Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Ferry Iskandar

36 Travel Behaviour and Perceptions in Trips with a Ferry Connection

Authors: Trude Tørset, María Díez Gutiérrez


The west coast of Norway features numerous islands and fjords. Ferry services connect the roads when these features make the construction challenging. Currently, scientific effort is designated to assess potential ferry replacement projects along the European road E-39. The inconvenience of ferry dependency is imprecisely represented in the transport models, thus transport analyses of ferry replacement projects appear as guesstimates rather than reliable input to decision-making processes of such costly projects. Trips including ferry connections imply more inconvenient elements than just travel time and cost. The goal of this paper is to understand and explain the extra inconveniences associated to the dependency of the ferry. The first scientific approach is to identify the characteristics of the ferry travelers and their trips’ features, as well as whether the ferry represents an obstacle for some specific trip types. In doing so, a survey was conducted in 2011 in eight E-39 ferries and in 2013 in 18 ferries connecting different road categories. More than 20,000 passengers answered with their trip and socioeconomic characteristics. The travel patterns in the different ferry connections were compared. The analysis showed that the trip features differed based on the location of the ferry connections, yet independently of the road category. Additionally, the patterns were compared to the national travel survey to detect differences in the travel patterns due to the use of the ferry connections. The results showed that the share of commuting trips within the same travel time was lower if the ferry was part of the trip. The second scientific approach is to know how the different travelers perceive potential benefits for a ferry replacement project. In the 2011 survey, some of the questions were about the relevance of nine different benefits this project might bring. Travelers identified the better access to public services and job market as the most valuable benefits, followed by the reduced planning of the trip. In 2016, a follow-up survey in some of the ferry connections was carried out in order to investigate variations in travelers’ perceptions. The growing interest in ferry replacement projects might make travelers more aware of the potential benefits these would bring to their daily lives. This paper describes the travel behaviour of travelers using a ferry connection as part of their trips, as well as the potential inconveniences associated to these trips. The findings might provide valuable input to further development of transport models, concept evaluations and cost benefit analysis methods.

Keywords: ferry connections, ferry trip, inconvenience costs, travel behaviour

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35 Modeling Average Paths Traveled by Ferry Vessels Using AIS Data

Authors: Devin Simmons


At the USDOT’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics, a biannual census of ferry operators in the U.S. is conducted, with results such as route mileage used to determine federal funding levels for operators. AIS data allows for the possibility of using GIS software and geographical methods to confirm operator-reported mileage for individual ferry routes. As part of the USDOT’s work on the ferry census, an algorithm was developed that uses AIS data for ferry vessels in conjunction with known ferry terminal locations to model the average route travelled for use as both a cartographic product and confirmation of operator-reported mileage. AIS data from each vessel is first analyzed to determine individual journeys based on the vessel’s velocity, and changes in velocity over time. These trips are then converted to geographic linestring objects. Using the terminal locations, the algorithm then determines whether the trip represented a known ferry route. Given a large enough dataset, routes will be represented by multiple trip linestrings, which are then filtered by DBSCAN spatial clustering to remove outliers. Finally, these remaining trips are ready to be averaged into one route. The algorithm interpolates the point on each trip linestring that represents the start point. From these start points, a centroid is calculated, and the first point of the average route is determined. Each trip is interpolated again to find the point that represents one percent of the journey’s completion, and the centroid of those points is used as the next point in the average route, and so on until 100 points have been calculated. Routes created using this algorithm have shown demonstrable improvement over previous methods, which included the implementation of a LOESS model. Additionally, the algorithm greatly reduces the amount of manual digitizing needed to visualize ferry activity.

Keywords: ferry vessels, transportation, modeling, AIS data

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34 A Life History of a Female Counselor Participated in Sewol Ferry Disaster Counseling Korea: Based on Qualitative Analysis of Mandelbaum's Life History

