Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 657

Search results for: empty fruit bunches

657 Bio-Oil Production and Chromatographic Characterization from the Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Arif Ferdiyanto, Fajar Hamida, Arif Hidayat

Abstract:

Oil palm empty fruit bunches, derived biomass available in Indonesia, is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. An interesting alternative of utilising the oil palm empty fruit bunches is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to bio-oil is being considered for national energy security and environmental advantages. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at various temperature and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass was submitted to a pyrolysis in a batch reactor. Experiments were carried out at a temperature range of 450–600°C and heating rate range of 10-20°C/min. The yield of bio-oil was found to be maximum at the temperature of 600°C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using FTIR and GC-MS. The bio-char produced as a co-product can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including soil fertility and for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. The present investigation suggests the suitability of oil palm empty fruit bunches as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolysis process.

Keywords: bio-oil, oil palm empty fruit bunches, pyrolysis, renewable energy

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656 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani

Abstract:

Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

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655 Optimization and Kinetic Analysis of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch To Xylose Using Crude Xylanase from Trichoderma Viride ITB CC L.67

Authors: Efri Mardawati, Ronny Purwadi, Made Tri Ari Penia Kresnowati, Tjandra Setiadi

Abstract:

EFB are mainly composed of cellulose (≈ 43%), hemicellulose (≈ 23%) and lignin (≈20%). The palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) is the lignosellulosic waste from crude palm oil industries mainly compose of (≈ 43%), hemicellulose (≈ 23%) and lignin (≈20%). Xylan, a polymer made of pentose sugar xylose and the most abundant component of hemicellulose in plant cell wall. Further xylose can be used as a raw material for production of a wide variety of chemicals such as xylitol, which is extensively used in food, pharmaceutical and thin coating applications. Currently, xylose is mostly produced from xylan via chemical hydrolysis processes. However, these processes are normally conducted at a high temperature and pressure, which is costly, and the required downstream processes are relatively complex. As an alternative method, enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to xylose offers an environmentally friendly biotechnological process, which is performed at ambient temperature and pressure with high specificity and at low cost. This process is catalysed by xylanolytic enzymes that can be produced by some fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crysogenum, Tricoderma reseei, etc. Fungal that will be used to produce crude xylanase enzyme in this study is T. Viride ITB CC L.67. It is the purposes of this research to study the influence of pretreatment of EFB for the enzymatic hydrolysis process, optimation of temperature and pH of the hydrolysis process, the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration to the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the dynamics of hydrolysis process and followingly to study the kinetics of this process. Xylose as the product of enzymatic hydrolysis process analyzed by HPLC. The results show that the thermal pretreatment of EFB enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The enzymatic hydrolysis can be well approached by the Michaelis Menten kinetic model, and kinetic parameters are obtained from experimental data.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), xylose, enzymatic hydrolysis, kinetic modelling

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654 Fabrication and Evaluation of Particleboards from Oil Palm Fronds Blend with Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat Fadzila

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from mixing the oil palm fronds particles with empty fruit bunch fibers. Variables were two blending ratios (100:0 and 70:30), press temperature (160°C and 180°C) and press time (180 and 300 s). Experimental boards with a target density of 750 kg m-3 were manufactured from these two particles and fibers blended with urea formaldehyde resin and compressed into targeted thickness. The effect of these manufacturing conditions on bending strength, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were determined. From this research, it can be concluded that hybridization of fibers with fronds particles improved some properties of particleboard. Empty fruit bunch fibers and fronds particleboard showed better modulus of rupture and internal bonding than fronds particleboards.

Keywords: oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunch, particleboards, chemistry, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
653 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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652 Screening of Factors Affecting the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Aqueous Ionic Liquid and Locally Produced Cellulase System

Authors: Md. Z. Alam, Amal A. Elgharbawy, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi, Parveen Jamal

Abstract:

