Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2353

Search results for: principal component

2353 Implementation of a Method of Crater Detection Using Principal Component Analysis in FPGA

Authors: Izuru Nomura, Tatsuya Takino, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Hiroyuki Kamata


We propose a method of crater detection from the image of the lunar surface captured by the small space probe. We use the principal component analysis (PCA) to detect craters. Nevertheless, considering severe environment of the space, it is impossible to use generic computer in practice. Accordingly, we have to implement the method in FPGA. This paper compares FPGA and generic computer by the processing time of a method of crater detection using principal component analysis.

Keywords: crater, PCA, eigenvector, strength value, FPGA, processing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
2352 Correlation between Electromyographic and Textural Parameters for Different Textured Indian Foods Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: S. Rustagi, N. S. Sodhi, B. Dhillon, T. Kaur


The objective of this study was to check whether there is any relationship between electromyographic (EMG) and textural parameters during food texture evaluation. In this study, a total of eighteen mastication variables were measured for entire mastication, per chew mastication and three different stages of mastication (viz. early, middle and late) by EMG for five different foods using eight human subjects. Cluster analysis was used to reduce the number of mastication variables from 18 to 5, so that principal component analysis (PCA) could be applied on them. The PCA further resulted in two meaningful principal components. The principal component scores for each food were measured and correlated with five textural parameters (viz. hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness). Correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.10) for cohesiveness and adhesiveness while if we reduce the significance level (p < 0.20) then chewiness also showed correlation with mastication parameters.

Keywords: electromyography, mastication, sensory, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2351 Differentiation between Different Rangeland Sites Using Principal Component Analysis in Semi-Arid Areas of Sudan

Authors: Nancy Ibrahim Abdalla, Abdelaziz Karamalla Gaiballa


Rangelands in semi-arid areas provide a good source for feeding huge numbers of animals and serving environmental, economic and social importance; therefore, these areas are considered economically very important for the pastoral sector in Sudan. This paper investigates the means of differentiating between different rangelands sites according to soil types using principal component analysis to assist in monitoring and assessment purposes. Three rangeland sites were identified in the study area as flat sandy sites, sand dune site, and hard clay site. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the number of factors needed to distinguish between rangeland sites and produce a new set of data including the most useful spectral information to run satellite image processing. It was performed using selected types of data (two vegetation indices, topographic data and vegetation surface reflectance within the three bands of MODIS data). Analysis with PCA indicated that there is a relatively high correspondence between vegetation and soil of the total variance in the data set. The results showed that the use of the principal component analysis (PCA) with the selected variables showed a high difference, reflected in the variance and eigenvalues and it can be used for differentiation between different range sites.

Keywords: principal component analysis, PCA, rangeland sites, semi-arid areas, soil types

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2350 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared


In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2349 On the Estimation of Crime Rate in the Southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach

Authors: Kayode Balogun, Femi Ayoola


Crime is at alarming rate in this part of world and there are many factors that are contributing to this antisocietal behaviour both among the youths and old. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to reduce the dimensionality and to really know those variables that were crime prone in the study region. Data were collected on twenty-eight crime variables from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) databank for a period of fifteen years, while retaining as much of the information as possible. We use PCA in this study to know the number of major variables and contributors to the crime in the Southwest Nigeria. The results of our analysis revealed that there were eight principal variables have been retained using the Scree plot and Loading plot which implies an eight-equation solution will be appropriate for the data. The eight components explained 93.81% of the total variation in the data set. We also found that the highest and commonly committed crimes in the Southwestern Nigeria were: Assault, Grievous Harm and Wounding, theft/stealing, burglary, house breaking, false pretence, unlawful arms possession and breach of public peace.

Keywords: crime rates, data, Southwest Nigeria, principal component analysis, variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2348 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula


A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
2347 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux


Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: wine, grape, weather conditions, rating, climate, principal component analysis, metric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2346 Detection of Cardiac Arrhythmia Using Principal Component Analysis and Xgboost Model

Authors: Sujay Kotwale, Ramasubba Reddy M.


Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a non-invasive technique used to study and analyze various heart diseases. Cardiac arrhythmia is a serious heart disease which leads to death of the patients, when left untreated. An early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia would help the doctors to do proper treatment of the heart. In the past, various algorithms and machine learning (ML) models were used to early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia, but few of them have achieved better results. In order to improve the performance, this paper implements principal component analysis (PCA) along with XGBoost model. The PCA was implemented to the raw ECG signals which suppress redundancy information and extracted significant features. The obtained significant ECG features were fed into XGBoost model and the performance of the model was evaluated. In order to valid the proposed technique, raw ECG signals obtained from standard MIT-BIH database were employed for the analysis. The result shows that the performance of proposed method is superior to the several state-of-the-arts techniques.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia, electrocardiogram, principal component analysis, XGBoost

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2345 Principal Component Regression in Amylose Content on the Malaysian Market Rice Grains Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Syahira Ibrahim, Herlina Abdul Rahim


The amylose content is an essential element in determining the texture and taste of rice grains. This paper evaluates the use of VIS-SWNIRS in estimating the amylose content for seven varieties of rice grains available in the Malaysian market. Each type consists of 30 samples and all the samples are scanned using the spectroscopy to obtain a range of values between 680-1000nm. The Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing filter is applied to each sample’s data before the Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique is used to examine the data and produce a single value for each sample. This value is then compared with reference values obtained from the standard iodine colorimetric test in terms of its coefficient of determination, R2. Results show that this technique produced low R2 values of less than 0.50. In order to improve the result, the range should include a wavelength range of 1100-2500nm and the number of samples processed should also be increased.

Keywords: amylose content, diffuse reflectance, Malaysia rice grain, principal component regression (PCR), Visible and Shortwave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIRS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2344 Principal Component Analysis of Body Weight and Morphometric Traits of New Zealand Rabbits Raised under Semi-Arid Condition in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Abayomi Rotimi


Context: Rabbits production plays important role in increasing animal protein supply in Nigeria. Rabbit production provides a cheap, affordable, and healthy source of meat. The growth of animals involves an increase in body weight, which can change the conformation of various parts of the body. Live weight and linear measurements are indicators of growth rate in rabbits and other farm animals. Aims: This study aimed to define the body dimensions of New Zealand rabbits and also to investigate the morphometric traits variables that contribute to body conformation by the use of principal component analysis (PCA). Methods: Data were obtained from 80 New Zealand rabbits (40 bucks and 40 does) raised in Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsinma. Data were taken on body weight (BWT), body length (BL), ear length (EL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and abdominal circumference (AC). Data collected were subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Key results: The descriptive statistics showed that the mean BWT, BL, EL, TL, HG, and AC were 0.91kg, 27.34cm, 10.24cm, 8.35cm, 19.55cm and 21.30cm respectively. Sex showed significant (P<0.05) effect on all the variables examined, with higher values recorded for does. The phenotypic correlation coefficient values (r) between the morphometric traits were all positive and ranged from r = 0.406 (between EL and BL) to r = 0.909 (between AC and HG). HG is the most correlated with BWT (r = 0.786). The principal component analysis with variance maximizing orthogonal rotation was used to extract the components. Two principal components (PCs) from the factor analysis of morphometric traits explained about 80.42% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for 64.46% while PC2 accounted for 15.97% of the total variances. Three variables, representing body conformation, loaded highest in PC1. PC1 had the highest contribution (64.46%) to the total variance, and it is regarded as body conformation traits. Conclusions: This component could be used as selection criteria for improving body weight of rabbits.

Keywords: conformation, multicollinearity, multivariate, rabbits and principal component analysis

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2343 Sparse Principal Component Analysis: A Least Squares Approximation Approach

Authors: Giovanni Merola


Sparse Principal Components Analysis aims to find principal components with few non-zero loadings. We derive such sparse solutions by adding a genuine sparsity requirement to the original Principal Components Analysis (PCA) objective function. This approach differs from others because it preserves PCA's original optimality: uncorrelatedness of the components and least squares approximation of the data. To identify the best subset of non-zero loadings we propose a branch-and-bound search and an iterative elimination algorithm. This last algorithm finds sparse solutions with large loadings and can be run without specifying the cardinality of the loadings and the number of components to compute in advance. We give thorough comparisons with the existing sparse PCA methods and several examples on real datasets.

Keywords: SPCA, uncorrelated components, branch-and-bound, backward elimination

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2342 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo


The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2341 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra


FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2340 Principal Component Analysis Applied to the Electric Power Systems – Practical Guide; Practical Guide for Algorithms

Authors: John Morales, Eduardo Orduña


Currently the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) theory has been used to develop algorithms regarding to Electric Power Systems (EPS). In this context, this paper presents a practical tutorial of this technique detailed their concept, on-line and off-line mathematical foundations, which are necessary and desirables in EPS algorithms. Thus, features of their eigenvectors which are very useful to real-time process are explained, showing how it is possible to select these parameters through a direct optimization. On the other hand, in this work in order to show the application of PCA to off-line and on-line signals, an example step to step using Matlab commands is presented. Finally, a list of different approaches using PCA is presented, and some works which could be analyzed using this tutorial are presented.

