Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1162

Search results for: cerium oxide

1162 Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Addition in Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a CI Engine

Authors: Abbas Ali Taghipoor Bafghi, Hosein Bakhoda, Fateme Khodaei Chegeni


An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-bio diesel fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nano particles are analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability.In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke engine coupled with an electrical dynamo meter and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for combustion. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nano particles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-bio diesel blends to improve complete combustion of the fuel significantly.

Keywords: engine, cerium oxide, biodiesel, deposit

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1161 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra


A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutin

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1160 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

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1159 Synthesis of La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ -Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 Composite Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Lanthanum and Cerium Recycled from Wasted Glass Polishing Powder

Authors: Jun-Lun Jiang, Bing-Sheng Yu


Processing of flat-panel displays generates huge amount of wasted glass polishing powder, with high concentration of cerium and other elements such as lanthanum. According to the current statistics, consumption of polishing powder was approximately ten thousand tons per year in the world. Nevertheless, wasted polishing powder was usually buried or burned. If the lanthanum and cerium compounds in the wasted polishing powder could be recycled, that will greatly reduce enterprise cost and implement waste circulation. Cathodes of SOFCs are the principal consisting of rare earth elements such as lanthanum and cerium. In this study, we recycled the lanthanum and cerium from wasted glass polishing powder by acid-solution method, and synthesized La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15Fe0.8Co0.8O3-δ and Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 (LSCCF-GDC) composite cathode material for SOFCs by glycinenitrate combustion (GNP) method. The results show that the recovery rates of lanthanum and cerium could accomplish up to 80% and 100% under 10N nitric acid solution within one hour. Comparing with the XRD data of the commercial LSCCF-GDC powder and the LSCCF-GDC product synthesized with chemicals, we find that the LSCCF-GDC was successfully synthesized with the recycled La & Ce solution by GNP method. The effect of adding ammonia to the product was also discussed, the grain size is finer and recovery rate of the product is higher without the addition of ammonia to the solution.

Keywords: glass polishing powder, acid solution, recycling, composite cathodes of solid oxide fuel, cell (SOFC), perovskite, glycine-nitrate combustion(GNP) method

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1158 Cerium Salt Effect in 70s Bioactive Glass

Authors: Alessandra N. Santos, Max P. Ferreira, Alexandra R. P. Silva, Agda A. R. de Oliveira, Marivalda M. Pereira


The literature describes experiments, in which ceria nanoparticles in the bioactive glass significantly improve differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts and increase production of collagen. It is not known whether this effect observed due to the presence of nanoceria can be also observed in the presence of cerium in the bioactive glass network. The effect of cerium into bioactive glasses using the sol–gel route is the focus of this work, with the goal to develop a material for tissue engineering with the potential to enhance osteogenesis. A bioactive glass composition based on 70% SiO2–30% CaO is produced with the addition of cerium. The analyses XRD, FTIR, SEM/EDS, BET/BJH, in vitro bioactivity test and the Cell viability assay were performed. The results show that cerium remains in the bioactive glass structure. The obtained material present in vitro bioactivity and promote the cell viability.

Keywords: bioactive glass, bioactivity, cerium salt, material characterization, sol-gel method

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1157 Low-Temperature Catalytic Incineration of Acetone over MnCeOx Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Aluminosilicate: The Mn-Ce Bimetallic Effect

Authors: Liang-Yi Lin, Hsunling Bai


In this work, transition metal (metal= Co, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mn) modified cerium oxide catalysts supported on mesoporous aluminosilicate particles (Ce/Al-MSPs) were prepared using waste silicate as the precursors through aerosol-assisted flow process, and their catalytic performances were investigated for acetone incineration. Tests on the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs and Mn/Al-MSPs and trimetallic Mn-Ce, Fe-Ce, Co-Ce, Ni-Ce, and Cu-Ce/Al-MSPs in the temperature range of 100-300 oC demonstrated that Ce was the main active metal while Mn acted as a suitable promoter in acetone incineration reactions. Among tested catalysts, Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs with a Mn/Ce molar ratio of 2/1 exhibited the highest acetone catalytic activity. Moreover, the synergetic effect was observed for trimetallic Mn-Ce/Al-MSPs on the acetone removal as compared to the bimetallic Ce/Al-MSPs or Mn/Al-MSPs catalysts.

