Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Dian Nur Amalia

51 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto

Abstract:

Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dairy cattle feces, briquette, moisture, density

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50 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
49 Civility in Indonesia: Comparison of Indonesian People's Friendliness with the Past

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas, Amira Eka Pratiwi

Abstract:

Since a very long time ago, Indonesia are well known for their hospitality. Hospitality has been one of the civility concepts that represented Indonesia’s culture. However, as an Indonesian, we found that nowadays we are starting to lose this particular culture. The influence of modern culture is undeniably strong. As a capital city, Jakarta is one of the most modern cities in Indonesia. We conduct this experimental study to find out whether the people in Jakarta are still willing to maintain their identity as a friendly Indonesian or not by testing their willingness to reply greetings from strangers.

Keywords: city, civility, culture, greetings, hospitality, modern

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48 Consumtive Behavior of Indonesian: The Tendency of Jakarta’s Citizens to Visit Malls Frequently

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Amira Eka Pratiwi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas

Abstract:

Indonesia is one of the developing countries in the world. However, people in Indonesia, especially in big and modern cities like Jakarta (the capital city of Indonesia), have shown some consumptive behavior. As an indicator, there are about 173 malls and department stores in Jakarta, and of course these malls and department store is always crowded by visitors. This study is trying to describe the dynamics of consumptive behavior that shown by people in Jakarta. We are trying to find out why Indonesian love to go to the malls and department stores despite the low income.

Keywords: consumptive behavior, hedonism, mall, shopping

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47 The Role of Online Deliberation on Citizens’ Attitudes

Authors: Amalia Triantafillidoy, Georgios Lappas, Prodromos Yannas, Alexandros Kleftodimos

Abstract:

In this paper an experiment was conducted to assess the impact of online deliberation on citizens’ attitudes. Specifically, this research compared pre and post deliberation opinions of participants who deliberated online via an asynchronous platform regarding the issue of political opinion polls. Results indicate that online deliberation had a positive effect on citizens’ attitudes since it was found that following deliberation participants changed their views regarding public opinion polls. Specifically, online deliberation improved discussants perceptions regarding the reliability of polls, while suppressing their negative views about the misuse of polls by media, polling organizations and politicians.

Keywords: attitudes change, e-democracy, online deliberation, opinion polls

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
46 Strategic Environmental Assessment and Climate Change: From European Experiences to Brazilian Needs

Authors: Amália S. Botter Fabbri

Abstract:

This paper proposes the analysis of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in relation to the three pillars of the sustainable development, highlighting its particular importance to combat climate change. Theoretical and practical examples from Europe show how SEA has been implemented under the SEA Directive in the recent years, while the Brazilian case study shows a situation in which no regulation on SEA was implemented, despite the strong demand for it, as revealed by past experiences and future planning needs. In the end, some aspects to the formulation of a SEA Act are suggested, in an attempt to contribute to a better Brazilian environmental governance in relation to the future plans, programmes and policies required to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.

Keywords: Brazil, climate change, Europe, strategic environmental assessment

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45 The Role of Psychological Hardiness and Psychological Resilience Employee's Commitment to Change

Authors: Ni Made Dian Swandewi, Wustari L. Mangundjaya

Abstract:

Employees’ commitment to change are required for the success of organizational change in the company. The objective of this study is to identify the correlation between psychological hardiness and psychological resilience on commitment to change. The respondents of current research are permanent employees and employees that have worked for at least two years in a company that has been experiencing organizational change. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), and Modified CD-RISC. The data were analyzed using regression. The results of the research show that both Psychological Hardiness and Psychological Resilience have positive and significant correlation and contribution on Commitment to Change. This research is important for companies who undergo organizational change in order plan and implement change more effectively.