Keywords: practical guide; on-line; off-line, algorithms, faults

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
2339 Dynamic Updating of Principal Components of Model Reduction Error in Diffuse Optical Tomography

Authors: Peyman Beygi, Alireza Zirak


This paper addresses the problem of large dimensions in the inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). The dimension of the inverse problem in medical imaging, especially DOT, is a challenge that strongly affects the elapsed time and computational complexity. Principal component analysis is able to separate the high and low-resolution parts of the Jacobian matrix and marginalize the low-resolution part. In the literature, the Bayesian framework estimates the probability density of unknowns and modifies the likelihood model using prior density of unknown and this marginalized part as a random variable. But this procedure is done offline and only once. In some cases, this may cause problems. The current study investigates the use of principal components and extended marginalization error in a dynamic fashion to update the modeling error statistics sequentially. This updating scheme operates as an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate unknowns. The combination of EnKF and Bayesian inference make a powerful background to solve the inverse problem. The presented method is applied to a simulated test phantom to reconstruct the image in DOT to show its strength.

Keywords: inverse problem, marginalization error, principal component, ensemble Kalman filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
2338 QSRR Analysis of 17-Picolyl and 17-Picolinylidene Androstane Derivatives Based on Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Evgenija Djurendić, Jovana Ajduković


There are several methods for determination of the lipophilicity of biologically active compounds, however chromatography has been shown as a very suitable method for this purpose. Chromatographic (C18-RP-HPLC) analysis of a series of 24 17-picolyl and 17-picolinylidene androstane derivatives was carried out. The obtained retention indices (logk, methanol (90%) / water (10%)) were correlated with calculated physicochemical and lipophilicity descriptors. The QSRR analysis was carried out applying principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The PCR and PLS model were selected on the basis of the highest variance and the lowest root mean square error of cross-validation. The obtained PCR and PLS model successfully correlate the calculated molecular descriptors with logk parameter indicating the significance of the lipophilicity of compounds in chromatographic process. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the obtained logk parameters of the analyzed androstane derivatives can be considered as their chromatographic lipophilicity. These results are the part of the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina and CMST COST Action CM1105.

Keywords: androstane derivatives, chromatography, molecular structure, principal component regression, partial least squares regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2337 Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediments of Tidal Flat Marsh, the Case Study: Shuangtai Estuary, China

Authors: Chang-Fa Liu, Yi-Ting Wang, Yuan Liu, Hai-Feng Wei, Lei Fang, Jin Li


Heavy metals in sediments can cause adverse ecological effects while it exceeds a given criteria. The present study investigated sediment environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological risk, and source identification for copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic in the sediments collected from tidal flat marsh of Shuangtai estuary, China. The arithmetic mean integrated pollution index, geometric mean integrated pollution index, fuzzy integrated pollution index, and principal component score were used to characterize sediment environmental quality; fuzzy similarity and geo-accumulation Index were used to evaluate pollutant enrichment; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were used to identify source of pollution; environmental risk index and potential ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk. The environmental qualities of sediment are classified to very low degree of contamination or low contamination. The similar order to element background of soil in the Liaohe plain is region of Sanjiaozhou, Honghaitan, Sandaogou, Xiaohe by pollutant enrichment analysis. The source identification indicates that correlations are significantly among metals except between copper and cadmium. Cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic will be clustered in the same clustering as the first principal component. Copper will be clustered as second principal component. The environmental risk assessment level will be scaled to no risk in the studied area. The order of potential ecological risk is As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn.

