Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 448

Search results for: submerged fermentation

448 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
447 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef

Abstract:

Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
446 Effect of Initial pH and Fermentation Duration on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Carob Kibble Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Haelee Fenton, Thi Huong Tra Nguyen, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

In the present study, a submerged fermentation of carob kibble with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was performed. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in fermented carob kibble were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study showed that S. cerevisiae improved total phenolic content by 45 % and 50 % in acetone and water extracts respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of water extracts increased by 25 % and 41%, while acetone extracts indicated by 70% and 80% in DPPH and ABTS respectively. It is also found that initial pH 7.0 was more effective in improvement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The efficiency of treatment was recorded at 15 h. This report suggested that submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae is a potential and cost effective manner to further increase bioactive compounds in carob kibble, which are in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
445 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana

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Humic Acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
444 Comparison of Filamentous Fungus (Monascus purpureus)Growth in Submerged and Solid State Culture

Authors: Shafieeh Mansoori, Fatemeh Yazdian, Ashrafsadat Hatamian, Majid Azizi

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Monascus purpureus, which has a special metabolite with many therapeutic and medicinal properties including antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, and immunosuppressive properties, is a traditional Chinese fermentation fungus and is used as a natural dietary supplement. Production of desired metabolites actually determined by optimized growth which is supported by some factors such as substrates and Monascus strains type, moisture content of the fermentation mixture, aeration, and control of contamination issues. In this experiment, M. purpureus PTCC5305 was cultured in both the liquid and solid culture medium. The former medium contain YMP (yeast extract, maltose and peptone), PGC (peptone, glucose complex), and GYP (glucose, yeast extract and peptone) medium. After 8 days, the best medium for the cell production was PGC agar medium on solid culture with 0.28 g dry weight of cell mass whereas the best liquid culture was GYP medium with 3.5 g/l dry weight of cell mass. The lowest cell production was on YMP agar with 0.1 g dry weight of cell mass and then YMP medium with 2.5 g/l dry cell weight.

Keywords: Monascus purpureus, solid state fermentation, submerged culture, Chinese fermentation fungus

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443 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
442 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

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Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA Data Envelopment Analysis is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
441 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, carob kibble, lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae, total phenolics

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
440 Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Kashif Ahmed

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Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.

Keywords: invertase, Penicillium lilacinum, submerged fermentation, industrial enzyme

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439 Antifungal Potential of Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms

Authors: Tamar Khardziani, Violeta Berikashvili, Mariam Rusitashvili, Eva Kachlishvili, Vladimir Elisashvili, Mikheil Asatiani

Abstract:

Last years, the search for natural sources of novel and effective antifungal substances became a scientific and technological challenge. In the present research, thirty basidiomycetes isolated from various ecological niches of Georgia and belonging to different taxonomic groups were screened for their antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Guignardia bidwellii. Among mushroom tested, several potential producers of antifungal substances have been revealed, such as Schizophyllum commune, Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma abietinum, Fomes fomentarius, Hericium erinaceus, and Trametes versicolor. For mushroom cultivation and expression of antifungal potential, submerged and solid-state fermentations of different plant raw materials were performed and various approaches and strategies have been exploited. Sch. commune appeared as a most promising producer of antifungal compounds. It was established that among different agro-industrial wastes, the presence of mandarin juice production waste in a nutrient medium, causing the significant increase of antifungal activity Sch. commune (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 59 %, Fusarium – 55 %, G. bidwellii – 78 %, after 3, 2 and 4 days of cultivation, respectively). Besides this, Sch. commune demonstrate similar antifungal activities in the presence of glucose, glycerol, maltose, mannitol, and xylose, and growth inhibition of Fusarium ranged in 41 % - 49 % during 6 days of cultivation. Inhibition of Aspergillus growth inhibition varied in 27 % - 36 %, and inhibition of G. bidwellii was in the range 49 % - 61 %, respectively. Sch. commune under solid-state fermentation of mandarin peels at 13 days of cultivation demonstrates powerful growth inhibition of pathogenic fungi (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 50 %, Fusarium – 61 %, G. bidwellii – 68 %, after 3, 4, and 4 days of cultivation, respectively) as well as at 20 days old mushroom (growth inhibition: Aspergillus – 41 %, Fusarium – 54 %, G. bidwellii – 66 %, after 3 days of cultivation). It was established that Sch. commune was effective as a producer of antifungal compounds in submerged as well as in solid-state fermentation. Finally, performed study confirms that the higher basidiomycetes possess antifungal potential, which strongly depends on the physiological factors of growth. Acknowledgments: The work was implemented with the financial support of fundamental science project FR-19-3719 by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia.