The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the obstacles in the process of sugar production, due to the presence of lignin that protects the cellulose molecules against cellulases. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose in ionic liquid (IL) system has been receiving a lot of interest; however, it requires IL removal with an anti-solvent in order to proceed with the enzymatic hydrolysis. At this point, introducing a compatible cellulase enzyme seems more efficient in this process. A cellulase enzyme that was produced by Trichoderma reesei on palm kernel cake (PKC) exhibited a promising stability in several ILs. The enzyme called PKC-Cel was tested for its optimum pH and temperature as well as its molecular weight. One among evaluated ILs, 1,3-diethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate [DEMIM] DMP was applied in this study. Evaluation of six factors was executed in Stat-Ease Design Expert V.9, definitive screening design, which are IL/ buffer ratio, temperature, hydrolysis retention time, biomass loading, cellulase loading and empty fruit bunches (EFB) particle size. According to the obtained data, IL-enzyme system shows the highest sugar concentration at 70 °C, 27 hours, 10% IL-buffer, 35% biomass loading, 60 Units/g cellulase and 200 μm particle size. As concluded from the obtained data, not only the PKC-Cel was stable in the presence of the IL, also it was actually stable at a higher temperature than its optimum one. The reducing sugar obtained was 53.468±4.58 g/L which was equivalent to 0.3055 g reducing sugar/g EFB. This approach opens an insight for more studies in order to understand the actual effect of ILs on cellulases and their interactions in the aqueous system. It could also benefit in an efficient production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: cellulase, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
651 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
650 Optimization of Reaction Parameters' Influences on Production of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chayanoot Sangwichien, Taweesak Reungpeerakul, Kyaw Thu

Abstract:

Oil palm mills in Southern Thailand produced a large amount of biomass solid wastes. Lignocellulose biomass is the main source for production of biofuel which can be combined or used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biomass composed of three main constituents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Thermochemical conversion process applied to produce biofuel from biomass. Pyrolysis of biomass is the best way to thermochemical conversion of biomass into pyrolytic products (bio-oil, gas, and char). Operating parameters play an important role to optimize the product yields from fast pyrolysis of biomass. This present work concerns with the modeling of reaction kinetics parameters for fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch in the fluidized bed reactor. A global kinetic model used to predict the product yields from fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters are mainly affected by product yields of EFB pyrolysis. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters effects on empty fruit bunch pyrolysis are considered at the reaction temperature in the range of 450-500˚C and at a vapor residence time of 2 s, respectively. The optimum simulated bio-oil yield of 53 wt.% obtained at the reaction temperature and vapor residence time of 450˚C and 2 s, 500˚C and 1 s, respectively. The simulated data are in good agreement with the reported experimental data. These simulated data can be applied to the performance of experiment work for the fast pyrolysis of biomass.

Keywords: kinetics, empty fruit bunch, fast pyrolysis, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
649 Maturity Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches Using Thermal Imaging Technique

Authors: Shahrzad Zolfagharnassab, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Reza Ehsani, Hawa Ze Jaffar, Ishak Aris

Abstract:

Ripeness estimation of oil palm fresh fruit is important processes that affect the profitableness and salability of oil palm fruits. The adulthood or ripeness of the oil palm fruits influences the quality of oil palm. Conventional procedure includes physical grading of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) maturity by calculating the number of loose fruits per bunch. This physical classification of oil palm FFB is costly, time consuming and the results may have human error. Hence, many researchers try to develop the methods for ascertaining the maturity of oil palm fruits and thereby, deviously the oil content of distinct palm fruits without the need for exhausting oil extraction and analysis. This research investigates the potential of infrared images (Thermal Images) as a predictor to classify the oil palm FFB ripeness. A total of 270 oil palm fresh fruit bunches from most common cultivar of oil palm bunches Nigresens according to three maturity categories: under ripe, ripe and over ripe were collected. Each sample was scanned by the thermal imaging cameras FLIR E60 and FLIR T440. The average temperature of each bunches were calculated by using image processing in FLIR Tools and FLIR ThermaCAM researcher pro 2.10 environment software. The results show that temperature content decreased from immature to over mature oil palm FFBs. An overall analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) test was proved that this predictor gave significant difference between underripe, ripe and overripe maturity categories. This shows that the temperature as predictors can be good indicators to classify oil palm FFB. Classification analysis was performed by using the temperature of the FFB as predictors through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Mahalanobis Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) methods. The highest overall classification accuracy was 88.2% by using Artificial Neural Network. This research proves that thermal imaging and neural network method can be used as predictors of oil palm maturity classification.