Keywords: commitment to change, organizational change, psychological hardiness, psychological resilience

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44 Crude Palm Oil Antioxidant Extraction and the Antioxidation Activity

Authors: Supriyono Supriyono, Sumardiyono Sumardiyono, Peni Pujiastuti, Dian Indriana Hapsari

Abstract:

Crude palm oil (CPO) is a vegetable oil that came from a palm tree bunch. The productivity of the oil is 12 ton/hectare/year. Thus palm oil tree was known as highest vegetable oil yield. It was grown across Equatorial County, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. The greenish-red color on CPO was come from carotenoid. Carotenoid is one of the antioxidants that could be extracted. Carotenoid could be used as functional food and other purposes. Another antioxidant that also found in CPO is tocopherol. The aim of the research work is to find antioxidant activity on CPO comparing to the synthetic antioxidant that available in a market. In this research work, antioxidant was extracted by a mixture of acetone and n.hexane, while the activity of the antioxidant extract was determined by DPPH method. Antioxidant activity of the extracted compound about 46% compared to pure tocopherol. While the solvent mixture compose by 90% acetone and 10% n. hexane meet the best on the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant, beta carotene, crude palm oil, DPPH, tocopherol

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43 Concept and Implementation of Religious Tourism as a City Icon; Case Study: Golden Dome Mosque in Depok, Indonesia

Authors: Azhari Fauzan

Abstract:

Dian Al Mahri Mosque or more known as Golden Dome Mosque is one of the biggest mosques in Southeast Asia which located in Depok, West Java Province, Indonesia. Instead of a place for praying, this beautiful Mosque is also becoming an icon of Depok for religious tourism destination. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept and objective of religious tourism, also how to be implemented as an icon of the city. As a qualitative method, the data was collected by direct interview with three of the most influential persons: K. H. Amirudin Said S. Q. MA as a Manager of the Mosque, K. H. Dr. Mohammad Idris, MA as a Major of Depok, and Mulyamto as a Head of Tourism Department of Depok. As a result, Golden Dome Mosque involves three integrated aspects (social, economic, and cultural) which can be implemented to evaluate their daily activities and services in order to define themselves as a religious tourism destination.

Keywords: city icon, golden mosque, Muslim Indonesia, religious tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
42 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah

Abstract:

The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, capacity planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone, throughput

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41 Shari'ah Supervisory Board's Performance: The Influence to Quality of Disclosure in Islamic Banks

Authors: Dian Andari

Abstract:

In several decades, Islamic Banks (IBs) has proliferated internationally. To ensure IBs’ accountability to all stakeholders, a governance system is established. Similar to conventional banks (CBs), IBs create corporate governance system. In addition, IBs have Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as part of Shari’ah governance formed purposively to ensure IBs innovative operations comply to the Shari’ah. Thus, all boards in IBs must actively participate in good corporate as well as Shari’ah governance. The research will analyze SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure by observing 10 IBs annual report from 2011 to 2015 in Gulf countries. The content analysis will be done to see the relationship between SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure in the annual report. The analysis found that event all aspects of disclosure have been meet, financial disclosure still dominates the annual report. This can indicate that the SSB’s focus is on the interest of capital providers.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Shari'ah supervisory board, accountability, quality of disclosure

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40 Redefining Problems and Challenges of Natural Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Amalia Zuhra

Abstract:

Indonesia is very rich with its natural resources. Natural resource management becomes a challenge for Indonesia. Improper management will make the natural resources run out and future generations will not be able to enjoy the natural wealth. A good rule of law and proper implementation determines the success of the management of a country's natural resources. This paper examines the need to redefine problems and challenges in the management of natural resources in Indonesia in the context of law. The purpose of this article is to overview the latest issues and challenges in natural resource management and to redefine legal provisions related to environmental management and human rights protection so that the management of natural resources in the present and future will be more sustainable. This paper finds that sustainable management of natural resources is absolutely essential. The aspect of environmental protection and human rights must be elaborated more deeply so that the management of natural resources can be done maximally without harming not only people but also the environment.