Keywords: ecological risk assessment, heavy metals, sediment, marsh, Shuangtai estuary

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2336 Investigating the Demand of Short-Shelf Life Food Products for SME Wholesalers

Authors: Yamini Raju, Parminder S. Kang, Adam Moroz, Ross Clement, Alistair Duffy, Ashley Hopwell


Accurate prediction of fresh produce demand is one the challenges faced by Small Medium Enterprise (SME) wholesalers. Current research in this area focused on limited number of factors specific to a single product or a business type. This paper gives an overview of the current literature on the variability factors used to predict demand and the existing forecasting techniques of short shelf life products. It then extends it by adding new factors and investigating if there is a time lag and possibility of noise in the orders. It also identifies the most important factors using correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

Keywords: demand forecasting, deteriorating products, food wholesalers, principal component analysis, variability factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
2335 Air Quality Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis-Genetic Algorithm and Back Propagation Model

Authors: Bin Mu, Site Li, Shijin Yuan


Under the circumstance of environment deterioration, people are increasingly concerned about the quality of the environment, especially air quality. As a result, it is of great value to give accurate and timely forecast of AQI (air quality index). In order to simplify influencing factors of air quality in a city, and forecast the city’s AQI tomorrow, this study used MATLAB software and adopted the method of constructing a mathematic model of PCA-GABP to provide a solution. To be specific, this study firstly made principal component analysis (PCA) of influencing factors of AQI tomorrow including aspects of weather, industry waste gas and IAQI data today. Then, we used the back propagation neural network model (BP), which is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA), to give forecast of AQI tomorrow. In order to verify validity and accuracy of PCA-GABP model’s forecast capability. The study uses two statistical indices to evaluate AQI forecast results (normalized mean square error and fractional bias). Eventually, this study reduces mean square error by optimizing individual gene structure in genetic algorithm and adjusting the parameters of back propagation model. To conclude, the performance of the model to forecast AQI is comparatively convincing and the model is expected to take positive effect in AQI forecast in the future.

Keywords: AQI forecast, principal component analysis, genetic algorithm, back propagation neural network model

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2334 Fuzzy-Machine Learning Models for the Prediction of Fire Outbreak: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Uduak Umoh, Imo Eyoh, Emmauel Nyoho


This paper compares fuzzy-machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) for the predicting cases of fire outbreak. The paper uses the fire outbreak dataset with three features (Temperature, Smoke, and Flame). The data is pre-processed using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2FL) algorithm. Min-Max Normalization and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are used to predict feature labels in the dataset, normalize the dataset, and select relevant features respectively. The output of the pre-processing is a dataset with two principal components (PC1 and PC2). The pre-processed dataset is then used in the training of the aforementioned machine learning models. K-fold (with K=10) cross-validation method is used to evaluate the performance of the models using the matrices – ROC (Receiver Operating Curve), Specificity, and Sensitivity. The model is also tested with 20% of the dataset. The validation result shows KNN is the better model for fire outbreak detection with an ROC value of 0.99878, followed by SVM with an ROC value of 0.99753.

Keywords: Machine Learning Algorithms , Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic, Fire Outbreak, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbour, Principal Component Analysis

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2333 Genetic Variability and Principal Component Analysis in Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, A. Ghalandarzehi, J. A. Koohpayegani


Nine advanced cultivars and lines were planted in transplant trays on March, 2013. In mid-April 2014, nine cultivars and lines were taken from the seedling trays and were evaluated and compared in an experiment in form of a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Zahak. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the studied cultivars in terms of average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, ratio of fruit length to its diameter, the relative number of seeds per fruit, and each plant yield. The total yield of Sohrab and Y6 line with and an average of 41.9 and 36.7 t/ ha allocated the highest yield respectively to themselves. The results of simple correlation between the analyzed traits showed the final yield was affected by the average fruit weight due to direct and indirect effects of fruit weight and plant yield on the final yield. The genotypic and heritability values were high for fruit weight, fruit length and number of seed per fruit. The first two principal components accounted for 81.6% of the total variation among the characters describing genotypes.

Keywords: eggplant, principal component, variation, path analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
2332 Detection of Abnormal Process Behavior in Copper Solvent Extraction by Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Kirill Filianin, Satu-Pia Reinikainen, Tuomo Sainio