Keywords: artificial neural network, maturity classification, oil palm FFB, thermal imaging

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648 Feasibility of Agro Waste-Derived Adsorbent for Colour Removal

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, P. W. Vidanage, H. K. D. Jayampath, K. W. P. M. Kothalawala

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Feasibility of utilizing Empty Bunch (EB) fibre, a solid waste of palm oil extraction process, as an adsorbent is analysed in this study. Empty bunch fibre is generated after the extraction of retained oil in the sterilized and threshed empty fruit bunches. Besides the numerous characteristics of EB fibre, which enable its utilization as a fuel, a bio-composite material, or mulch, EB fibre also shows exceptional characteristics of a good adsorbent. Fixed bed adsorption method is used to study the adsorptivity of EB fibre using a continuous adsorption column with Methyl-blue (1.13ppm) as the feed. Adsorptivity is assumed to be solely dependent on the bed porosity keeping other parameters (feed flow rate, bed height, bed diameter, and operating temperature) constant. Bed porosity is changed by means of compact ratio and the variation of the feed concentration is analysed using a photometric method. Break through curves are plotted at different porosity levels and optimum bed porosity is identified for a given feed stream. Feasibility of using the EB fibre as an inexpensive and an abundant adsorbent in wastewater treatment facilities, where the effluent colour reduction is adamant, is also discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, fixed bed, break through time, methylene blue, oil palm fibre

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647 Optimization of the Fabrication Process for Particleboards Made from Oil Palm Fronds Blended with Empty Fruit Bunch Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat-Fadzil, Zulkafli Hassan, Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimum fabrication process variables to produce particleboards from oil palm fronds (OPF) particles and empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). Response surface methodology was employed to analyse the effect of hot press temperature (150–190°C); press time (3–7 minutes) and EFB blending ratio (0–40%) on particleboards modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling. A Box-Behnken experimental design was carried out to develop statistical models used for the optimisation of the fabrication process variables. All factors were found to be statistically significant on particleboards properties. The statistical analysis indicated that all models showed significant fit with experimental results. The optimum particleboards properties were obtained at optimal fabrication process condition; press temperature; 186°C, press time; 5.7 min and EFB / OPF ratio; 30.4%. Incorporating of oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch to produce particleboards has improved the particleboards properties. The OPF–EFB particleboards fabricated at optimized conditions have satisfied the ANSI A208.1–1999 specification for general purpose particleboards.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch fiber, oil palm fronds, particleboards, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
646 Biochar from Empty Fruit Bunches Generated in the Palm Oil Extraction and Its Nutrients Contribution in Cultivated Soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia

Authors: Alvarado M. Lady G., Ortiz V. Yaylenne, Quintero B. Quelbis R.

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The oil palm sector has seen significant growth in Colombia after the insertion of policies to stimulate the use of biofuels, which eventually contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) that deteriorate not only the environment but the health of people. However, the policy of using biofuels has been strongly questioned by the impacts that can generate; an example is the increase of other more harmful GHGs like the CH₄ that underlies the amount of solid waste generated. Casanare's department is estimated be one of the major producers of palm oil of the country given that has recently expanded its sowed area, which implies an increase in waste generated primarily in the industrial stage. For this reason, the following study evaluated the agronomic potential of the biochar obtained from empty fruit bunches and its nutritional contribution in cultivated soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia. The biochar was obtained by slow pyrolysis of the clusters in a retort oven at an average temperature of 190 °C and a residence time of 8 hours. The final product was taken to the laboratory for its physical and chemical analysis as well as a soil sample from a cultivation of Elaeis guineensis located in Tauramena-Casanare. With the results obtained plus the bibliographical reports of the nutrient demand in this cultivation, the possible nutritional contribution of the biochar was determined. It is estimated that the cultivation requirements of nitrogen is 12.1 kg.ha⁻¹, potassium is 59.3 kg.ha⁻¹, magnesium is -31.5 kg.ha⁻¹ and phosphorus is 5.6 kg.ha⁻¹ obtaining a biochar contribution of 143.1 kg.ha⁻¹, 1204.5 kg.ha⁻¹, 39.2 kg.ha⁻¹ and 71.6 kg.ha⁻¹ respectively. The incorporation of biochar into the soil would significantly improve the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg, nutrients considered important in the yield of palm oil, coupled with the importance of nutrient recycling in agricultural production systems sustainable. The biochar application improves the physical properties of soils, mainly in the humidity retention. On the other hand, it regulates the availability of nutrients for plants absorption, with economic savings in the application of synthetic fertilizers and water by irrigation. It also becomes an alternative to manage agricultural waste, reducing the involuntary emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment by decomposition in the field, reducing the CO₂ content in the atmosphere.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recycling, oil palm, pyrolysis