Authors: Donghun Lee, Jiyoung Shin, Youjin Kim, Jin Joo Kim


The sinking of Sewol ferry occurred in Korea on the morning of 16 April 2014 while carrying 476 people. In all, 304 passengers, mostly secondary school students from Danwon High School in Ansan City died in the disaster. The sinking of Sewol ferry has resulted in widespread social and political turmoil within South Korea. Many criticize the actions of the captain and crews of the ferry as well as the ferry operator and the regulators who oversaw its operations. However, huge criticism has been directed at the South Korean government for its national disaster response system. This disaster has made Korean government build up a new disaster management and psychological support system. The purpose of this study was to understand developmental and change process of a female counselor in her late fifties participated in Sewol ferry disaster counseling for a year. She has participated in providing as a counselor counseling and psychological support for the victims' families of Sewol ferry disaster, additionally as a director of community youth counseling center operated by local government by establishing governmental psychological supports plan for recovering collective trauma in the community, through which she have gotten self-reflection of whole her life. For in-depth interview data analysis, Mandelbaum’s three conceptual frameworks were employed; dimensions, turnings, and adaptation. The result of the study indicates extracted categories of life dimension, turning point and adaptation. The details of these categories are ‘having a self-image in youth’, ‘marriage in fairy-tale’, ‘unexpected death of husband’, ‘taking a step forward from darkness’, the way of counselor’, nice grown child’, ‘Sewol ferry disaster’ in life dimension, ‘death in front of life’, ‘milestone in life, counseling’ in turning points, ‘before Sewol ferry disaster’, ‘after Sewol ferry disaster’ in adaptation. Life history methods revealed the counselor’s internal developmental process by analyzing what Sewol ferry disaster influenced on an individual life, especially a counselor's one, what changes she went through, and how she adapted herself to that. Based on the results, discussions and suggestions are provided.

Keywords: development and change, disaster counseling, identity of female counselor, Mandelbaum’s life history, Sewol ferry

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33 The Feasibility of a Protected Launch Site near Melkbosstrand for a Public Transport Ferry across Table Bay, Cape Town

Authors: Mardi Falck, André Theron


Traffic congestion on the Northern side of Table Bay is a major problem. In Gauteng, the implementation of the Gautrain between Pretoria and Johannesburg, solved their traffic congestion. In 2002 two entrepreneurs endeavoured to implement a hovercraft ferry service across the bay from Table View to the Port of Cape Town. However, the EIA process proved that disgruntled residents from the area did not agree with their location for a launch site. 17 years later the traffic problem has not gone away, but instead the congestion has increased. While property prices in the City Bowl of Cape Town are ever increasing, people tend to live more on the outskirts of the CBD and commute to work. This means more vehicles on the road every day and the public transport services cannot keep up with the demand. For this reason, the study area of the previous hovercraft plans is being extended further North. The study’s aim is thus to determine the feasibility of a launch site North of Bloubergstrand to launch and receive a public transport ferry across Table Bay. The feasibility is being established by researching ferry services across the world and on what makes them successful. Different types of ferries and their operational capacities in terms of weather and waves are researched and by establishing the offshore and nearshore wind and wave climate for the area, an appropriate protected launch site is determined. It was concluded that travel time could potentially be halved. A hovercraft proved to be the most feasible ferry type, because it does not require a conventional harbour. Other types of vessels require a protected launch site because of the wave climate. This means large breakwaters that influence the cost substantially. The Melkbos Cultural Centre proved to be the most viable option for the location of the launch site, because it already has buildings and infrastructure. It is recommended that, if a harbour is chosen for the proposed ferry service, it could be used for more services like fishing, eco-tourism and leisure. Further studies are recommended to optimise the feasibility of such a harbour.

Keywords: Cape Town, ferry, public, Table Bay

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32 Synthesis of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Using Phosphotungstic Acid

Authors: Yogi Wibisono Budhi, Ferry Iskandar, Veinardi Suendo, Muhammad Fakhrudin, Neng Tresna Umi Culsum


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), an abundant agro-waste in Indonesia, is being studied as raw material of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) synthesis. Instead of conventional acid mineral, phosphotungstic acid (H₃PW₁₂O₄₀, HPW) was used to hydrolyze cellulose due to recycling ability and easy handling. Before hydrolysis process, dried EFB was treated by 4% NaOH solution at 90oC for 2 hours and then bleached using 2% NaClO₂ solution at 80oC for 3 hours to remove hemicellulose and lignin. Hydrolysis reaction parameters such as temperature, acid concentration, and reaction time were optimized with fixed solid-liquid ratio of 1:40. Response surface method was used for experimental design to determine the optimum condition of each parameter. HPW was extracted from the mixed solution and recycled with diethyl ether. CNC was separated from the solution by centrifuging and washing with distilled water and ethanol to remove degraded sugars and unreacted celluloses. In this study, pulp from dried EFB produced 44.8% yield of CNC. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis showed that most of CNC equivalent diameter was 140 nm. Crystallinity index was observed at 73.3% using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thus, a green established process for the preparation of CNC was achieved.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals, oil palm empty fruit bunch, phosphotungstic acid

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31 Preliminary Geotechnical Properties of Uncemented Sandstone Kati Formation

Authors: Nursyafiqah Abdul Kahar, Niraku Rosmawati Ahmad, Hisham Mohamad, Siti Nuruljannah Mohd Marzuki


Assessment of geotechnical properties of the subsoil is necessary for generating relevant input for the design and construction of a foundation. It is significant for the future development in the area. The focus of this research is to investigate the preliminary geotechnical properties of the uncemented sandstone from Kati formation at Puncak Iskandar, Seri Iskandar. A series of basic soil tests, oedometer and direct shear box tests were carried out to obtain the soil parameters. The uncemented sandstone of Kati Formation was found to have well-graded and poorly graded sand distribution, depending on the location where the samples were obtained. The sand grains distribution was in a range of 82%-100% while, the specific gravity of the uncemented sandstone is in the range 2.65-2.86. The preconsolidation pressure for USB3 was 990 kPa indicating that the sandstone at USB3 sample had undergone 990 kPa of overburden pressure. The angle of friction for uncemented sandstone was ranging between 23.34°-32.92°.