Frequent measurements of product steam quality create a data overload that becomes more and more difficult to handle. In the current study, plant history data with multiple variables was successfully treated by principal component analysis to detect abnormal process behavior, particularly, in copper solvent extraction. The multivariate model is based on the concentration levels of main process metals recorded by the industrial on-stream x-ray fluorescence analyzer. After mean-centering and normalization of concentration data set, two-dimensional multivariate model under principal component analysis algorithm was constructed. Normal operating conditions were defined through control limits that were assigned to squared score values on x-axis and to residual values on y-axis. 80 percent of the data set were taken as the training set and the multivariate model was tested with the remaining 20 percent of data. Model testing showed successful application of control limits to detect abnormal behavior of copper solvent extraction process as early warnings. Compared to the conventional techniques of analyzing one variable at a time, the proposed model allows to detect on-line a process failure using information from all process variables simultaneously. Complex industrial equipment combined with advanced mathematical tools may be used for on-line monitoring both of process streams’ composition and final product quality. Defining normal operating conditions of the process supports reliable decision making in a process control room. Thus, industrial x-ray fluorescence analyzers equipped with integrated data processing toolbox allows more flexibility in copper plant operation. The additional multivariate process control and monitoring procedures are recommended to apply separately for the major components and for the impurities. Principal component analysis may be utilized not only in control of major elements’ content in process streams, but also for continuous monitoring of plant feed. The proposed approach has a potential in on-line instrumentation providing fast, robust and cheap application with automation abilities.

Keywords: abnormal process behavior, failure detection, principal component analysis, solvent extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2331 Comparison of Power Generation Status of Photovoltaic Systems under Different Weather Conditions

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Qinqin Cui, Xingwan Ren


Based on multivariate statistical analysis theory, this paper uses the principal component analysis method, Mahalanobis distance analysis method and fitting method to establish the photovoltaic health model to evaluate the health of photovoltaic panels. First of all, according to weather conditions, the photovoltaic panel variable data are classified into five categories: sunny, cloudy, rainy, foggy, overcast. The health of photovoltaic panels in these five types of weather is studied. Secondly, a scatterplot of the relationship between the amount of electricity produced by each kind of weather and other variables was plotted. It was found that the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels has a significant nonlinear relationship with time. The fitting method was used to fit the relationship between the amount of weather generated and the time, and the nonlinear equation was obtained. Then, using the principal component analysis method to analyze the independent variables under five kinds of weather conditions, according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, it was found that three types of weather such as overcast, foggy, and sunny meet the conditions for factor analysis, while cloudy and rainy weather do not satisfy the conditions for factor analysis. Therefore, through the principal component analysis method, the main components of overcast weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. The main component of foggy weather is temperature, and the main components of sunny weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. Cloudy and rainy weather require analysis of all of their variables, namely temperature, AQI, pm2.5, solar radiation intensity and time. Finally, taking the variable values in sunny weather as observed values, taking the main components of cloudy, foggy, overcast and rainy weather as sample data, the Mahalanobis distances between observed value and these sample values are obtained. A comparative analysis was carried out to compare the degree of deviation of the Mahalanobis distance to determine the health of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions. It was found that the weather conditions in which the Mahalanobis distance fluctuations ranged from small to large were: foggy, cloudy, overcast and rainy.

Keywords: fitting, principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance, SPSS, MATLAB

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2330 Analysis of the Significance of Multimedia Channels Using Sparse PCA and Regularized SVD

Authors: Kourosh Modarresi


The abundance of media channels and devices has given users a variety of options to extract, discover, and explore information in the digital world. Since, often, there is a long and complicated path that a typical user may venture before taking any (significant) action (such as purchasing goods and services), it is critical to know how each node (media channel) in the path of user has contributed to the final action. In this work, the significance of each media channel is computed using statistical analysis and machine learning techniques. More specifically, “Regularized Singular Value Decomposition”, and “Sparse Principal Component” has been used to compute the significance of each channel toward the final action. The results of this work are a considerable improvement compared to the present approaches.

Keywords: multimedia attribution, sparse principal component, regularization, singular value decomposition, feature significance, machine learning, linear systems, variable shrinkage

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
2329 A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Water Quality Assessment of River Hindon, India

Authors: Nida Rizvi, Deeksha Katyal, Varun Joshi


River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated rural and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities. The present study aimed at identifying the pollution sources and quantifying the degree to which these sources are responsible for the deteriorating water quality of the river. Various water quality parameters, like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total alkalinity were assessed. Water quality data obtained from eight study sites for one year has been subjected to the two multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis was applied with the aim to find out spatial variability and to identify the sources responsible for the water quality of the river. Three Varifactors were obtained after varimax rotation of initial principal components using principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was carried out to classify sampling stations of certain similarity, which grouped eight different sites into two clusters. The study reveals that the anthropogenic influence (municipal, industrial, waste water and agricultural runoff) was the major source of river water pollution. Thus, this study illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and elucidation of multifaceted data sets, recognition of pollution sources/factors and understanding temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective river water quality management.