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645 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana

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Humic Acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
644 Synthesis of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Using Phosphotungstic Acid

Authors: Yogi Wibisono Budhi, Ferry Iskandar, Veinardi Suendo, Muhammad Fakhrudin, Neng Tresna Umi Culsum

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Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), an abundant agro-waste in Indonesia, is being studied as raw material of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) synthesis. Instead of conventional acid mineral, phosphotungstic acid (H₃PW₁₂O₄₀, HPW) was used to hydrolyze cellulose due to recycling ability and easy handling. Before hydrolysis process, dried EFB was treated by 4% NaOH solution at 90oC for 2 hours and then bleached using 2% NaClO₂ solution at 80oC for 3 hours to remove hemicellulose and lignin. Hydrolysis reaction parameters such as temperature, acid concentration, and reaction time were optimized with fixed solid-liquid ratio of 1:40. Response surface method was used for experimental design to determine the optimum condition of each parameter. HPW was extracted from the mixed solution and recycled with diethyl ether. CNC was separated from the solution by centrifuging and washing with distilled water and ethanol to remove degraded sugars and unreacted celluloses. In this study, pulp from dried EFB produced 44.8% yield of CNC. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis showed that most of CNC equivalent diameter was 140 nm. Crystallinity index was observed at 73.3% using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thus, a green established process for the preparation of CNC was achieved.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals, oil palm empty fruit bunch, phosphotungstic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
643 Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fiber

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

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Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were produced by using the ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with different hydrolysis time then were analyzed by using FESEM and TGA as in comparison with EFB fiber and EFB pulp. Based on the FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a rod like shaped under the acid hydrolysis with an assistant of ultrasound. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained show remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to EFB fiber and EFB pulp. However, as the hydrolysis time increase, the thermal stability of NCC was deceased. As in conclusion, the NCC can be prepared by using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The NCC obtained have good thermal stability and have a great potential as the reinforcement in composite materials.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose, ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis, thermal stability, morphology, empty fruit bunch (EFB)

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
642 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun

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In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
641 The Study of Effect the Number of Cluster in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Seyeh Hassan Eftekhar Afzali, Hamid Mohammadi

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Pistachio is like almond but the second cycle of growth (third phase) has rather fast growth. This is caused to add final mass of product. When the germ grows, it and its cover are reached to the final size during six week period. As starting the second phase, the lignifications of pericarp is begun and continued for 4 or 6 weeks. Physiological maturity or easy separation of green from scutum is specified. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results of the bunch numbers on the growth of branch in current year are shown that the most growth of branch is happened by trimming of one and two bunches of the branch and the most diameter of the branch is happened by trimming of one to four bunches of branch. Trimming of a bunch is caused the most number of pistachio products in the bunch.

Keywords: pistachio, cluster, bud, fruit, branch

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640 A Multi-Beneficial Gift of Nature (Noni Fruit): Nutritional, Functional, and Post-Harvest Aspects

Authors: Mahsa Moteshakeri

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Morinda citrifolia L., a miracle fruit with common name of Noni, has been widely used as food and traditional medicine in the Polynesians culture. Current scientific evidences have proved the therapeautical and nutritional properties of this fruit so that its extensive production in tropical regions in recent years has emerged a competitive global Noni market mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of juice or tablet. However, there is not much record on the processing method applied on fresh fruit postharvest or even its mechanism of action in controlling diseases. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive data on phytochemicals, technical, and nutritional advances on Noni fruit and recent patents published, as well as medicinal properties of the fruit in order to benefit future investigations on this precious fruit either in industrial or therapeautical section.