Keywords: geotechnical properties, Kati formation, uncemented sandstone, oedometer test; shear box test

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30 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha


The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

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29 Modification of Newton Method in Two Points Block Differentiation Formula

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nadhirah Kamal, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim


Block methods for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on backward differential formulas (BDF) with PE(CE)2 and Newton method. In this paper, we introduce Modified Newton as a new strategy to get more efficient result. The derivation of BBDF using modified block Newton method is presented. This new block method with predictor-corrector gives more accurate result when compared to the existing BBDF.

Keywords: modified Newton, stiff, BBDF, Jacobian matrix

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28 Mating Behavior of Tarsius tarsier in Captivity

Authors: Nanik Hidayatik, Dondin Sajuthi, Tuty L. Yusuf, Muhammad Agil, Entang Iskandar


Copulatory (mating) pattern was varied among mammals, and species may have species-typical patterns. Studies on mating behavior of tarsier that had been reported were study on Tarsius bancanus. Whereas, until now mating behavior of Tarsius tarsier has never been reported. The aim of this study was to study the mating behavior of T. tarsier in captivity. Three pairs of T. tarsier housed at the Primate Research Center of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia was observed using focal animal sampling method. The mating behavior was started with mounting by male followed with quick thrusting and slow thrusting, with duration range 3-4 minutes. When slow thrusting by male displayed, female shouted vocalization, and at the end, male remained motionless with his penis inserted in female genitalia. Mating behavior in T. tarsier occurred only once in the first oestrus day. Mating pattern in T. tarsier was similarly to T. bancanus.

Keywords: mating, mounting, Tarsius tarsier, thrusting

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27 Professional Management on Ecotourism and Conservation to Ensure the Future of Komodo National Park

Authors: Daningsih Sulaeman, Achmad Sjarmidi, Djoko T. Iskandar


Komodo National Park can be associated with the implementation of ecotourism program. The result of Principal Components Analysis is synthesized, tested, and compared to the basic concept of ecotourism with some field adjustments. Principal aspects of professional management should involve ecotourism and wildlife welfare. The awareness should be focused on the future of the Natural Park as 7th Wonder Natural Heritage and its wildlife components, free from human wastes and beneficial to wildlife and local people. According to perceptions and expectations of visitors from various results of tourism programs, the visitor’s perceptions showed that the tourism management in Komodo National Park should pay more attention to visitor's satisfaction and expectation and gives positive impact directly to the ecosystem sustainability, local community and transparency to the conservation program.

Keywords: 7th wonders of nature, ecotourism, Komodo dragon, visitor’s perceptions, wildlife management

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26 Development of Variable Order Block Multistep Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Suleiman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Nor Ain Azeany, Khairil Iskandar Othman


In this paper, a class of variable order fully implicit multistep Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (VOBBDF) using uniform step size for the numerical solution of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is developed. The code will combine three multistep block methods of order four, five and six. The order selection is based on approximation of the local errors with specific tolerance. These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration in order to further increase the efficiency. The proposed VOBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with single order Block Backward Differentiation Formula (BBDF). Numerical results shows the advantage of using VOBBDF for solving ODEs.

Keywords: block backward differentiation formulas, uniform step size, ordinary differential equations

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25 Defects Classification of Stator Coil Generators by Phase Resolve Partial Discharge

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Nando Purba, Benny Iskandar


This paper proposed a phase resolve partial discharge (PRPD) shape method to classify types of defect stator coil generator by using off-line PD measurement instrument. The recorded PRPD, by using the instruments MPD600, can illustrate the PRPD patterns of partial discharge of unit’s defects. In the paper, two of large units, No.2 and No.3, in Inalum hydropower plant, North Sumatera, Indonesia is adopted in the experimental measurement. The proposed PRPD shape method is to mark auxiliary lines on the PRPD patterns. The shapes of PRPD from two units are marked with the proposed method. Then, four types of defects in IEC 60034-27 standard is adopted to classify the defect types of the two units, which types are microvoids (S1), delamination tape layer (S2), slot defect (S3) and internal delamination (S4). Finally, the two units are actually inspected to validate the availability of the proposed PRPD shape method.