Keywords: international environmental law, human rights law, natural resource management, sustainable development

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39 Electrochemical Biosensor for Rutin Detection with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Flavio Colmati Junior, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Rosa Amalia Fireman Dutra

Abstract:

A new enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on multiwall carbon nanotubes and cerium oxide nanoparticles for the detection of rutin has been developed. The cerium oxide nanoparticles /HRP/ multiwall carbon nanotubes/ carbon paste electrode (HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE) was prepared by ensuing addition of MWCNTs and HRP on the CPE, followed by the mixing with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Surface physical characteristics of the modified electrode and the electrochemical properties of the composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cylic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The HRP/ CeO2/MWCNTs/CPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet and capsule samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: cerium dioxide nanoparticles, horseradish peroxidase, multiwall carbon nanotubes, rutin

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38 The MSC-MCF-7 Duet Playing Tumor Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis Onto the Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Serban Comsa, Amalia-Raluca Ceausu, Roxana Popescu, Simona Sarb, Anca-Maria Cimpean, Marius Raica

Abstract:

Background/Aim: The human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a versatile cell population, able to modulate the tumor microenvironment Our aim was to recreate an open scene for the in vivo interaction between hMSC and the MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7), in order to enlighten the intimate involvement of hMSC in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: hMSC and MCF-7 were seeded onto the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and incubated for seven days. Consecutively, the morphology and the immunohistochemical profile of CAM were assessed. Results: Following this complex interaction, MCF-7 acquired a more aggressive phenotype, hMSC switched to a vascular precursor phenotype whileCAM underwent a major reset to an earlier stage, with hotspots of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Conclusion: The hallmark of this study was the establishment of a veritable in vivo experimental model of MSC involvement in tumor vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, allowing further analysis in the field.

Keywords: angiogenesis, chorioallantoic membrane, MCF-7, mesenchymal stem cells, vasculogenesis

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37 Increasing Added-Value of Salak Fruit by Freezing Frying to Improve the Welfare of Farmers: Case Study of Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta-Indonesia

Authors: Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti, Himawan Arif Susanto

Abstract:

Fruits are perishable products and have relatively low price, especially at harvest time. Generally, farmers only sell the products shortly after the harvest time without any processing. Farmers also only play role as price takers leading them to have less power to set the price. Sometimes, farmers are manipulated by middlemen, especially during abundant harvest. Therefore, it requires an effort to cultivate fruits and create innovation to make them more durable and have higher economic value. The purpose of this research is how to increase the added- value of fruits that have high economic value. The research involved 60 farmers of Salak fruit as the sample. Then, descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data in this study. The results showed the selling price of Salak fruit is very low. Hence, to increase the added-value of the fruits, fruit processing is carried out by freezing - frying which can cause the fruits last longer. In addition to increase these added-value, the products can be accommodated for further processed without worrying about their crops rotted or unsold.

Keywords: fruits processing, Salak fruit, freezing frying, farmer’s welfare, Sleman, Yogyakarta

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
36 Three Dimensional Flexible Dynamics of Continuous Cislunar Payloads Transfer System

Authors: Y. Yang, Dian Ming Xing, Qiu Hua Du

Abstract:

Based on the Motorized Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET), with the principle of momentum exchange, the three dimension flexible dynamics of continuous cislunar payloads transferring system (CCPTS) is built by Lagrange method and its numerical solution is solved by Mathematica software. In the derivation precession of potential energy, this paper uses the Tylor expansion method to simplify the Lagrange equation. Furthermore, the tension coming from the centripetal load is considered in the elastic potential energy. The comparison simulation results between the 3D rigid model and 3D flexible model of CCPTS shows that the tether flexibility has important influence on CCPTS’s orbital parameters (such as radius of CCPTS’s COM and the true anomaly) and the tether’s rotational movement, the relative deviation of radius and the true anomaly between the two dynamic models is about 0.00678% and 0.00259%, the relative deviation of the angle of tether-span and local gravity gradient is about 3.55%. Additionally, the external torque has an apparent influence on the tether’s axial vibration.