Keywords: noni fruit, phytochemicals, therapeautic properties of fruit, nutritional properties of fruit

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
639 Modeling Palm Oil Quality During the Ripening Process of Fresh Fruits

Authors: Afshin Keshvadi, Johari Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad, Farah Saleena

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Experiments were conducted to develop a model for analyzing the ripening process of oil palm fresh fruits in relation to oil yield and oil quality of palm oil produced. This research was carried out on 8-year-old Tenera (Dura × Pisifera) palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested from designated palms during January till May of 2010. The bunches were divided into three regions (top, middle and bottom), and fruits from the outer and inner layers were randomly sampled for analysis at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis to establish relationships between maturity and oil development in the mesocarp and kernel. Computations on data related to ripening time, oil content and oil quality were performed using several computer software programs (MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel). Nine nonlinear mathematical models were utilized using MATLAB software to fit the data collected. The results showed mean mesocarp oil percent increased from 1.24 % at 8 weeks after anthesis to 29.6 % at 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruits from the top part of the bunch had the highest mesocarp oil content of 10.09 %. The lowest kernel oil percent of 0.03 % was recorded at 12 weeks after anthesis. Palmitic acid and oleic acid comprised of more than 73 % of total mesocarp fatty acids at 8 weeks after anthesis, and increased to more than 80 % at fruit maturity at 20 weeks. The Logistic model with the highest R2 and the lowest root mean square error was found to be the best fit model.

Keywords: oil palm, oil yield, ripening process, anthesis, fatty acids, modeling

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638 High Purity Lignin for Asphalt Applications: Using the Dawn Technology™ Wood Fractionation Process

Authors: Ed de Jong

Abstract:

Avantium is a leading technology development company and a frontrunner in renewable chemistry. Avantium develops disruptive technologies that enable the production of sustainable high value products from renewable materials and actively seek out collaborations and partnerships with like-minded companies and academic institutions globally, to speed up introductions of chemical innovations in the marketplace. In addition, Avantium helps companies to accelerate their catalysis R&D to improve efficiencies and deliver increased sustainability, growth, and profits, by providing proprietary systems and services to this regard. Many chemical building blocks and materials can be produced from biomass, nowadays mainly from 1st generation based carbohydrates, but potential for competition with the human food chain leads brand-owners to look for strategies to transition from 1st to 2nd generation feedstock. The use of non-edible lignocellulosic feedstock is an equally attractive source to produce chemical intermediates and an important part of the solution addressing these global issues (Paris targets). Avantium’s Dawn Technology™ separates the glucose, mixed sugars, and lignin available in non-food agricultural and forestry residues such as wood chips, wheat straw, bagasse, empty fruit bunches or corn stover. The resulting very pure lignin is dense in energy and can be used for energy generation. However, such a material might preferably be deployed in higher added value applications. Bitumen, which is fossil based, are mostly used for paving applications. Traditional hot mix asphalt emits large quantities of the GHG’s CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O, which is unfavorable for obvious environmental reasons. Another challenge for the bitumen industry is that the petrochemical industry is becoming more and more efficient in breaking down higher chain hydrocarbons to lower chain hydrocarbons with higher added value than bitumen. This has a negative effect on the availability of bitumen. The asphalt market, as well as governments, are looking for alternatives with higher sustainability in terms of GHG emission. The usage of alternative sustainable binders, which can (partly) replace the bitumen, contributes to reduce GHG emissions and at the same time broadens the availability of binders. As lignin is a major component (around 25-30%) of lignocellulosic material, which includes terrestrial plants (e.g., trees, bushes, and grass) and agricultural residues (e.g., empty fruit bunches, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw, etc.), it is globally highly available. The chemical structure shows resemblance with the structure of bitumen and could, therefore, be used as an alternative for bitumen in applications like roofing or asphalt. Applications such as the use of lignin in asphalt need both fundamental research as well as practical proof under relevant use conditions. From a fundamental point of view, rheological aspects, as well as mixing, are key criteria. From a practical point of view, behavior in real road conditions is key (how easy can the asphalt be prepared, how easy can it be applied on the road, what is the durability, etc.). The paper will discuss the fundamentals of the use of lignin as bitumen replacement as well as the status of the different demonstration projects in Europe using lignin as a partial bitumen replacement in asphalts and will especially present the results of using Dawn Technology™ lignin as partial replacement of bitumen.