Keywords: partial discharge (PD), stator coil, defect, phase resolve pd (PRPD)

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24 Effect of Humidity on In-Process Crystallization of Lactose During Spray Drying

Authors: Amirali Ebrahimi, T. A. G. Langrish


The effect of various humidities on process yields and degrees of crystallinity for spray-dried powders from spray drying of lactose with humid air in a straight-through system have been studied. It has been suggested by Williams–Landel–Ferry kinetics (WLF) that a higher particle temperature and lower glass-transition temperature would increase the crystallization rate of the particles during the spray-drying process. Freshly humidified air produced by a Buchi-B290 spray dryer as a humidifier attached to the main spray dryer decreased the particle glass-transition temperature (Tg), while allowing the particle temperature (Tp) to reach higher values by using an insulated drying chamber. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis were used to measure the degree of crystallinity for the spray-dried lactose powders. The results showed that higher Tp-Tg, as a result of applying humid air, improved the process yield from 21 ± 4 to 26 ± 2% and crystallinity of the particles by decreasing the latent heat of crystallization from 43 ± 1 to 30 ± 11 J/g and the sorption peak height from 7.3 ± 0.7% to 6 ± 0.7%.

Keywords: lactose, crystallization, spray drying, humid air

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23 Decomposition of Funds Transfer Pricing Components in Islamic Bank: The Exposure Effect of Shariah Non-Compliant Event Rectification Process

Authors: Azrul Azlan Iskandar Mirza


The purpose of Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) for Islamic Bank is to promote prudent liquidity risk-taking behavior of business units. The acquirer of stable deposits will be rewarded whilst a business unit that generates long-term assets will be charged for added liquidity funding risks. In the end, it promotes risk-adjusted pricing by incorporating profit rate risk and liquidity risk component in the product pricing. However, in the event of Shariah non-compliant (SNCE), FTP components will be examined in the rectification plan especially when Islamic banks need to purify the non-compliance income. The finding shows that the determination between actual and provision cost will defer the decision among Shariah committee in Islamic banks. This paper will review each of FTP components to ensure the classification of actual and provision costs reflect the decision on rectification process on SNCE. This will benefit future decision and its consistency of Islamic banks.

Keywords: fund transfer pricing, Islamic banking, Islamic finance, shariah non-compliant event

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22 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud


This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

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21 Defect Induced Enhanced Photoresponse in Graphene

Authors: Prarthana Gowda, Tushar Sakorikar, Siva K. Reddy, Darim B. Ferry, Abha Misra


Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope has demonstrated excellent electrical, mechanical and optical properties. A tunable band gap of grapheme demonstrated broad band absorption of light with a response time of picoseconds, however it suffers a fast recombination of the photo generated carriers. Many reports have explored to overcome this problem; in this presentation, we discuss defect induced enhanced photoresponse in a few layer graphene (FLG) due to exposure of infrared (IR) radiation. The two and four-fold enhancement in the photocurrent is achieved by addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) to an FLG surface and also creating the wrinkles in the FLG (WG) respectively. In our study, it is also inferred that the photo current generation is highly dependent on the morphological defects on the graphene. It is observed that the FLG (without defects) generates the photo current instantaneously, and after a prolonged exposure to the IR radiation decays the generation rate. Importantly, the presence of MWCNT on FLG enhances the stability and WG presented both stable as well as enhanced photo response.

Keywords: graphene, multiwalled carbon nano tubes, wrinkled graphene, photo detector, photo current

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20 Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis of the Costs and Environmental Impacts of Improved Overland Tourist Access to Kaieteur National Park, Guyana