Keywords: cislunar transfer, dynamics, momentum exchange, tether

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35 Associations between Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene on Milk Production, Fat and Protein Content in Friesian Holstein Cattle

Authors: Tety Hartatik, Dian Kurniawati, Adiarto

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The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH) gene (Leu/Val, L/V) and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein groups (cattle from New Zealand are 19 heads and cattle from Australia are 43 heads). We perform the PCR and RFLP method for analyzing the genotype of the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of GH gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were higher than genotype LV. The number of genotype LL in New Zealand and Australia groups are 84% and 79%, respectively. The number of genotype LV in New Zealand and Australia groups are 16% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups does not show the significant effect. However base on the groups (cows from New Zealand compare with those from Australia) show the significant effect on fat and protein content.

Keywords: Friesian Holstein, fat content, growth hormone gene, milk production, PCR-RLFP, protein content

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34 The Correlation between of Medicine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Dian Ariyawati, Romi Sukoco, Sinung Agung Joko

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Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance caused by autonomic dysfunction. POTS predominantly occurs in young women. Regular exercise has proven to improve the organ system functions, including autonomous systems. The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Method: 510 young women (16-23 years of age) were screened. They were obtained by interview and physical examination. The diagnosis of POTS was performed with Active Stand Test (AST) and heart rate measurement using a pulsemeter. There were 29 young women who suffered from POTS. The exercise frequency was obtained by interview. Data was statistically analyzed using Spearman Correlation test. Result: The subjects’, who tested positive for POTS didn’t perform regular exercise. The Spearman correlation test showed there was a moderate negative correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women (r = -0.487, p < 0.00). Conclusion: There is a moderate reverse correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Further studies are suggested to develop an exercise program for young who suffered from POTS.

Keywords: POTS, autonomic dysfunction, exercise frequency, young woman

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
33 Training Program for Kindergarden Teachers on Learning through Project Approach

Authors: Dian Hartiningsih, Miranda Diponegoro, Evita Eddie Singgih

Abstract:

In facing the 21st century, children need to be prepared in reaching their optimum development level which encompasses all aspect of growth and to achieve the learning goals which include not only knowledge and skill, but also disposition and feeling. Teachers as the forefront of education need to be equipped with the understanding and skill of a learning method which can prepare the children to face this 21st century challenge. Project approach is an approach which utilizes active learning which is beneficial for the children. Subject to this research are kindergarten teachers at Dwi Matra Kindergarten and Kirana Preschool. This research is a quantitative research using before and after study design. The result suggest that through preliminary training program on learning with project approach, the kindergarten teachers ability to explain project approach including understanding, benefit and stages of project approach have increased significantly, the teachers ability to design learning with project approach have also improved significantly. The result of learning design that the teachers had made shows a remarkable result for the first stage of the project approach; however the second and third design result was not as optimal. Challenges faced in the research will be elaborated further in the research discussion.

Keywords: project approach, teacher training, learning method, kindergarten

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32 Design and Implementation Guidance System of Guided Rocket RKX-200 Using Optimal Guidance Law

Authors: Amalia Sholihati, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono

Abstract:

As an island nation, is a necessity for the Republic of Indonesia to have a capable military defense on land, sea or air that the development of military weapons such as rockets for air defense becomes very important. RKX rocket-200 is one of the guided missiles which are developed by consortium Indonesia and coordinated by LAPAN that serve to intercept the target. RKX-200 is designed to have the speed of Mach 0.5-0.9. RKX rocket-200 belongs to the category two-stage rocket that control is carried out on the second stage when the rocket has separated from the booster. The requirement for better performance to intercept missiles with higher maneuverability continues to push optimal guidance law development, which is derived from non-linear equations. This research focused on the design and implementation of a guidance system based OGL on the rocket RKX-200 while considering the limitation of rockets such as aerodynamic rocket and actuator. Guided missile control system has three main parts, namely, guidance system, navigation system and autopilot systems. As for other parts such as navigation systems and other supporting simulated on MATLAB based on the results of previous studies. In addition to using the MATLAB simulation also conducted testing with hardware-based ARM TWR-K60D100M conjunction with a navigation system and nonlinear models in MATLAB using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS).