Keywords: antifungal potential, higher basidiomycetes, pathogenic fungi, submerged and solid-state fermentation

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438 Enhanced Peroxidase Production by Raoultella Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

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Given the high-utility of peroxidase, its production in large amount is of utmost importance. Over the years, actinomycetes have been the major peroxidase-producing bacteria. Consequently, other classes of bacteria with peroxidase production potentials are underexplored. This study, therefore, sought to enhance peroxidase production by a Raoultella species, a new ligninolytic proteobacteria strain, by determining the optimum culture conditions (initial pH, incubation temperature and agitation speed) for peroxidase production under submerged fermentation using the classical process of one variable at a time and supplementing the fermentation medium with some lignin model and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the time-course assay was carried out under optimized conditions. Then, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimal at initial pH 5, incubation temperature of 35 °C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with guaiacol and ammonium chloride as the best inducer and nitrogen supplement respectively. Peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was optimal at 72 h with specific productivity of 16.48 ± 0.89 U mg⁻¹. A simultaneous production of a non-peroxide dependent extracellular enzyme which suggests probable laccase production was observed with specific productivity of 13.63 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ while sawdust gave the best peroxidase yield under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was increased by 3.40-fold.

Keywords: enzyme production, ligninolytic bacteria, peroxidase, proteobacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
437 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

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A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
436 Effects of Fermentation Techniques on the Quality of Cocoa Beans

Authors: Monday O. Ale, Adebukola A. Akintade, Olasunbo O. Orungbemi

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Fermentation as an important operation in the processing of cocoa beans is now affected by the recent climate change across the globe. The major requirement for effective fermentation is the ability of the material used to retain sufficient heat for the required microbial activities. Apart from the effects of climate on the rate of heat retention, the materials used for fermentation plays an important role. Most Farmers still restrict fermentation activities to the use of traditional methods. Improving on cocoa fermentation in this era of climate change makes it necessary to work on other materials that can be suitable for cocoa fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fermentation techniques on the quality of cocoa beans. The materials used in this fermentation research were heap-leaves (traditional), stainless steel, plastic tin, plastic basket and wooden box. The period of fermentation varies from zero days to 10 days. Physical and chemical tests were carried out for variables in quality determination in the samples. The weight per bean varied from 1.0-1.2 g after drying across the samples and the major color of the dry beans observed was brown except with the samples from stainless steel. The moisture content varied from 5.5-7%. The mineral content and the heavy metals decreased with increase in the fermentation period. A wooden box can conclusively be used as an alternative to heap-leaves as there was no significant difference in the physical features of the samples fermented with the two methods. The use of a wooden box as an alternative for cocoa fermentation is therefore recommended for cocoa farmers.

Keywords: fermentation, effects, fermentation materials, period, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
435 Numerical Investigation on Tsunami Suppression by Submerged Breakwater

Authors: Tasuku Hongo, Hiroya Mamori, Naoya Fukushima, Makoto Yamamoto

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A tsunami induced by an earthquake gives a severe disaster in coastal area. As well known, the huge earthquake in Japan 2011 induced a huge tsunami and the tsunami caused serious damage in the Tohoku and Kanto area. Although breakwaters were constructed in the coast to suppress the tsunami, these were collapsed, and it resulted in severe disasters. In order to decrease the tsunami disaster, we propose the submerged breakwaters and investigate its effect on the tsunami behavior by means of numerical simulations. In order to reproduce tsunami and capture its interface, we employed a moving particle method which is one of the Lagragian methods. Different from ordinary breakwaters, the present breakwater is located in the under-sea. An effective installation condition is investigated by the parametric study. The results show that the submerged breakwater can decrease the wave force by the tsunami. Moreover, the combination of two submerged breakwaters can reduce the tsunami safely and effectively. Therefore, the present results give the effective condition of the installation of the under-sea breakwaters and its mechanism.