Authors: Mark R. Leipnik, Dahlia Durga, Linda Johnson-Bhola


Kaieteur is the most iconic National Park in the rainforest-clad nation of Guyana in South America. However, the magnificent 226-meter-high waterfall at its center is virtually inaccessible by surface transportation, and the occasional charter flights to the small airstrip in the park are prohibitively expensive for most tourists and residents. Thus, the largest waterfall in all of Amazonia, where the Potaro River plunges over a single free drop higher than Victoria Falls, remains preserved in splendid isolation inside the 67,000-hectare National Park established by the British in 1929 in the deepest recesses of a remote jungle canyon. Kaieteur Falls are largely unseen firsthand, but the image of the falls can be viewed on the Guyanese twenty dollar note, in every Guyanese tourist promotion, and in thousands of items in the national capital of Georgetown. Georgetown is only 223-241 kilometers away from the falls. The lack of a single mileage figure demonstrates there is no single overland route. Any journey, except by air, involves several ferry rides and a lengthy boat ride up a jungle river, and it also entails hiking or traveling on the back of a horse or donkey for days. Surface access from Georgetown or any city is thus a 5-10 day-long adventure, with many discomforts and potential dangers, and that is in the dry season, not during the two wet seasons when travel is a particularly sticky proposition. This journey was made overland by the paper's co-author Dahlia Durga, and the paper includes images and details of that journey. This paper focuses on potential ways to improve access to the National Park from Georgetown, the nation's sole air hub and population center. This is primarily a GIS-based analysis, using multiple criteria to determine the least cost means of creating all-weather road access to the area near the base of the falls while minimizing distance and elevation changes. Critically it also involves minimizing the number of new bridges required to be built and only utilizing a limited number of existing ferry crossings of major rivers. Cost estimates are based on data from road and bridge construction engineers operating currently in the interior of Guyana. The paper contains original maps generated with ArcGIS of the potential routes for such an overland connection, including the one deemed optimal. Other factors such as the impact on endangered species' habitats and indigenous populations are considered. This proposed infrastructure development is taking place at a time that Guyana is undergoing the largest boom in its history due to revenues from offshore oil and gas development. Thus, better access to the most important tourist attraction in the country is likely to happen soon in some manner. But the questions of the most environmentally sustainable and least costly alternatives for such access remain. This paper addresses those questions and many others related to access to this magnificent natural treasure and National Park and the tradeoff such access will have on the preservation of the currently pristine natural environment of Kaieteur Falls.

Keywords: nature tourism, GIS, Amazonia, national parks

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19 Optimisation of Intermodal Transport Chain of Supermarkets on Isle of Wight, UK

Authors: Jingya Liu, Yue Wu, Jiabin Luo


This work investigates an intermodal transportation system for delivering goods from a Regional Distribution Centre to supermarkets on the Isle of Wight (IOW) via the port of Southampton or Portsmouth in the UK. We consider this integrated logistics chain as a 3-echelon transportation system. In such a system, there are two types of transport methods used to deliver goods across the Solent Channel: one is accompanied transport, which is used by most supermarkets on the IOW, such as Spar, Lidl and Co-operative food; the other is unaccompanied transport, which is used by Aldi. Five transport scenarios are studied based on different transport modes and ferry routes. The aim is to determine an optimal delivery plan for supermarkets of different business scales on IOW, in order to minimise the total running cost, fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The problem is modelled as a vehicle routing problem with time windows and solved by genetic algorithm. The computing results suggested that accompanied transport is more cost efficient for small and medium business-scale supermarket chains on IOW, while unaccompanied transport has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of large business scale supermarket chains.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, intermodal transport system, Isle of Wight, optimization, supermarket

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18 Melodic and Temporal Structure of Indonesian Sentences of Sitcom "International Class" Actors: Prosodic Study with Experimental Phonetics Approach

Authors: Tri Sulistyaningtyas, Yani Suryani, Dana Waskita, Linda Handayani Sukaemi, Ferry Fauzi Hermawan


The enthusiasm of foreigners studying the Indonesian language by Foreign Speakers (BIPA) was documented in a sitcom "International Class". Tone and stress when they speak the Indonesian language is unique and different from Indonesian pronunciation. By using the Praat program, this research aims to describe prosodic Indonesian language which is spoken by ‘International Class” actors consisting of Abbas from Nigeria, Lee from Korea, and Kotaro from Japan. Data for the research are taken from the video sitcom "International Class" that aired on Indonesian television. The results of this study revealed that pitch movement that arises when pronouncing Indonesian sentences was up and down gradually, there is also a rise and fall sharply. In terms of stress, respondents tend to contain a lot of stress when pronouncing Indonesian sentences. Meanwhile, in terms of temporal structure, the duration pronouncing Indonesian sentences tends to be longer than that of Indonesian speakers.

Keywords: melodic structure, temporal structure, prosody, experimental phonetics, international class

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17 Immuno-field Effect Transistor Using Carbon Nanotubes Network – Based for Human Serum Albumin Highly Sensitive Detection

Authors: Muhamad Azuddin Hassan, Siti Shafura Karim, Ambri Mohamed, Iskandar Yahya


Human serum albumin plays a significant part in the physiological functions of the human body system (HSA).HSA level monitoring is critical for early detection of HSA-related illnesses. The goal of this study is to show that a field effect transistor (FET)-based immunosensor can assess HSA using high aspect ratio carbon nanotubes network (CNT) as a transducer. The CNT network were deposited using air brush technique, and the FET device was made using a shadow mask process. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and a current-voltage measurement system were used to examine the morphology and electrical properties of the CNT network, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the surface alteration of the CNT. The detection process is based on covalent binding interactions between an antibody and an HSA target, which resulted in a change in the manufactured biosensor's drain current (Id).In a linear range between 1 ng/ml and 10zg/ml, the biosensor has a high sensitivity of 0.826 mA (g/ml)-1 and a LOD value of 1.9zg/ml.HSA was also identified in a genuine serum despite interference from other biomolecules, demonstrating the CNT-FET immunosensor's ability to quantify HSA in a complex biological environment.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes network, biosensor, human serum albumin

