Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Matthieu Tubino

15 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

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14 Simultaneous Determination of Six Characterizing/Quality Parameters of Biodiesels via 1H NMR and Multivariate Calibration

Authors: Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

The characterization and the quality of biodiesel samples are checked by determining several parameters. Considering a large number of analysis to be performed, as well as the disadvantages of the use of toxic solvents and waste generation, multivariate calibration is suggested to reduce the number of tests. In this work, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra were used to build multivariate models, from partial least squares (PLS) regression, in order to determine simultaneously six important characterizing and/or quality parameters of biodiesels: density at 20 ºC, kinematic viscosity at 40 ºC, iodine value, acid number, oxidative stability, and water content. Biodiesels from twelve different oils sources were used in this study: babassu, brown flaxseed, canola, corn, cottonseed, macauba almond, microalgae, palm kernel, residual frying, sesame, soybean, and sunflower. 1H NMR reflects the structures of the compounds present in biodiesel samples and showed suitable correlations with the six parameters. The PLS models were constructed with latent variables between 5 and 7, the obtained values of r(cal) and r(val) were greater than 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. In addition, the models were considered suitable to predict all the six parameters for external samples, taking into account the analytical speed to perform it. Thus, the alliance between 1H NMR and PLS showed to be appropriate to characterize and evaluate the quality of biodiesels, reducing significantly analysis time, the consumption of reagents/solvents, and waste generation. Therefore, the proposed methods can be considered to adhere to the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: biodiesel, multivariate calibration, nuclear magnetic resonance, quality parameters

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13 Monitoring Synthesis of Biodiesel through Online Density Measurements

Authors: Arnaldo G. de Oliveira, Jr, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

The transesterification process of triglycerides with alcohols that occurs during the biodiesel synthesis causes continuous changes in several physical properties of the reaction mixture, such as refractive index, viscosity and density. Amongst them, density can be an useful parameter to monitor the reaction, in order to predict the composition of the reacting mixture and to verify the conversion of the oil into biodiesel. In this context, a system was constructed in order to continuously determine changes in the density of the reacting mixture containing soybean oil, methanol and sodium methoxide (30 % w/w solution in methanol), stirred at 620 rpm at room temperature (about 27 °C). A polyethylene pipe network connected to a peristaltic pump was used in order to collect the mixture and pump it through a coil fixed on the plate of an analytical balance. The collected mass values were used to trace a curve correlating the mass of the system to the reaction time. The density variation profile versus the time clearly shows three different steps: 1) the dispersion of methanol in oil causes a decrease in the system mass due to the lower alcohol density followed by stabilization; 2) the addition of the catalyst (sodium methoxide) causes a larger decrease in mass compared to the first step (dispersion of methanol in oil) because of the oil conversion into biodiesel; 3) the final stabilization, denoting the end of the reaction. This density variation profile provides information that was used to predict the composition of the mixture over the time and the reaction rate. The precise knowledge of the duration of the synthesis means saving time and resources on a scale production system. This kind of monitoring provides several interesting features such as continuous measurements without collecting aliquots.

Keywords: biodiesel, density measurements, online continuous monitoring, synthesis

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12 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

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11 Study of Oxidative Stability, Cold Flow Properties and Iodine Value of Macauba Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Acacia A. Salomão, Willian L. Gomes da Silva, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