Keywords: acetone, catalytic oxidation, cerium oxide, mesoporous silica

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1156 Hierarchical Porous Carbon Composite Electrode for High Performance Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Chia-Chia Chang, Jhen-Ting Huang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo


This study developed a simple hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) synthesis process and used for supercapacitor application. In which, mesopore provides huge specific surface area, meanwhile, macropore provides excellent mass transfer. Thus the hierarchical porous electrode improves the charge-discharge performance. On the other hand, cerium oxide (CeO2) have also got a lot research attention owing to its rich in content, low in price, environmentally friendly, good catalytic properties, and easy preparation. Besides, a rapid redox reaction occurs between trivalent cerium and tetravalent cerium releases oxygen atom and increase the conductivity. In order to prevent CeO2 from disintegration under long-term charge-discharge operation, the CeO2 carbon porous materials were was integrated as composite material in this study. For in the ex-situ analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis were adopted to identify the surface morphology, crystal structure, and microstructure of the composite. 77K Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis was used to analyze the porosity of each specimen. For the in-situ test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) were conducted by potentiostat to understand the charge and discharge properties. Ragone plot was drawn to further analyze the resistance properties. Based on above analyses, the effect of macropores/mespores and the CeO2/HPC ratios on charge-discharge performance were investigated. As a result, the capacitance can be greatly enhanced by 2.6 times higher than pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

Keywords: hierarchical porous carbon, cerium oxide, supercapacitor

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1155 Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze


Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high-temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and at 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into the body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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1154 Thermal Effects of Phase Transitions of Cerium and Neodymium

Authors: M. Khundadze, V. Varazashvili, N. Lejava, R. Jorbenadze


Phase transitions of cerium and neodymium are investigated by using high temperature scanning calorimeter (HT-1500 Seteram). For cerium two types of transformation are detected: at 350-372 K - hexagonal close packing (hcp) - face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transition, and in 880-960K the face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) transformation into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc). For neodymium changing of hexagonal close packing (hcp) into body-centered cubic lattice (bcc) is detected at 1093-1113K. The thermal characteristics of transitions – enthalpy, entropy, temperature domains – are reported.

Keywords: cerium, calorimetry, neodymium, enthalpy of phase transitions, neodymium

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1153 Impacts of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Functional Bacterial Community in Activated Sludge

Authors: I. Kamika, S. Azizi, M. Tekere


Nanotechnology promises significant improvements of advanced materials and manufacturing techniques with a vast range of applications, which are critical for the future competitiveness of national industries. The manipulations and productions of materials, whilst, controlling the optical properties and surface area to a nanosize scale enabled a birth of a new field known as nanotechnology. However, their rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, as their effects on functional bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium Oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system, which influenced its performance of this system on nutrient removal. Out of 15875 reads sequenced, a total of 13133 reads were non-chimeric. The wastewater samples were more dominant to the unclassified bacteria (51.07% of bacteria community) followed with the classified bacteria (48.93). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in both classified and unclassified bacteria, whereas 18% of bacteria could even not be assigned a phylum and remained unclassified suggesting hitherto vast untapped microbial diversity. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 1014 to 2629 over the experimental period. The denitrification related species including Diaphorobacter species, Thauera species and those in the Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix group were found to be inhibited in a high concentration of CeO-NP. The diversity indices suggested that the bacterial community inhabiting the wastewater samples were less diverse as the concentration of CeO increases. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results highlighted that the bacterial community variance had the strongest relationship with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content as well as nCeO. The results provided the relationships between the microbial community and environmental variables in the wastewater samples.

Keywords: bacterial community, next generation, cerium oxide, wastewater, activated sludge, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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1152 Effect of Aging Time on CeO2 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Synthesized via Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Navid Zanganeh, Hafez Balavi, Farbod Sharif, Mahla Zabet, Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh


Cerium oxide (CeO2) also known as cerium dioxide or ceria is a pale yellow-white powder with various applications in the industry from wood coating to cosmetics, filtration, fuel cell electrolytes, gas sensors, hybrid solar cells and catalysts. In this research, attempts were made to synthesize and characterization of CeO2 nano-particles via sol-gel method. In addition, the effect of aging time on the size of particles was investigated. For this purpose, the aging times adjusted 48, 56, 64, and 72 min. The obtained particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). As a result, XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CeO2 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images illustrated the nano-particles with cluster shape, spherical and a nano-size range which was in agreement with XRD results. The finest particles (7.3 nm) was obtained at the optimum condition which was aging time of 48 min, calcination temperature at 400 ⁰C, and cerium concentration of 0.004 mol. Average specific surface area of the particles at optimum condition was measured by BET analysis and recorded as 47.57 m2/g.