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16 Direct Synthesis of 2 nm Sized PMAA Coated Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Ons Yahyaoui, Florian Aubrit, Hoda Alassaad, Mamour Sall, Muriel Ferry, Yvette Ngono-Ravache


Based on the work on biological systems, we have started research on the comprehension of the influence of gold nanoparticles in polymers, for applications in dose domains higher than those applicable for radiotherapy, with the aim of increasing the radiation-induced gas emission and study the underlying mechanisms. Indeed, polymers are known to be very sensitive to radiolysis. Therefore, the tendency has always been to increase their radioresistance by introducing energy traps, usually aromatic groups. In the present work, we take the opposite approach by trying to increase significantly the radiosensitivity of polymers, in terms of gas emission, by inserting AuNPs toincrease the effects of the deposited dose. For this work, we have first synthesized nanocomposites with AuNps of different diameters and various concentrations. We will report an in situprocedure for the synthesis of small-sized sphericalpoly(methacrylic acid)-coated AuNPs (PMAA_AuNPs) of diameters as low as 2 nm. We have also designed a model to predict the size of spherical AuNPs in the polymer solution. The resulting nanocomposites were irradiated under gamma rays, ion beams, and electron beams and both macromolecular defects and gas emission from the PMAA were characterized and associated to the concentration in AuNPs as well as their diameter. We will discuss the effect of the presence of nanoparticles in the polymer on the behavior of the polymer under ionizing radiation.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, polymer functionalization, PMAA, radiosensitisation, direct synthesis

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15 The Influence of Addition of Asparagus Bean Powder (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on Gonad Maturity of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) at the Floating Net Cage of Cirata Reservoir

Authors: Rita Rostika, Junianto, Zulfiqar W. Ibrahim, Iskandar, Lantun P. Dewanti


The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of asparagus bean powder and its most effective administration dose to improve the gonad maturity of nilem carp (Osteochilus hasselti). The research is conducted in October-July 2017 located at Cirata Reservoir and Aquaculture Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The research employs an experimental method using a Complete Random Design (RAL) with six treatments and three repetitions. The treatments include the addition of asparagus bean powder by 0% (Control), 4% per kg of feed, 5% per kg of feed, 6% per kg of feed, 7% per kg of feed, as well as the addition of vitamin E essential as the control. The results show that the addition of asparagus bean powder to the feed may influence the gonad maturity of nilem carp shown by its Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) parameter, fecundity, egg diameter and egg reaching its maturity phase or GVBD (Germinal Vesicle Breakdown). The best administration dose influencing nilem carp is the addition of asparagus bean powder by 7% per kg of feed with the average GSI of 15.02%, relative fecundity of 137 eggs/g of fish parent weight, egg diameter of 1,263 mm, and egg reaching its maturity phase (GVBD) of 78.15%.

Keywords: asparagus bean powder, nilem carp, gonad maturity, Cirata reservoir

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14 Investigation on Cost Reflective Network Pricing and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing Methods for Transmission Service Charges

Authors: K. Iskandar, N. H. Radzi, R. Aziz, M. S. Kamaruddin, M. N. Abdullah, S. A. Jumaat


Nowadays many developing countries have been undergoing a restructuring process in the power electricity industry. This process has involved disaggregating former state-owned monopoly utilities both vertically and horizontally and introduced competition. The restructuring process has been implemented by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) started from 13 December 1998, began operating as a wholesale market for supply of electricity to retailers and end-users in Queensland, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria and South Australia. In this deregulated market, one of the important issues is the transmission pricing. Transmission pricing is a service that recovers existing and new cost of the transmission system. The regulation of the transmission pricing is important in determining whether the transmission service system is economically beneficial to both side of the users and utilities. Therefore, an efficient transmission pricing methodology plays an important role in the Australian NEM. In this paper, the transmission pricing methodologies that have been implemented by the Australian NEM which are the Cost Reflective Network Pricing (CRNP) and Modified Cost Reflective Network Pricing (MCRNP) methods are investigated for allocating the transmission service charges to the transmission users. A case study using 6-bus system is used in order to identify the best method that reflects a fair and equitable transmission service charge.