Keywords: coastal area, tsunami force reduction, MPS method, submerged breakwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
434 Evaluation of Microbial Community, Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) Vinegar Manufacturing Process

Authors: Nho-Eul Song, Sang-Ho Baik

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Fermentation characteristics of black raspberry vinegar by using static cultures without any additives were has been investigated to establish of vinegar manufacturing conditions and improve the quality of vinegar by optimization the vinegar manufacturing process. The two vinegar manufacturing conditions were prepared; one-step fermentation condition only using mother vinegar that prepared naturally occurring black raspberry vinegar without starter yeast for alcohol fermentation (traditional method) and two-step fermentation condition using commercial wine yeast and mother vinegar for acetic acid fermentation. Approximately 12% ethanol was produced after 35 days fermentation with log 7.6 CFU/mL of yeast population in one-step fermentation, resulting sugar reduction from 14 to 6oBrix whereas in two-step fermentation, ethanol concentration was reached up to 8% after 27 days with continuous increasing yeast until log 7.0 CFU/mL. In addition, yeast and ethanol were decreased after day 60 accompanied with proliferation of acetic acid bacteria (log 5.8 CFU/mL) and titratable acidity; 4.4% in traditional method and 6% in two-step fermentation method. DGGE analysis showed that S. cerevisiae was detected until 77 days of traditional fermentation and gradually changed to AAB, Acetobacter pasteurianus, as dominant species and Komagataeibacter xylinus at the end of the fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus was dominant in two-step fermentation process. The prepared two-step fermentation showed enhanced total polyphenol and flavonoid content significantly resulting in higher radical scavenging activity. Our studies firstly revealed the microbial community change with chemical change and demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for black raspberry vinegar by the static surface method.

Keywords: bacteria, black raspberry, vinegar fermentation, yeast

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433 Solid State Fermentation of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Seed to Produce Food Condiment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Adenike O. Ogunshe, Omotola F. Olagunju, Arinola O. Falola

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Studies were conducted on fermentation of tamarind seed for production of food condiment. Fermentation followed the conventional traditional method of fermented locust bean (iru) production and was carried out over a period of three days (72 hours). Samples were withdrawn and analysed for proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity, tannin content, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity using standard methods. Effects of fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and sensory properties of the seed were evaluated. All data were analysed using ANOVA and means separated using Duncan multiple range test. Microbiological analysis to identify and characterize the microflora responsible for the fermentation of the seed was also carried out. Fermentation had significant effect on the proximate composition on the fermented seeds. As fermentation progressed, there was significant reduction in the anti-nutrient contents. Organisms isolated from the fermenting tamarind seeds were identified as non-pathogenic and common with fermented legumes.

Keywords: condiment, fermentation, legume, tamarind seed

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
432 Analysis of Total Acid in Arabica Coffee Beans after Fermentation with Ohmic Technology

Authors: Reta

Abstract:

Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polyphenols, and it stimulates brain's performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine, when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic-based fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. We used Arabica coffee, which although cheaper than Luwak coffee, has high acidity, which needs to be reduced. Hence, we applied the ohmic technology, varied the time and temperature of the process and measured the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions; 0.32% at 400C and 12 hr, and 0.52% at 400C and 6 hr. The longer the fermentation, the lower was the acidity. The acidity of the mongoose-fermented (natural fermentation) beans was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the acidity of the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality, and this is discussed to highlight the potential of ohmic technology in coffee processing.

Keywords: ohmic technology, fermentation, coffee quality, Arabica coffee

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431 Study of Microstructure of Weldment Obtained by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on IS 2062 Grade B Mild Steel Plate at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: Ajay Biswas, Swapan Bhaumik, Abhijit Bhowmik

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Present experiment has been carried out to study the microstructure of weldment obtained by submerged arc welding on mild steel plate at zero degree Celsius. To study this, bead on plate welding is done by submerged arc welding on the sample plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring the plate temperature at zero degree Celsius. Sixteen numbers of such samples are welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. travel speed, voltage, wire feed rate and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Taguchi’s design of experiment is applied by selecting Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array to restrict the number of experimental runs. Cross sectioned samples are polished and etched to view the weldment. Finally, different zone of the weldment is observed by optical microscope. From the type of microstructure of weldment it is concluded that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, microstructure of weldment

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
430 Colour Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique

Authors: Khairul Bariah Sulaiman, Tajul Aris Yang

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Fermentation is well known as an essential process in cocoa beans. Besides to develop the precursor of cocoa flavour, it also induce the colour changes in the beans.The fermentation process is reported to be influenced by duration of pod storage and fermentation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate colour of Malaysian cocoa beans and how the pods storage and fermentation duration using shallow box technique will effect on it characteristics. There are two factors being studied ie duration of cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4, and 6 days) and duration of cocoa fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans is inspected for colour changes under artificial light during cut test and divided into four groups of colour namely fully brown, purple brown, fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch. Whereas, almost all batch have percentage of fully purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the colour characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation duration.