Keywords: aging time, CeO2 nanoparticles, size distribution, sol-gel

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1151 Inventive Synthesis and Characterization of a Cesium Molybdate Compound: CsBi(MoO4)2

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş


Cesium molybdates with general formula CsMIII(MoO4)2, where MIII = Bi, Dy, Pr, Er, exhibit rich polymorphism, and crystallize in a layered structure. These properties cause intensive studies on cesium molybdates. CsBi(MoO4)2 was synthesized by microwave method by using cerium sulphate, bismuth oxide and molybdenum (VI) oxide in an appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: cesium bismuth dimolybdate, microwave synthesis, powder x-ray diffraction, rare earth dimolybdates

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1150 Photoluminescence in Cerium Doped Fluorides Prepared by Slow Precipitation Method

Authors: Aarti Muley, S. J. Dhoblae


CaF₂ and BaF₂ doped with cerium were prepared by slow precipitation method with different molar concentration and different cerium concentration. Both the samples were also prepared by direct method for comparison. The XRD of BaF₂:Ce shows that it crystallizes to BCC structure. The peak matches with JCPDS file no. 4-0452. Also, The XRD pattern of CaF₂:Ce matches well with the JCPDS file number 75- 0363 and crystallized to BCC phase. In CaF₂, the double-humped photoluminescence spectra were observed at 320nm and 340nm when the sample was prepared by the direct precipitation method, and the ratio between these peaks is unity. However when the sample prepared by slow precipitation method the double-humped emission spectra of CaF₂:Ce was observed at 323nm and 340nm. The ratio between these peaks is 0.58, and the optimum concentration is obtained for 0.1 molar CaF₂ with Ce concentration 1.5%. When the cerium concentration is increased by 2% the peak at 323nm vanishes, and the emission was observed at 342nm with the shoulder at 360nm. In this case, the intensity reduces drastically. The excitation is observed at 305nm with a small peak at 254nm. One molar BaF₂ doped with 0.1% of cerium was synthesized by direct precipitation method gives double humped spectra at 308nm and 320nm, when it is prepared with slow precipitation method with the cerium concentration 0.05m%, 0.1m%, 0.15m%, 0.2m% the broad emission is observed around 325nm with the shoulder at 350nm. The excitation spectra are narrow and observed at 290nm. As the percentage of cerium is increased further again shift is observed. The emission spectra were observed at 360nm with a small peak at 330nm. The phenomenon of shifting of emission spectra at low concentration of cerium can directly relate with the particle size and reported for nanomaterials also.

Keywords: calcium fluoride, barium fluoride, photoluminescence, slow precipitation method

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1149 Graphene Supported Nano Cerium Oxides Hybrid as an Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