Keywords: cluster analysis, multivariate statistical techniques, river Hindon, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
2328 Statistical Wavelet Features, PCA, and SVM-Based Approach for EEG Signals Classification

Authors: R. K. Chaurasiya, N. D. Londhe, S. Ghosh


The study of the electrical signals produced by neural activities of human brain is called Electroencephalography. In this paper, we propose an automatic and efficient EEG signal classification approach. The proposed approach is used to classify the EEG signal into two classes: epileptic seizure or not. In the proposed approach, we start with extracting the features by applying Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in order to decompose the EEG signals into sub-bands. These features, extracted from details and approximation coefficients of DWT sub-bands, are used as input to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classification is based on reducing the feature dimension using PCA and deriving the support-vectors using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental are performed on real and standard dataset. A very high level of classification accuracy is obtained in the result of classification.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, electroencephalogram, pattern recognition, principal component analysis, support vector machine

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2327 Micropolitical Leadership in a Taiwanese Primary School

Authors: Hsin-Jen Chen


Primary schooling in Taiwan is in a process of radical restructuring during the decade. At the center of these restructuring is the position of the principal and questions to do with how principals, as school leaders, respond to radical change. Adopting a case-study approach, the study chose a middle Taiwanese primary school to investigate how the principal learned to be political. Using micropolitical leadership, the principal at the researched site successfully coped with internal change and external demands. On the whole, judging from the principal’s leadership style on the mediation between parents and teachers, as well as school-based curriculum development, it could be argued that the principal was on the stance of being a leader of the cultural transformation instead of cultural reproduction. In doing so, the qualitative evidence has indicated that the principal seemed to be successful in coping with the demands of rapid change. Continuing learning for leadership is the core of working as a principal.

Keywords: micropolitics, leadership, micropolitical leadership, learning for leadership

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2326 Sensitivity of Credit Default Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz


Risk premium of emerging markets are moving altogether depending on the momentum and shifts in the global risk appetite. However, the magnitudes of these changes in the risk premium of emerging market economies might vary. In this paper, we focus on how global risk factor affects credit default swaps (CDS) premiums of emerging markets using principal component analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. PCA results indicate that the first common component accounts for almost 76% of common variation in CDS premiums of emerging markets. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are employed to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. There are two main macroeconomic variables that affect the sensitivity; government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP. The countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: emerging markets, principal component analysis, credit default swaps, sovereign risk

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2325 Application of Principle Component Analysis for Classification of Random Doppler-Radar Targets during the Surveillance Operations

Authors: G. C. Tikkiwal, Mukesh Upadhyay


During the surveillance operations at war or peace time, the Radar operator gets a scatter of targets over the screen. This may be a tracked vehicle like tank vis-à-vis T72, BMP etc, or it may be a wheeled vehicle like ALS, TATRA, 2.5Tonne, Shaktiman or moving army, moving convoys etc. The Radar operator selects one of the promising targets into Single Target Tracking (STT) mode. Once the target is locked, the operator gets a typical audible signal into his headphones. With reference to the gained experience and training over the time, the operator then identifies the random target. But this process is cumbersome and is solely dependent on the skills of the operator, thus may lead to misclassification of the object. In this paper we present a technique using mathematical and statistical methods like Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify the random objects. The process of classification is based on transforming the audible signature of target into music octave-notes. The whole methodology is then automated by developing suitable software. This automation increases the efficiency of identification of the random target by reducing the chances of misclassification. This whole study is based on live data.

Keywords: radar target, fft, principal component analysis, eigenvector, octave-notes, dsp

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2324 Poster : Incident Signals Estimation Based on a Modified MCA Learning Algorithm

Authors: Rashid Ahmed , John N. Avaritsiotis


Many signal subspace-based approaches have already been proposed for determining the fixed Direction of Arrival (DOA) of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. Two procedures for DOA estimation based neural networks are presented. First, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to extract the maximum eigenvalue and eigenvector from signal subspace to estimate DOA. Second, minor component analysis (MCA) is a statistical method of extracting the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. In this paper, we will modify a Minor Component Analysis (MCA(R)) learning algorithm to enhance the convergence, where a convergence is essential for MCA algorithm towards practical applications. The learning rate parameter is also presented, which ensures fast convergence of the algorithm, because it has direct effect on the convergence of the weight vector and the error level is affected by this value. MCA is performed to determine the estimated DOA. Preliminary results will be furnished to illustrate the convergences results achieved.

Keywords: Direction of Arrival, neural networks, Principle Component Analysis, Minor Component Analysis

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