Keywords: biorefinery, wood fractionation, lignin, asphalt, bitumen, sustainability

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637 Fruit of the General Status of Usak Provicce District of Sivasli

Authors: Ayşen Melda Çolak, Volkan Okatan, Ercan Yıldız

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In our country, fruit production was determined as 17.2 million tons in 2011 according to official data. Turkey fig, apricot, cherry and quince production ranks first in the world. Almost all the regions of our country, despite the growing of fruit 54% of the total fruit production occur in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Region. However, fruit production in the country is consumed in the domestic market and export rates are often very low. In this study, a questionnaire to 100 farmers face-to-face interview. According to the survey, 40% of those in fruit and 7 da of 7 hectares land are small. 30% of soil testing for manufacturers, testing for 20% of the water. Manufacturers who deliberately fertilization rate of only 10%.

Keywords: fruit, generation, potential, Sivasli survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
636 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria

Abstract:

Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and bio-derived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based. In this research, the green phenolic resin was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) was used as filler. The matrix was synthesized from soda lignin, phenol and hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. The phenolic resin was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol during the process. Later, the phenolic resin was mixed with EFB by using mechanical stirrer and was molded with hot press at 180 oC. In this research, the composites were prepared with EFB content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the EFB filler remained embedded in the resin. From impact and hardness testing, samples 10% of EFB showed the optimum properties meanwhile sample 15% showed the optimum properties for flexural testing. Thermal stability of the composites was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
635 Chemical Modifications of Three Underutilized Vegetable Fibres for Improved Composite Value Addition and Dye Absorption Performance

Authors: Abayomi O. Adetuyi, Jamiu M. Jabar, Samuel O. Afolabi

Abstract:

Vegetable fibres are classes of fibres of low density, biodegradable and non-abrasive that are largely abundant fibre materials with specific properties and mostly found/ obtained in plants on earth surface. They are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant from which they are gotten from namely: fruit, Blast and Leaf fibre. Ever since four/five millennium B.C, attention has been focussing on the commonest and highly utilized cotton fibre obtained from the fruit of cotton plants (Gossypium spp), for the production of cotton fabric used in every home today. The present study, therefore, focused on the ability of three underutilized vegetable (fruit) fibres namely: coir fiber (Eleas coniferus), palm kernel fiber and empty fruit bunch fiber (Elias guinensis) through chemical modifications for better composite value addition performance to polyurethane form and dye adsorption. These fibres were sourced from their parents’ plants, identified and cleansed with 2% hot detergent solution 1:100, rinsed in distilled water and oven-dried to constant weight, before been chemically modified through alkali bleaching, mercerization and acetylation. The alkali bleaching involves treating 0.5g of each fiber material with 100 mL of 2% H2O2 in 25 % NaOH solution with refluxing for 2 h. While that of mercerization and acetylation involves the use of 5% sodium hydroxide NaOH solution for 2 h and 10% acetic acid- acetic anhydride 1:1 (v/v) (CH3COOH) / (CH3CO)2O solution with conc. H2SO4 as catalyst for 1 h, respectively on the fibres. All were subsequently washed thoroughly with distilled water and oven dried at 105 0C for 1 h. These modified fibres were incorporated as composite into polyurethane form and used in dye adsorption study of indigo. The first two treatments led to fiber weight reduction, while the acidified acetic anhydride treatment gave the fibers weight increment. All the treated fibers were found to be of less hydrophilic nature, better mechanical properties, higher thermal stabilities as well as better adsorption surfaces/capacities than the untreated ones. These were confirmed by gravimetric analysis, Instron Universal Testing Machine, Thermogravimetric Analyser and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The fiber morphology of the modified fibers showed smoother surfaces than unmodified fibres.The empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre are better than the palm kernel fibres as reinforcers for composites or as adsorbents for waste-water treatment. Acetylation and alkaline bleaching treatment improve the potentials of the fibres more than mercerization treatment. Conclusively, vegetable fibres, especially empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre, which are cheap, abundant and underutilized, can replace the very costly powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment and as reinforcer in foam.