Authors: Siba Soren, Purnendu Parhi


Today, the world is facing a severe challenge due to depletion of traditional fossil fuels. Scientists across the globe are working for a solution that involves a dramatic shift to practical and environmentally sustainable energy sources. High-capacity energy systems, such as metal-air batteries, fuel cells, are highly desirable to meet the urgent requirement of sustainable energies. Among the fuel cells, Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are recognized as an ideal power source for mobile applications and have received considerable attention in recent past. In this advanced electrochemical energy conversion technologies, Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) is of utmost importance. However, the poor kinetics of cathodic ORR in DMFCs significantly hampers their possibilities of commercialization. The oxygen is reduced in alkaline medium either through a 4-electron (equation i) or a 2-electron (equation ii) reduction pathway at the cathode ((i) O₂ + 2H₂O + 4e⁻ → 4OH⁻, (ii) O₂ + H₂O + 2e⁻ → OH⁻ + HO₂⁻ ). Due to sluggish ORR kinetics the ability to control the reduction of molecular oxygen electrocatalytically is still limited. The electrocatalytic ORR starts with adsorption of O₂ on the electrode surface followed by O–O bond activation/cleavage and oxide removal. The reaction further involves transfer of 4 electrons and 4 protons. The sluggish kinetics of ORR, on the one hand, demands high loading of precious metal-containing catalysts (e.g., Pt), which unfavorably increases the cost of these electrochemical energy conversion devices. Therefore, synthesis of active electrocatalyst with an increase in ORR performance is need of the hour. In the recent literature, there are many reports on transition metal oxide (TMO) based ORR catalysts for their high activity TMOs are also having drawbacks like low electrical conductivity, which seriously affects the electron transfer process during ORR. It was found that 2D graphene layer is having high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and excellent chemical stability, appeared to be an ultimate choice as support material to enhance the catalytic performance of bare metal oxide. g-C₃N₄ is also another candidate that has been used by the researcher for improving the ORR performance of metal oxides. This material provides more active reaction sites than other N containing carbon materials. Rare earth oxide like CeO₂ is also a good candidate for studying the ORR activity as the metal oxide not only possess unique electronic properties but also possess catalytically active sites. Here we will discuss the ORR performance (in alkaline medium) of N-rGO/C₃N₄ supported nano Cerium Oxides hybrid synthesized by microwave assisted Solvothermal method. These materials exhibit superior electrochemical stability and methanol tolerance capability to that of commercial Pt/C.

Keywords: oxygen reduction reaction, electrocatalyst, cerium oxide, graphene

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1148 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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1147 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen


Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: co-electrolysis, durability, leaks, gas concentration arc

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1146 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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1145 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi


The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .

Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gas

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1144 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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1143 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Changizi, E. Ghasemi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian


In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: graphen oxide, functionalization, polyisocyanate, XRD, TGA, FTIR

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1142 Adsorption of Cerium as One of the Rare Earth Elements Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution: Modeling, Equilibrium and Kinetics

Authors: Saeb Ahmadi, Mohsen Vafaie Sefti, Mohammad Mahdi Shadman, Ebrahim Tangestani


Carbon nanotube has shown great potential for the removal of various inorganic and organic components due to properties such as large surface area and high adsorption capacity. Central composite design is widely used method for determining optimal conditions. Also due to the economic reasons and wide application, the rare earth elements are important components. The analyses of cerium (Ce(III)) adsorption as one of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) adsorption on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied. The optimization process was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum amount conditions were pH of 4.5, initial Ce (III) concentration of 90 mg/l and MWCNTs dosage of 80 mg. Under this condition, the optimum adsorption percentage of Ce (III) was obtained about 96%. Next, at the obtained optimum conditions the kinetic and isotherm studied and result showed the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm are more fitted with experimental data than other models.

Keywords: cerium, rare earth element, MWCNTs, adsorption, optimization

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1141 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté


Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

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1140 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi


In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic, graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic

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1139 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee


Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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1138 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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1137 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian


The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

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1136 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma


Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: arginine, biosensor, carbon paste elctrode, nitric oxide

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1135 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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1134 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh


In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

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1133 Effects of Phase and Morphology on the Electrochemical and Electrochromic Performances of Tungsten Oxide and Tungsten-Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures

Authors: Jinjoo Jung, Hayeon Won, Doyeong Jeong, Do Hyung Kim


We present the electrochemical and electrochromic performance of the novel crystalline tungsten oxide and tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures synthesized by utilizing solvo-thermal method with hexacarbonyl tungsten, hexacarbonyl molybdenum, and ethyl alcohol. The morphology and phase of the prepared products were highly dependent on the synthesis conditions such as synthesis and annealing temperature, synthesis time, and precursor ratio. The tungsten oxide nanostructures (TCNs) have urchin-like or spherical nanostructure with different phase of W18O49 and WO3. The morphology of tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures (TMONs) is basically similar to that of TCNs. However, the morphology and phase of TMONs are more diverse and are strongly dependent on the composition ratios of W/Mo in the precursor. The electrochemical properties depending on their morphologies and phases of TCNs and TMONs are compared using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The relationship between the electrochromic performance and phase structures/morphologies of nanostructured TCNs and TMONs are systematically investigated.

Keywords: electrochemical, electrochromic, tungsten oxide, tungsten-molybdenum oxide

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