Biodiesel physical and chemical properties depend on the raw material composition used in its synthesis. Saturated fatty acid esters confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acid esters improve the cold flow properties. In this study, an alternative vegetal source - the macauba kernel oil - was used in the biodiesel synthesis instead of conventional sources. Macauba can be collected from native palm trees and is found in several regions in Brazil. Its oil is a promising source when compared to several other oils commonly obtained from food products, such as soybean, corn or canola oil, due to its specific characteristics. However, the usage of biodiesel made from macauba oil alone is not recommended due to the difficulty of producing macauba in large quantities. For this reason, this project proposes the usage of blends of the macauba oil with conventional oils. These blends were prepared by mixing the macauba biodiesel with biodiesels obtained from soybean, corn, and from residual frying oil, in the following proportions: 20:80, 50:50 e 80:20 (w/w). Three parameters were evaluated, using the standard methods, in order to check the quality of the produced biofuel and its blends: oxidative stability, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and iodine value. The induction period (IP) expresses the oxidative stability of the biodiesel, the CFPP expresses the lowest temperature in which the biodiesel flows through a filter without plugging the system and the iodine value is a measure of the number of double bonds in a sample. The biodiesels obtained from soybean, residual frying oil and corn presented iodine values higher than 110 g/100 g, low oxidative stability and low CFPP. The IP values obtained from these biodiesels were lower than 8 h, which is below the recommended standard value. On the other hand, the CFPP value was found within the allowed limit (5 ºC is the maximum). Regarding the macauba biodiesel, a low iodine value was observed (31.6 g/100 g), which indicates the presence of high content of saturated fatty acid esters. The presence of saturated fatty acid esters should imply in a high oxidative stability (which was found accordingly, with IP = 64 h), and high CFPP, but curiously the latter was not observed (-3 ºC). This behavior can be explained by looking at the size of the carbon chains, as 65% of this biodiesel is composed by short chain saturated fatty acid esters (less than 14 carbons). The high oxidative stability and the low CFPP of macauba biodiesel are what make this biofuel a promising source. The soybean, corn and residual frying oil biodiesels also have low CFPP, but low oxidative stability. Therefore the blends proposed in this work, if compared to the common biodiesels, maintain the flow properties but present enhanced oxidative stability.

Keywords: biodiesel, blends, macauba kernel oil, stability oxidative

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10 Study of the Kinetics of Formation of Carboxylic Acids Using Ion Chromatography during Oxidation Induced by Rancimat of the Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, and Biodiesel

Authors: Patrícia T. Souza, Marina Ansolin, Eduardo A. C. Batista, Antonio J. A. Meirelles, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is a major cause of the deterioration of the quality of the biodiesel, because the waste generated damages the engines. Among the main undesirable effects are the increase of viscosity and acidity, leading to the formation of insoluble gums and sediments which cause the blockage of fuel filters. The auto-oxidation is defined as the spontaneous reaction of atmospheric oxygen with lipids. Unsaturated fatty acids are usually the components affected by such reactions. They are present as free fatty acids, fatty esters and glycerides. To determine the oxidative stability of biodiesels, through the induction period, IP, the Rancimat method is used, which allows continuous monitoring of the induced oxidation process of the samples. During the oxidation of the lipids, volatile organic acids are produced as byproducts, in addition, other byproducts, including alcohols and carbonyl compounds, may be further oxidized to carboxylic acids. By the methodology developed in this work using ion chromatography, IC, analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessel, were quantified organic anions of carboxylic acids in samples subjected to oxidation induced by Rancimat. The optimized chromatographic conditions were: eluent water:acetone (80:20 v/v) with 0.5 mM sulfuric acid; flow rate 0.4 mL min-1; injection volume 20 µL; eluent suppressor 20 mM LiCl; analytical curve from 1 to 400 ppm. The samples studied were methyl biodiesel from soybean oil and unsaturated fatty acids standards: oleic, linoleic and linolenic. The induced oxidation kinetics curves were constructed by analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessels which were removed, each one, from the Rancimat apparatus at prefixed intervals of time. About 3 g of sample were used under the conditions of 110 °C and air flow rate of 10 L h-1. The water of each conductimetric Rancimat measuring vessel, where the volatile compounds were collected, was filtered through a 0.45 µm filter and analyzed by IC. Through the kinetic data of the formation of the organic anions of carboxylic acids, the formation rates of the same were calculated. The observed order of the rates of formation of the anions was: formate >>> acetate > hexanoate > valerate for the oleic acid; formate > hexanoate > acetate > valerate for the linoleic acid; formate >>> valerate > acetate > propionate > butyrate for the linolenic acid. It is possible to suppose that propionate and butyrate are obtained mainly from linolenic acid and that hexanoate is originated from oleic and linoleic acid. For the methyl biodiesel the order of formation of anions was: formate >>> acetate > valerate > hexanoate > propionate. According to the total rate of formation these anions produced during the induced degradation of the fatty acids can be assigned the order of reactivity: linolenic acid > linoleic acid >>> oleic acid.