Keywords: cost-reflective network pricing method, modified cost-reflective network pricing method, restructuring process, transmission pricing

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13 Exploring Students’ Self-Evaluation on Their Learning Outcomes through an Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average Reporting Mechanism

Authors: Suriyani Ariffin, Nor Aziah Alias, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Haslinda Yusoff


An Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average (iCGPA) is a mechanism and strategy to ensure the curriculum of an academic programme is constructively aligned to the expected learning outcomes and student performance based on the attainment of those learning outcomes that is reported objectively in a spider web. Much effort and time has been spent to develop a viable mechanism and trains academics to utilize the platform for reporting. The question is: How well do learners conceive the idea of their achievement via iCGPA and whether quality learner attributes have been nurtured through the iCGPA mechanism? This paper presents the architecture of an integrated CGPA mechanism purported to address a holistic evaluation from the evaluation of courses learning outcomes to aligned programme learning outcomes attainment. The paper then discusses the students’ understanding of the mechanism and evaluation of their achievement from the generated spider web. A set of questionnaires were distributed to a group of students with iCGPA reporting and frequency analysis was used to compare the perspectives of students on their performance. In addition, the questionnaire also explored how they conceive the idea of an integrated, holistic reporting and how it generates their motivation to improve. The iCGPA group was found to be receptive to what they have achieved throughout their study period. They agreed that the achievement level generated from their spider web allows them to develop intervention and enhance the programme learning outcomes before they graduate.

Keywords: learning outcomes attainment, iCGPA, programme learning outcomes, spider web, iCGPA reporting skills

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12 A Possible Connection Between Taste Change and Zinc Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Iskandar Idris


Taste change is a common complication after Bariatric surgery (BS). However, the cause of this is still not clear. Since zinc is important fortaste perception, zinc deficiency, which is common after BS, may play an important role for taste change after BS. In this review, we aimto collate evidence relating to taste change and zinc deficiencyin relation to BS; effects of zinc replacement on taste perception in general and thereafter discuss the possible role of zinc deficiency to induce taste change after BS. A literature search was conducted, using four electronic bibliographical databases—EMBASE, PubMed, AMED and MEDLINE. We identified all available and relevant articles published before 30th February 2021.In total, 33 studies were included. The total number of participants analysed was N= 3264. We showed that taste change is a frequent complication after BS, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGBP comparing to other types of procedures. Patients' taste sensitivity differs among studies, but the most important decline in taste preference was observed for sweet food. Twelve studies investigating zinc deficiency following BS showed a significant decrease in zinc levels at six months after surgery. Supplementation with 45–50 mg of zinc sulphate was effective in improving taste, except in cancer patients, who showed no improvement in taste following zinc supplementation. Zinc deficiency appears to be associated with taste change after BS. Supplementation with much higher levels of zinc, at 45–50 mg, was effective in taste change treatment for many cases of taste disorder. The currently recommended levels of zinc replacements currently prescribed to patients following BS were not effective for avoiding zinc deficiency after BS—and thus not effective for averting taste change. It is therefore suggested that taste change following BS is closely related to zinc deficiency induced by the surgery.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, bariatric surgery, zinc, zinc sulphate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation, and micro-nutrient deficiencies

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11 A Cloud-Based Mobile Auditing Tools for Muslim-Friendly Hospitality Services

Authors: Mohd Iskandar Illyas Tan, Zuhra Junaida Mohamad Husny, Farawahida Mohd Yusof


The potentials of Muslim-friendly hospitality services bring huge opportunities to operators (hoteliers, tourist guides, and travel agents), especially among the Muslim countries. In order to provide guidelines that facilitate the operations among these operators, standards and manuals have been developing by the authorities. Among the challenges is the applicability and complexity of the standard to be adopted in the real world. Mobile digital technology can be implemented to overcome those challenges. A prototype has been developed to help operators and authorities to assess their readiness in complying with MS2610:2015. This study analyzes the of mobile digital technology characteristics that are suitable for the user in conducting sharia’ compliant hospitality audit. A focus group study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia that involves operators (hoteliers, tourist guide, and travel agents) as well as agencies (Islamic Tourism Center, Penang Islamic Affairs Department, Malaysian Standard) that involved directly in the implementation of the certification. Both groups were given the 3 weeks to test and provide feedback on the usability of the mobile applications in order to conduct an audit on their readiness towards the Muslim-friendly hospitality services standard developed by the Malaysian Standard. The feedbacks were analyzed and the overall results show that three criteria (ease of use, completeness and fast to complete) show the highest responses among both groups for the mobile application. This study provides the evidence that the mobile application development has huge potentials to be implemented by the Muslim-friendly hospitality services operator and agencies.