Keywords: cocoa beans, colour, fermentation, shallow box

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
429 Optimization of Monascus Orange Pigments Production Using pH-Controlled Fed-Batch Fermentation

Authors: Young Min Kim, Deokyeong Choe, Chul Soo Shin

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Monascus pigments, commonly used as a natural colorant in Asia, have many biological activities, such as cholesterol level control, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidant, that have recently been elucidated. Especially, amino acid derivatives of Monascus pigments are receiving much attention because they have higher biological activities than original Monascus pigments. Previously, there have been two ways to produce amino acid derivatives: one-step production and two-step production. However, the one-step production has low purity, and the two-step production—precursor(orange pigments) fermentation and derivatives synthesis—has low productivity and growth rate during its precursor fermentation step. In this study, it was verified that pH is a key factor that affects the stability of orange pigments and the growth rate of Monascus. With an optimal pH profile obtained by pH-stat fermentation, we designed a process of precursor(orange pigments) fermentation that is a pH-controlled fed-batch fermentation. The final concentration of orange pigments in this process increased to 5.5g/L which is about 30% higher than the concentration produced from the previously used precursor fermentation step.

Keywords: cultivation process, fed-batch fermentation, monascus pigments, pH stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
428 Yeasts Associated to Spontaneous Date Vinegar Process

Authors: F. Halladj, H. Amellal, S. Benamara

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Current consumer trends go towards natural products defined as the products obtained by a traditional manufacturing method. Vinegar is one of those products marketed; it may be industrially obtained by a submerged (fast) or traditional (slow) processes. The latter exhibited a high quality because of its complex microbiological transformations (or two-stage fermentation) by the native must flora. Moreover, although that Acetic acid bacteria have traditionally been considered to play the leading role in vinegar production, some studies have recently highlighted that also yeasts metabolism can affect traditional vinegar chemical properties in a remarkable way. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor a traditional slow process of vinegar as applied in the south of Algeria using date with hard texture (Degla-Beida variety) to isolate and identify the involved yeasts in order to select them as starter culture. Phenotypic and molecular analysis show that the non-Saccharomyces were the main yeasts species isolated throughout the alcoholic spontaneous fermentation and they included Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

Keywords: date vinegar, traditional production, yeasts, Phenotypic, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
427 Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Puree

Authors: So Yae Koh, YeonWoo Song, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Jeong Yong Moon, Somi Kim Cho

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Blueberry, a perennial shrub, is one of the most popular fruits due to its flavor and strong free radical scavenging properties. In this study, the blueberry puree was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 and the antioxidant activities of fermentation products were examined. Various conditions with different supplements (5% sucrose or 10% skim milk) were evaluated for fermentation efficiency and the effects on antioxidant properties. The viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria, pH, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were measured after 7 days of fermentation. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] radical scavenging activities were highly enhanced compared to non-fermented blueberry puree after fermentation. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities were greatly increased in the fermentation of blueberry puree alone without supplements. The present results indicate that the blueberry puree fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10 could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and these findings will facilitate the utilization of blueberry as a resource for food additive.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry, lactobacillus plantarum CK10, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
426 Development of Strategy for Enhanced Production of Industrial Enzymes by Microscopic Fungi in Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Zhanara Suleimenova, Raushan Blieva, Aigerim Zhakipbekova, Inkar Tapenbayeva, Zhanar Narmuratova

Abstract:

Green processes are based on innovative technologies that do not negatively affect the environment. Industrial enzymes originated from biological systems can effectively contribute to sustainable development through being isolated from microorganisms which are fermented using primarily renewable resources. Many widespread microorganisms secrete a significant amount of biocatalysts into the environment, which greatly facilitates the task of their isolation and purification. The ability to control the enzyme production through the regulation of their biosynthesis and the selection of nutrient media and cultivation conditions allows not only to increase the yield of enzymes but also to obtain enzymes with certain properties. In this regard, large potentialities are embedded in immobilized cells. Enzyme production technology in a secreted active form enabling industrial application on an economically feasible scale has been developed. This method is based on the immobilization of enzyme producers on a solid career. Immobilizing has a range of advantages: decreasing the price of the final product, absence of foreign substances, controlled process of enzyme-genesis, the ability of various enzymes' simultaneous production, etc. Design of proposed equipment gives the opportunity to increase the activity of immobilized cell culture filtrate comparing to free cells, growing in periodic culture conditions. Such technology allows giving a 10-times raise in culture productivity, to prolong the process of fungi cultivation and periods of active culture liquid generation. Also, it gives the way to improve the quality of filtrates (to make them more clear) and exclude time-consuming processes of recharging fermentative vials, that require manual removing of mycelium.