Keywords: RKX-200, guidance system, optimal guidance law, Hils

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31 Determinant Factor Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Asean-6 Countries Period 2004-2012

Authors: Eleonora Sofilda, Ria Amalia, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah

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Foreign direct investment is one of the sources of financing or capital that important for a country, especially for developing countries. This investment also provides a great contribution to development through the transfer of assets, management improving, and transfer of technology in enhancing the economy of a country. In the other side currently in ASEAN countries emerge the interesting phenomenon where some big producers are re-locate their basic production among those countries. This research is aimed to analyze the factors that affect capital inflows of foreign direct investment into the 6 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam) in period 2004-2012. This study uses panel data analysis to determine the factors that affect of foreign direct investment in 6 ASEAN. The factors that affect of foreign direct investment (FDI) are the gross domestic product (GDP), global competitiveness (GCI), interest rate, exchange rate and trade openness (TO). Result of panel data analysis show that three independent variables (GCI, GDP, and TO) have a significant effect to the FDI in 6 ASEAN Countries.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, the gross domestic product, global competitiveness, interest rate, exchange rate, trade openness, panel data analysis

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30 E-Vet Smart Rapid System: Detection of Farm Disease Based on Expert System as Supporting to Epidemic Disesase Control

Authors: Malik Abdul Jabbar Zen, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Azisya Amalia Karimasari, Novita Priandini

Abstract:

Zoonos is as an infectiontransmitted froma nimals to human sand vice versa currently having increased in the last 20 years. The experts/scientists predict that zoonosis will be a threat to the community in the future since it leads on 70% emerging infectious diseases (EID) and the high mortality of 50%-90%. The zoonosis’ spread from animal to human is caused by contaminated food known as foodborne disease. One World One Health, as the conceptual prevention toward zoonosis, requires the crossed disciplines cooperation to accelerate and streamlinethe handling ofanimal-based disease. E-Vet Smart Rapid System is an integrated innovation in the veterinary expertise application is able to facilitate the prevention, treatment, and educationagainst pandemic diseases and zoonosis. This system is constructed by Decision Support System (DSS) method provides a database of knowledge that is expected to facilitate the identification of disease rapidly, precisely, and accurately as well as to identify the deduction. The testingis conducted through a black box test case and questionnaire (N=30) by validity and reliability approach. Based on the black box test case reveals that E-Vet Rapid System is able to deliver the results in accordance with system design, and questionnaire shows that this system is valid (r > 0.361) and has a reliability (α > 0.3610).

Keywords: diagnosis, disease, expert systems, livestock, zoonosis

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29 Mothwash Formulation of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera) and Its Activity as an Antibacterial for Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: Amalia Dwi Berliyanti Amel

Abstract:

Streptococcus mutants bacteria are bacteria that are believed to be the cause of the growth of dental plaque which can further adversely affect dental caries if left unchecked. Previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract can slow down the growth rate of this bacterium. This study aims to make the best formulation of mouthwash with the active ingredient of Moringa leaf extract based on its antibacterial and organoleptic test results. Nine mouthwash variations were carried out with two factors and three levels, namely a comparison of the concentration of sorbitol (A) with three levels namely 15% (A1), 20% (A2), and 25% (A3), and peppermint added (B) with three levels, namely 0.2% (B1), 0.25% (B2), and 0.3% (B3). The test parameters performed as the determination of the best mouthwash are based on physicochemical properties which include pH and viscosity as well as organoleptic test results which include color, viscosity, aroma, taste, sensation in the mouth, and general appearance. The results showed that the bright zone as a test for the antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutants began to be seen at a concentration of 5%. Moringa leaf mouthwash formulation has a pH value between 6 - 7, with a control of 6. Whereas the mucosa leaf mouthwash vascularity produced between 1.1 - 1.7 cP with a control of 1.1 cP. Moringa leaf mouthwash and control have the same total number of microbes, namely 0 colonies / mL. Based on organoleptic tests performed with 20 panelists, it was shown that the best mouthwash formulation was formulation A1B3 with sorbitol composition 15% and peppermint 0.3%.