Keywords: hospitality, innovation, audit, compliance, mobile application

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10 The Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Taste Disorder Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Arash Ardavani, Iskandar Idris


Food taste and flavor affect food choice and acceptance, which are essential to maintain good health and quality of life. Reduced circulating zinc levels have been shown to adversely affect taste which can result in reduced appetite, weight loss and psychological problems, but the efficacy of Zinc supplementation to treat disorders of taste remains unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the treatment of taste disorders. We searched four electronic bibliographical databases; Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid AMAD and PubMed. Article bibliographies were also searched, which yielded additional relevant studies. To facilitate the collection and identification of all available and relevant articles published before 7 December 2020, there were no restrictions on the publication date. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA Statement. This review was registered at PROSPERO and given the identification number CRD42021228461. In total, we included 12 randomized controlled trials with 938 subjects. Intervention includes zinc (sulfate, gluconate, picolinate, polaprezinc and acetate); the pooled results of the meta-analysis indicate that improvements in taste disorder occurred more frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group (RR = 1.8; 95% CI:1.27 -2.57, p=0.009). The doses are equivalent to 17 mg- 86.7 mg of elemental zin for three to six months. Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for taste disorders in patients with zinc deficiency or idiopathic taste disorders when given in high doses ranging from 68–86.7 mg/d for up to three months. However, we did not find sufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in patients with taste disorders induced by chronic renal failure.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, zinc, zinc sulfate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation.

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9 Nowcasting Indonesian Economy

Authors: Ferry Kurniawan


In this paper, we nowcast quarterly output growth in Indonesia by exploiting higher frequency data (monthly indicators) using a mixed-frequency factor model and exploiting both quarterly and monthly data. Nowcasting quarterly GDP in Indonesia is particularly relevant for the central bank of Indonesia which set the policy rate in the monthly Board of Governors Meeting; whereby one of the important step is the assessment of the current state of the economy. Thus, having an accurate and up-to-date quarterly GDP nowcast every time new monthly information becomes available would clearly be of interest for central bank of Indonesia, for example, as the initial assessment of the current state of the economy -including nowcast- will be used as input for longer term forecast. We consider a small scale mixed-frequency factor model to produce nowcasts. In particular, we specify variables as year-on-year growth rates thus the relation between quarterly and monthly data is expressed in year-on-year growth rates. To assess the performance of the model, we compare the nowcasts with two other approaches: autoregressive model –which is often difficult when forecasting output growth- and Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS) regression. In particular, both mixed frequency factor model and MIDAS nowcasts are produced by exploiting the same set of monthly indicators. Hence, we compare the nowcasts performance of the two approaches directly. To preview the results, we find that by exploiting monthly indicators using mixed-frequency factor model and MIDAS regression we improve the nowcast accuracy over a benchmark simple autoregressive model that uses only quarterly frequency data. However, it is not clear whether the MIDAS or mixed-frequency factor model is better. Neither set of nowcasts encompasses the other; suggesting that both nowcasts are valuable in nowcasting GDP but neither is sufficient. By combining the two individual nowcasts, we find that the nowcast combination not only increases the accuracy - relative to individual nowcasts- but also lowers the risk of the worst performance of the individual nowcasts.

Keywords: nowcasting, mixed-frequency data, factor model, nowcasts combination

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8 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke


In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, long fibre reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, time temperature superposition

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7 Large-scale Foraging Behaviour of Free-ranging Goats: Influence of Herd Size, Landscape Quality and Season

Authors: Manqhai Kraai, Adrian M. Shrader, Peter F. Scogings


For animals living in herds, competition between group members increases as herd size increases. The intensity of this competition is likely greater across poor quality landscapes and during the dry season. In contrast to wild herbivores, herd size in domestic livestock is determined by their owners. This then raises the question, how do domestic livestock, like goats, reduce competition for food within these defined herds? To explore this question, large-scale foraging behaviour of both small (12 to 28 individuals) and large (42 to 83 individuals) herds of free-ranging goats were recorded in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was conducted on three different landscapes that varied in both food quality and availability, during the wet and dry seasons of 2013-2014. The goats were housed in kraals overnight and let out in the mornings to forage unattended. Thus, foraging decisions were made by the goats and not by herders. The large-scale foraging behaviours focussed on included, (i) total distance travelled by goats while foraging, (ii) distance travelled before starting to feed, (iii) travel speed, and (iv) feeding duration. This was done using Garmin Foretrex 401 GPS devices harnessed to two goats per herd. Irrespective of season, there was no difference in the total distance travelled by the different sized herds across the different quality landscapes. However, both small and large herds started feeding farther from the kraal in the dry compared to the wet season. Despite this, there was no significant seasonal difference in total amount of time the herds spent feeding across the different landscapes. Finally, both small and large herds increased their travel speed across all the landscapes in the dry season, but large herds travelled faster than small herds. This increase was likely to maximise the time that large herds could spend feeding in good areas. Ultimately, these results indicate that both small and large herds were affected by declines in food quality and quantity during the dry season. However, as large herds made greater behavioural adjustments compared to smaller herds (i.e., feeding farther away from the kraal and travelling faster), it appeared that they were more affected by the seasonal increases in intra-herd competition.

Keywords: distance, feeding duration, food availability, food quality, travel speed

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