kinetic data approachments. Mathematical modeling on kinetics of batch adsorption of oryzanol separation from RBO has been set-up and then applied for equilibrium results. The size of adsorbent particles used in this case are usually relatively small then the concentration in the adsorbent is assumed to be not different. Hence, the adsorption rate is controlled by the rate of oryzanol mass transfer from the bulk fluid of RBO to the surface of silica gel. In this approachments, the rate of mass transfer is assumed to be proportional to the concentration deviation from the equilibrium state. The equilibrium models applied were Langmuir, coefficient distribution, and Freundlich with the values of the parameters obtained from equilibrium results. It turned out that the models set-up can quantitatively describe the experimental kinetics data and the adjustment of the values of equilibrium isotherm parameters significantly improves the accuracy of the model. And then the value of mass transfer coefficient per unit adsorbent mass (kca) is obtained by curve fitting.

Keywords: adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, oryzanol, rice bran oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
473 Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - a Case Study

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

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A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and 50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of the shelling machinery is also fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection efficiency of more than 90 %. This cyclone separator replaced two cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated standards. Besides controlling pollution there is improvement in the quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has also enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four shelling months.

Keywords: air pollution, cyclone separator, pneumatic conveying, rice shellers

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
472 Reducing Phytic Acid in Rice Grain by Targeted Mutagenesis of a Phospholipase D Gene

Authors: Muhammad Saad Shoaib Khan, Rasbin Basnet, Qingyao Shu

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Phospholipids are one of the major classes of lipid comprising 10% of total grain lipid in rice. Phospholipids are the main phosphorus containing lipid in the rice endosperm, contributing to rice palatability and seed storage property. However, in the rice grain, the majority of phosphorus occur in the form of phytic acid and are highly abundant in the bran. Phytic acid, also known as hexaphosphorylated inositol (IP6), are strong chelating agents which reduces the bioavailability of essential dietary nutrients and are therefore less desirable by rice breeders. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mutants of a phospholipase D gene (PLDα1), which is responsible for the degradation of phospholipids into phosphatidic acid (PA). In the mutants, we found a significant reduction in the concentration of phytic acid in the grain as compared to the wild-type. The biochemical analysis of the PLDα1 mutants showed that the decrease in production of phosphatidic acid is due to reduced accumulation of CDP-diacylglycerolderived phosphatidylinositol (PI), ultimately leading to lower accumulation of phytic acid in mutants. These results showed that loss of function of PLD in rice leads to lower production of phytic acid, suggesting the potential application of Ospldα1 in breeding rice with less phytic acid.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, phospholipase D, phytic acid, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
471 Extracellular Phytase from Lactobacillus fermentum spp KA1: Optimization of Enzyme Production and Its Application for Improving the Nutritional Quality of Rice Bran

Authors: Neha Sharma, Kanthi K. Kondepudi, Naveen Gupta

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Phytases are phytate specific phosphatases catalyzing the step-wise dephosphorylation of phytate, which acts as an anti-nutritional factor in food due to its strong binding capacity to minerals. In recent years microbial phytases have been explored for improving nutritional quality of food. But the major limitation is acceptability of phytases from these microorganisms. Therefore, efforts are being made to isolate organisms which are generally regarded as safe for human consumption such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Phytases from these organisms will have an edge over other phytase sources due to its probiotic attributes. Only few LAB have been reported to give phytase activity that too is generally seen as intracellular. LAB producing extracellular phytase will be more useful as it can degrade phytate more effectively. Moreover, enzyme from such isolate will have application in food processing also. Only few species of Lactobacillus producing extracellular phytase have been reported so far. This study reports the isolation of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus fermentum spp KA1 which produces extracellular phytase. Conditions for the optimal production of phytase have been optimized and the enzyme production resulted in an approximately 13-fold increase in yield. The phytate degradation potential of extracellular phytase in rice bran has been explored and conditions for optimal degradation were optimized. Under optimal conditions, there was 43.26% release of inorganic phosphate and 6.45% decrease of phytate content.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, phytase, phytate reduction, rice bran

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
470 Diffusion Mechanism of Aroma Compound (2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline) in Rice During Storage

Authors: Mary Ann U. Baradi, Arnold R. Elepaño, Manuel Jose C. Regalado

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Aromatic rice has become popular and continues to command higher price than ordinary rice because of its distinctive scent that makes it special. Freshly harvested aromatic rice exhibits strong aromatic scent but decreases with time and conditions during storage. Of the many volatile compounds in aromatic rice, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a major compound that gives rice its popcorn-like aroma. The diffusion mechanism of 2AP in rice was investigated. Semi-empirical models explaining 2AP diffusion as affected by temperature and duration were developed. Storage time and temperature affected 2AP loss via diffusion. The amount of 2AP in rice decreased with time. Free 2AP, being volatile, is lost due to diffusion. Storage experiment indicated rapid 2AP loss during the first five weeks and subsequently leveled off afterwards; attaining level of starch bound 2AP. Decline of 2AP during storage followed exponential equation and exhibited four stages; i.e. the initial, second, third and final stage. Free 2AP is easily lost while bound 2AP is left, only to be released upon exposure to high temperature such as cooking. Both free and bound 2AP is found in endosperm while free 2AP is in the bran. Around 63–67% of total 2AP was lost in brown and milled rice of MS 6 paddy kept at ambient. Samples stored at higher temperature (27°C) recorded higher 2AP loss than those kept at lower temperature (15°C). The study should be able to guide processors in understanding and controlling parameters in storage to produce high quality rice.

Keywords: 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, aromatic rice, diffusion mechanism, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
469 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

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In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
468 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

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This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: capacitor copper plates, electric field distribution, dielectric heating, grains

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
467 Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Authors: W. Srinuttrakul, V. Permnamtip

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Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, ICP-MS, lead, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 155