Keywords: industrial enzymes, immobilization, submerged fermentation, microscopic fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
425 New Methodology for Monitoring Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using Refractometry

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Iguergaziz Nadia, Halladj Fatima, Lamrani Yasmina, Benamara Salem

Abstract:

Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess has a great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this fermentation bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic...) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents, and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as a substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of this process revealed a good correlation (R2 = 0.98) between initial and final ° Brix: ° Brix f = 0.377× ° Brixi. In addition, we verified the relationship between the variation in final and initial ° Brix (Δ ° Brix) and alcoholic rate produced (A exp): CΔ° Brix / A exp = 1.1. This allows the tracing of abacus isoresponses that permit to determine the alcoholic and residual sugar rates with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: refractometry, alcohol, residual sugar, fermentation, brix, date, juice

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
424 High Efficient Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Processing Wastewater by Two Stage Thermophilic Fermentation and Electrohydrogenesis

Authors: Peerawat Khongkliang, Prawit Kongjan, Tsuyoshi Imai, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Sompong O-Thong

Abstract:

A two-stage thermophilic fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert cassava starch processing wastewater into hydrogen gas. Maximum hydrogen yield from fermentation stage by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 was 248 mL H2/g-COD at optimal pH of 6.5. Optimum hydrogen production rate of 820 mL/L/d and yield of 200 mL/g COD was obtained at HRT of 2 days in fermentation stage. Cassava starch processing wastewater fermentation effluent consisted of acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. The effluent from fermentation stage was used as feedstock to generate hydrogen production by microbial electrolysis cell (MECs) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V in second stage with additional 657 mL H2/g-COD was produced. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC were 330 % with COD removals of 95 %. The overall hydrogen yield was 800-900 mL H2/g-COD. Microbial community analysis of electrohydrogenesis by DGGE shows that exoelectrogens belong to Acidiphilium sp., Geobacter sulfurreducens and Thermincola sp. were dominated at anode. These results show two-stage thermophilic fermentation, and electrohydrogenesis process improved hydrogen production performance with high hydrogen yields, high gas production rates and high COD removal efficiency.

Keywords: cassava starch processing wastewater, biohydrogen, thermophilic fermentation, microbial electrolysis cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
423 The Effect of Fermentation and Germination on the Nutrient and Antinutrient Composition of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) Flour

Authors: P. N. Okeke

Abstract:

Fermentation and germination of legumes have been an ancient practice. In this study, the influence of fermentation and germination on the chemical properties of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) flour were evaluated. The flours were analyzed for their proximate and mineral composition, using the standard assay methods. The result showed that fermentation and germination increased the moisture, protein and ash content of the flours while fiber, fat and carbohydrate were decreased. The protein level of fermented and germinated lima bean increased from 21.06–26.60%. The minerals: iron, copper, zinc, and phosphorous increased due to germination and fermentation. The phytate and tannin levels were drastically reduced in both the fermented and germinated flours. The result of this study revealed that fermentation and germination makes the nutrient in lima beans more accessible as it reduces the anti-nutrients. It is therefore recommended that lima bean be process accordingly for richer and more bio-availability of the nutrients.

Keywords: nutrient, anti-nutrient, fermented, germinated, lima bean flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
422 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
421 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, S. James, Eleojo V. Akpa

Abstract:

The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: fermentation, flour, functional properties, Moringa

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
420 Application of Refractometric Methodology for Simultaneous Determination of Alcohol and Residual Sugar Concentrations during Alcoholic Fermentation Bioprocess of Date Juice

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Halladj Fatima, Iguergaziz Nadia, Lamrani yasmina, Benamara Salem

Abstract:

Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess is of great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and they require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as the substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of alcoholic fermentation revealed a good correlation (R2=0.98) between initial and final °Brix: °Brixf=0.377×°Brixi. In addition, the relationship between Δ°Brix and alcoholic content of the final product (A,%) has been determined: Δ°Brix/A=1.1. The obtained results allowed us to establish iso-responses abacus, which can be used for the determination of alcohol and residual sugar content, with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: alcoholic fermentation, date juice, refractometry, residual sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
419 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract

Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.

Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 245