Keywords: antibasteria, formula, moringa leaf, mouthwash

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28 Need Assessments of Midwives in Public's Health Center (Puskesmas) at Sukabumi Municipal, Province of Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Authors: Al Asyary, Meita Veruswati, Dian Ayyubi

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Sukabumi municipal has highest rank for maternal mortality in Indonesia with 102 by 100,000 live birth with almost 80% of birth were not attended by skilled birth attendant (SBA). Although universal health coverage has been implemented, availability and sufficiency of SBA, such as midwife in this developing country, are problematic agenda for the quality of public healthcare as well as decreasing maternal mortality rate. This study aims to describe the equal distribution of midwives in Sukabumi municipal as support of government’s program named Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that suppressed maternal mortality rate in Indonesia. We conducted an observational study with Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) analysis to present the dispersion of midwives by their activities and workloads in 37 Puskesmas. We also generated in-depth interview with several executive chief of health sections, including chief of health offices in Sukabumi municipal. It resulted inferentially that several activities in midwives’ program were differed at once of existing than needed condition ideally (ρ value = 0.002 < 0.05). Meanwhile, decision for midwives’ procurement and placement were held by un-systematically procedure such as based on where the midwife was staying, and it also progressed by neighborhood issue priorities. The absence of formal regulation in local government is a serious problem that indicated poor political commitment, while access to SBA shall be focused carefully.

Keywords: developing country, health professional resources, health policy, need assessment

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27 Phytoremediation Aeration System by Using Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes I) Based on Zero Waste to Reduce the Impact of Industrial Liquid Waste in Jember, Indonesia

Authors: Wahyu Eko Diyanto, Amalia Dyah Arumsari, Ulfatu Layinatinnahdiyah Arrosyadi

Abstract:

Tofu industry is one of the local food industry which is can being competitive industry in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). However, a lot of tofu entrepreneurs just thinking how to produce good quality product without considering the impact of environmental conditions from the production process. Production of tofu per day requires a number of 15 kg with liquid waste generated is 652.5 liters. That liquid waste is discharged directly into waterways, whereas tofu liquid waste contains organic compounds that quickly unraveled, so it can pollute waterways. In addition, tofu liquid waste is high in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorus. This research is aim to create a method of handling liquid waste effectively and efficiently by using water lettuce. The method is done by observation and experiment by using phytoremediation method in the tofu liquid waste using water lettuce and adding aeration to reduce the concentration of contaminants. The results of the research analyzed the waste quality standard parameters based on SNI (National Standardization Agency of Indonesia). The efficiency concentration and parameters average of tofu liquid waste are obtained pH 3,42% (from 4,0 to be 3,3), COD 76,13% (from 3579 ppm to be 854 ppm), BOD 55 % (from 11600 ppm to be 5242 ppm), TSS 93,6% (from 3174 ppm to be 203 ppm), turbidity is 64,8% (from 977 NTU to be 1013 NTU), and temperature 36oC (from 45oC to be 40oC). The efficiency of these parameters indicates a safe value for the effluent to be channeled in waterways. Water lettuce and tofu liquid waste phytoremediation result will be used as biogas as renewable energy.