Keywords: chemical modification, industrial application, value addition, vegetable fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
634 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus Spp.)

Authors: Dinh Ha, Tran, Chung-Ruey Yen

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This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in four red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August, the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0-90.5 %) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6 g) in hand self- and (403.4 g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2 %) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3 g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona, and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
633 Genetic Variability and Principal Component Analysis in Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, A. Ghalandarzehi, J. A. Koohpayegani

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Nine advanced cultivars and lines were planted in transplant trays on March, 2013. In mid-April 2014, nine cultivars and lines were taken from the seedling trays and were evaluated and compared in an experiment in form of a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Zahak. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the studied cultivars in terms of average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, ratio of fruit length to its diameter, the relative number of seeds per fruit, and each plant yield. The total yield of Sohrab and Y6 line with and an average of 41.9 and 36.7 t/ ha allocated the highest yield respectively to themselves. The results of simple correlation between the analyzed traits showed the final yield was affected by the average fruit weight due to direct and indirect effects of fruit weight and plant yield on the final yield. The genotypic and heritability values were high for fruit weight, fruit length and number of seed per fruit. The first two principal components accounted for 81.6% of the total variation among the characters describing genotypes.

Keywords: eggplant, principal component, variation, path analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
632 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
631 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

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Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: age, cultivars, fruit, quality, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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630 Effect of Pre Harvest Application of Amino Acids on Fruit Development of Sub-Tropical Peach

Authors: Manjot Kaur, Harminder Singh, S. K. Jawandha

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The present investigations were carried out at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during the years 2016 and 2017, with the aim of assessing the effect of amino acids on fruit development, shoot growth and yield of peach. The six-year-old peach trees of cv. Florida Prince were sprayed with 0.25 % and 0.50 % concentrations of amino acids (Peptone P1 023), 7 and 14 days after full bloom and the sprays were repeated after 15 and 30 days. Experimental findings showed that all the amino acid treatments increased fruit growth, shoot growth, fruit retention and yield and decreased fruit drop as compared to control during both the years. Maximum fruit retention (89.29 %) and minimum fruit drop (10.71 %) was observed in T8 (2 sprays @ 0.50%). Highest mean shoot growth (113.89 cm) was recorded in T12 (3 sprays @ 0.50%) while the minimum was in control plants (88.23 cm). Fruit yield was also found to be maximum (53.92 kg/tree) under double spray treatment T8 (2 sprays @ 0.50%) of amino acids and minimum in plants sprayed with triple spray of amino acids. Fruit maturity was advanced by 3-4 days by double spray treatments of amino acids as compared to control. In brief, the application of double spray of amino acids @ 0.50% (applied 14 days after full bloom and 15 days later), was found to be best to improve the fruit growth, fruit retention and yield of Florida Prince peach under Punjab conditions.

Keywords: amino acids, fruit growth, maturity, peach, shoot growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
629 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: banana waste, biomass, renewable energy, thermo-chemical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
628 Experimental Investigation of Folding of Rubber-Filled Circular Tubes on Energy Absorption Capacity

Authors: MohammadSadegh SaeediFakher, Jafar Rouzegar, Hassan Assaee

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In this research, mechanical behavior and energy absorption capacity of empty and rubber-filled brazen circular tubes under quasi-static axial loading are investigated, experimentally. The brazen tubes were cut out of commercially available brazen circular tubes with the same length and diameter. Some of the specimens were filled with rubbers with three different shores and also, an empty tube was prepared. The specimens were axially compressed between two rigid plates in a quasi-static process using a Zwick testing machine. Load-displacement diagrams and energy absorption of the tested tubes were extracted from experimental data. The results show that filling the brazen tubes with rubber causes those to absorb more energy and the energy absorption of specimens are increased by increasing the shore of rubbers. In comparison to the empty tube, the first fold for the rubber-filled tubes occurs at lower load and it can be concluded that the rubber-filled tubes are better energy absorbers than the empty tubes. Also, in contrast with the empty tubes, the tubes that were filled with lower rubber shore deform asymmetrically.

Keywords: axial compression, quasi-static loading, folding, energy absorbers, rubber-filled tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 331