Keywords: anions of carboxylic acids, biodiesel, ion chromatography, oxidation

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9 IT-Aided Business Process Enabling Real-Time Analysis of Candidates for Clinical Trials

Authors: Matthieu-P. Schapranow

Abstract:

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires the screening of a big number of potential candidates, i.e. the testing for trial-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, which is a time-consuming and complex task. Today, a significant amount of time is spent on identification of adequate trial participants as their selection may affect the overall study results. We introduce a unique patient eligibility metric, which allows systematic ranking and classification of candidates based on trial-specific filter criteria. Our web application enables real-time analysis of patient data and assessment of candidates using freely definable inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a result, the overall time required for identifying eligible candidates is tremendously reduced whilst additional degrees of freedom for evaluating the relevance of individual candidates are introduced by our contribution.

Keywords: in-memory technology, clinical trials, screening, eligibility metric, data analysis, clustering

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8 3D Interferometric Imaging Using Compressive Hardware Technique

Authors: Mor Diama L. O., Matthieu Davy, Laurent Ferro-Famil

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In this article, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is combined with compressive imaging techniques in order to perform 3D interferometric imaging. Interferometric ISAR (InISAR) imaging relies on a two-dimensional antenna array providing diversities in the elevation and azimuth directions. However, the signals measured over several antennas must be acquired by coherent receivers resulting in costly and complex hardware. This paper proposes to use a chaotic cavity as a compressive device to encode the signals arising from several antennas into a single output port. These signals are then reconstructed by solving an inverse problem. Our approach is demonstrated experimentally with a 3-elements L-shape array connected to a metallic compressive enclosure. The interferometric phases estimated from a unique broadband signal are used to jointly estimate the target’s effective rotation rate and the height of the dominant scattering centers of our target. Our experimental results show that the use of the compressive device does not adversely affect the performance of our imaging process. This study opens new perspectives to reduce the hardware complexity of high-resolution ISAR systems.

Keywords: interferometric imaging, inverse synthetic aperture radar, compressive device, computational imaging

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7 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

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6 Development of Personal Protection Equipment for Dental Surgeon

Authors: Thi. A. D. Tran, Matthieu Arnold, Dominique Adolphe, Laurence Schcher, Guillaume Reys

Abstract:

During daily oral health cares, dental surgeons are in contact with numerous potentially infectious germs from patients' saliva and blood. In order to take into account these risks, a product development process has been unrolled to propose to the dental surgeon a personal protection equipment that is suitable with their expectations in terms of images, protection and comfort. After a consumer study, to evaluate how the users wear the garment and their expectations, specifications have been carried out and technical solutions have been developed in order to answer to the maximum of the desiderata. Thermal studies and comfort studies have been performed. The obtained results lead to define the technical solutions concerning the design of the new scrub. Three main functions have been investigated, the ergonomic aspect, the protection and the thermal comfort. In terms of ergonomic aspect, instrumented garments have been worn and pressure measurements have been done. The results highlight that a raglan shape for the sleeves has to be selected for a better dynamic comfort. Moreover, spray tests helped us to localize the potential contamination area and therefore protection devices have been placed on the garment. Concerning the thermal comfort, an I-R study was conducted in consulting room under the real working conditions; the heating zones have been detected. Based on these results, solutions have been proposed and implemented in a new gown. This new gown is currently composed of three different parts; a protective layer placed in the chest area to avoid contamination; a breathable layer placed in the back and in the armpits and a normal PET/Cotton fabric for the rest of the gown. Through the fitting tests conducted in hospital, it was obtained that the new design was highly appreciated. Some points can nevertheless be further improved. A final product will be produced based on necessary improvements.

Keywords: comfort, dentists, garment, thermal

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5 Internal Stresses and Structural Evolutions in Zr Alloys during Oxidation at High Temperature and Subsequent Cooling

Authors: Raphaelle Guillou, Matthieu Le Saux, Jean-Christophe Brachet, Thomas Guilbert, Elodie Rouesne, Denis Menut, Caroline Toffolon-Masclet, Dominique Thiaudiere

Abstract:

In some hypothetical accidental situations, such as during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed for a few minutes to steam at High Temperature (HT up to 1200°C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. Under LOCA-like conditions, the cladding undergoes a number of metallurgical changes (phase transformations, oxygen diffusion and growth of an oxide layer...) and is consequently submitted to internal stresses whose state evolves during the transient. These stresses can have an effect on the oxide structure and the oxidation kinetics of the material. They evolve during cooling, owing to differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the various phases and phase transformations of the metal and the oxide. These stresses may result in the failure of the cladding during quenching, once the material is embrittled by oxidation. In order to progress in the evaluation of these internal stresses, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in-situ under synchrotron radiation during HT oxidation and subsequent cooling on Zircaloy-4 sheet samples. First, structural evolutions, such as phase transformations, have been studied as a function of temperature for both the oxide layer and the metallic substrate. Then, internal stresses generated within the material oxidized at temperatures between 700 and 900°C have been evaluated thanks to the 2θ diffraction peak position shift measured during the in-situ experiments. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was performed on the samples after cooling in order to characterize their crystallographic texture. Furthermore, macroscopic strains induced by oxidation in the conditions investigated during the in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments were measured in-situ in a dilatometer.

Keywords: APRP, stains measurements, synchrotron diffraction, zirconium allows

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4 Aire-Dependent Transcripts have Shortened 3’UTRs and Show Greater Stability by Evading Microrna-Mediated Repression

Authors: Clotilde Guyon, Nada Jmari, Yen-Chin Li, Jean Denoyel, Noriyuki Fujikado, Christophe Blanchet, David Root, Matthieu Giraud

Abstract:

Aire induces ectopic expression of a large repertoire of tissue-specific antigen (TSA) genes in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in maturing T cells. Although important mechanisms of Aire-induced transcription have recently been disclosed through the identification and the study of Aire’s partners, the fine transcriptional functions underlied by a number of them and conferred to Aire are still unknown. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an essential mRNA processing step regulated by the termination complex consisting of 85 proteins, 10 of them have been related to Aire. We evaluated APA in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes and RNA deep sequencing. We uncovered the preference of Aire-dependent transcripts for short-3’UTR isoforms and for proximal poly(A) site selection marked by the increased binding of the cleavage factor Cstf-64. RNA interference of the 10 Aire-related proteins revealed that Clp1, a member of the core termination complex, exerts a profound effect on short 3’UTR isoform preference. Clp1 is also significantly upregulated in the MECs compared to 25 mouse tissues in which we found that TSA expression is associated with longer 3’UTR isoforms. Aire-dependent transcripts escape a global 3’UTR lengthening associated with MEC differentiation, thereby potentiating the repressive effect of microRNAs that are globally upregulated in mature MECs. Consistent with these findings, RNA deep sequencing of actinomycinD-treated MECs revealed the increased stability of short 3’UTR Aire-induced transcripts, resulting in TSA transcripts accumulation and contributing for their enrichment in the MECs.

Keywords: Aire, central tolerance, miRNAs, transcription termination

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3 Multi-Agent System Based Solution for Operating Agile and Customizable Micro Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Dylan Santos De Pinho, Arnaud Gay De Combes, Matthieu Steuhlet, Claude Jeannerat, Nabil Ouerhani

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The Industry 4.0 initiative has been launched to address huge challenges related to ever-smaller batch sizes. The end-user need for highly customized products requires highly adaptive production systems in order to keep the same efficiency of shop floors. Most of the classical Software solutions that operate the manufacturing processes in a shop floor are based on rigid Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), which are not capable to adapt the production order on the fly depending on changing demands and or conditions. In this paper, we present a highly modular and flexible solution to orchestrate a set of production systems composed of a micro-milling machine-tool, a polishing station, a cleaning station, a part inspection station, and a rough material store. The different stations are installed according to a novel matrix configuration of a 3x3 vertical shelf. The different cells of the shelf are connected through horizontal and vertical rails on which a set of shuttles circulate to transport the machined parts from a station to another. Our software solution for orchestrating the tasks of each station is based on a Multi-Agent System. Each station and each shuttle is operated by an autonomous agent. All agents communicate with a central agent that holds all the information about the manufacturing order. The core innovation of this paper lies in the path planning of the different shuttles with two major objectives: 1) reduce the waiting time of stations and thus reduce the cycle time of the entire part, and 2) reduce the disturbances like vibration generated by the shuttles, which highly impacts the manufacturing process and thus the quality of the final part. Simulation results show that the cycle time of the parts is reduced by up to 50% compared with MES operated linear production lines while the disturbance is systematically avoided for the critical stations like the milling machine-tool.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, micro-manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, transfer systems

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2 Properties of Ettringite According to Hydration, Dehydration and Carbonation Process

Authors: Bao Chen, Frederic Kuznik, Matthieu Horgnies, Kevyn Johannes, Vincent Morin, Edouard Gengembre

Abstract:

The contradiction between energy consumption, environment protection, and social development is increasingly intensified during recent decade years. At the same time, as avoiding fossil-fuels-thirsty, people turn their view on the renewable green energy, such as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, etc. However, due to the unavoidable mismatch on geography and time for production and consumption, energy storage seems to be one of the most reasonable solutions to enlarge the use of renewable energies. Thermal energy storage (TES), a branch of energy storage solution, mainly concerns the capture, storage and consumption of thermal energy for later use in different scales (individual house, apartment, district, and city). In TES research field, sensible heat and latent heat storage have been widely studied and presented at an advanced stage of development. Compared with them, thermochemical energy storage is still at initial phase but provides a relatively higher theoretical energy density and a long shelf life without heat dissipation during storage. Among thermochemical energy storage materials, inorganic pure or composite compounds like micro-porous silica gel, SrBr₂ hydrate and MgSO₄-Zeolithe have been reported as promising to be integrated into thermal energy storage systems. However, the cost of these materials, one of main obstacles, may hinder the wide use of energy storage systems in real application scales (individual house, apartment, district and even city). New studies on ettringite show promising application for thermal energy storage since its high energy density and large resource from cementitious materials. Ettringite, or calcium trisulfoaluminate hydrate, of which chemical formula is 3CaO∙Al₂O₃∙3CaSO₄∙32H₂O, or C₆AS̅₃H₃₂ as known in cement chemistry notation, is one of the most important members of AFt group. As a common compound in hydrated cements, ettringite has been widely studied for its performances in construction but barely known as a thermochemical material. For this study, we summarize available data about the structure and properties of ettringite and its metastable phase (meta-ettringite), including the processes of hydration, thermal conversion and carbonation durability for thermal energy storage.

Keywords: building materials, ettringite, meta-ettringite, thermal energy storage

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1 Efficiency of Different Types of Addition onto the Hydration Kinetics of Portland Cement

Authors: Marine Regnier, Pascal Bost, Matthieu Horgnies

Abstract:

Some of the problems to be solved for the concrete industry are linked to the use of low-reactivity cement, the hardening of concrete under cold-weather and the manufacture of pre-casted concrete without costly heating step. The development of these applications needs to accelerate the hydration kinetics, in order to decrease the setting time and to obtain significant compressive strengths as soon as possible. The mechanisms enhancing the hydration kinetics of alite or Portland cement (e.g. the creation of nucleation sites) were already studied in literature (e.g. by using distinct additions such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, calcium carbonate fillers, water-soluble polymers, C-S-H, etc.). However, the goal of this study was to establish a clear ranking of the efficiency of several types of additions by using a robust and reproducible methodology based on isothermal calorimetry (performed at 20°C). The cement was a CEM I 52.5N PM-ES (Blaine fineness of 455 m²/kg). To ensure the reproducibility of the experiments and avoid any decrease of the reactivity before use, the cement was stored in waterproof and sealed bags to avoid any contact with moisture and carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed on Portland cement pastes by using a water-to-cement ratio of 0.45, and incorporating different compounds (industrially available or laboratory-synthesized) that were selected according to their main composition and their specific surface area (SSA, calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) model and nitrogen adsorption isotherms performed at 77K). The intrinsic effects of (i) dry powders (e.g. fumed silica, activated charcoal, nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, afwillite germs, nanoparticles of iron and iron oxides , etc.), and (ii) aqueous solutions (e.g. containing calcium chloride, hydrated Portland cement or Master X-SEED 100, etc.) were investigated. The influence of the amount of addition, calculated relatively to the dry extract of each addition compared to cement (and by conserving the same water-to-cement ratio) was also studied. The results demonstrated that the X-SEED®, the hydrated calcium nitrate, the calcium chloride (and, at a minor level, a solution of hydrated Portland cement) were able to accelerate the hydration kinetics of Portland cement, even at low concentration (e.g. 1%wt. of dry extract compared to cement). By using higher rates of additions, the fumed silica, the precipitated calcium carbonate and the titanium dioxide can also accelerate the hydration. In the case of the nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, a correlation was established between the SSA and the accelerating effect. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of iron or iron oxides, the activated charcoal and the dried crystallised hydrates did not show any accelerating effect. Future experiments will be scheduled to establish the ranking of these additions, in terms of accelerating effect, by using low-reactivity cements and other water to cement ratios.

Keywords: acceleration, hydration kinetics, isothermal calorimetry, Portland cement

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