Keywords: aeration, phytoremediation, water letuce, tofu liquid waste

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26 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

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25 Production of New Hadron States in Effective Field Theory

Authors: Qi Wu, Dian-Yong Chen, Feng-Kun Guo, Gang Li

Abstract:

In the past decade, a growing number of new hadron states have been observed, which are dubbed as XYZ states in the heavy quarkonium mass regions. In this work, we present our study on the production of some new hadron states. In particular, we investigate the processes Υ(5S,6S)→ Zb (10610)/Zb (10650)π, Bc→ Zc (3900)/Zc (4020)π and Λb→ Pc (4312)/Pc (4440)/Pc (4457)K. (1) For the production of Zb (10610)/Zb (10650) from Υ(5S,6S) decay, two types of bottom-meson loops were discussed within a nonrelativistic effective field theory. We found that the loop contributions with all intermediate states being the S-wave ground state bottom mesons are negligible, while the loops with one bottom meson being the broad B₀* or B₁' resonance could provide the dominant contributions to the Υ(5S)→ Zb⁽'⁾ π. (2) For the production of Zc (3900)/Zc (4020) from Bc decay, the branching ratios of Bc⁺→ Z (3900)⁺ π⁰ and Bc⁺→ Zc (4020)⁺ π⁰ are estimated to be of order of 10⁽⁻⁴⁾ and 10⁽⁻⁷⁾ in an effective Lagrangian approach. The large production rate of Zc (3900) could provide an important source of the production of Zc (3900) from the semi-exclusive decay of b-flavored hadrons reported by D0 Collaboration, which can be tested by the exclusive measurements in LHCb. (3) For the production of Pc (4312), Pc (4440) and Pc (4457) from Λb decay, the ratio of the branching fraction of Λb→ Pc K was predicted in a molecular scenario by using an effective Lagrangian approach, which is weakly dependent on our model parameter. We also find the ratios of the productions of the branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K and Pc→ J/ψ p can be well interpreted in the molecular scenario. Moreover, the estimated branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K are of order 10⁽⁻⁶⁾, which could be tested by further measurements in LHCb Collaboration.

Keywords: effective Lagrangian approach, hadron loops, molecular states, new hadron states

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24 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: discrete elements, Hertzian contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation

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23 Cytotoxic Activity of Acetone and Ethanol Overripe Tempe Extracts against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells and Their Antioxidant Property

Authors: Dian Muzdalifah, Anastasia F. Devi, Zatil A. Athaillah, Linar Z. Udin

Abstract:

Tempe is a functional food prepared from soybeans through Rhizopus spp fermentation. It is well known as functional food, originated from Indonesia. Most studies on tempe functionalities refer to ripe (48 h fermentation) tempe and only limited studies discuss overripe tempe while longer fermentation time possibly increased tempe health benefit. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic activity againts MCF-7 breast cancer cells and antioxidant property of tempe prepared from 0–156 h of fermentation. Tempe samples were dried and extracted with acetone and ethanol, respectively. Their extracts were used for subsequent analysis. The cytotoxic activity was assessed on MCF 7 breast cancer cells using Alamar Blue method. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results indicated that acetone extracts of 108 h tempe had a potent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 2.54 ± 0,30 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts of 108 h tempe also showed the potency, but at slightly higher IC50 (5.20 ± 1.01 μg/mL). Both acetone and ethanol extracts of 108 and 120 h tempe showed high antioxidant activity expressed as percent inhibition with no significant difference. However, acetone extracts of 120 h tempe (81.31 ± 3.70 %) had better ability to inhibit oxidation reaction than that of ethanol extracts (75.77 ± 6.00 %). It can be concluded that the cytotoxic activity of tempe from 0–156 h of fermentation is positively correlated to their corresponding antioxidant property. Longer fermentation time, up to 108 h, increased the ability of tempe to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and oxidative reaction. But extended fermentation time, up to 156 h, tends to decrease its ability. Further studies are encouraged to identify the active components contained in each extract.

Keywords: antioxidant property, cytotoxic activity, extracts, overripe tempeh

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22 Revitalization of the Chinese Residential at Lasem, Indonesia

Authors: Nurtati Soewarno, Dian Duhita

Abstract:

The existence of civilization from the past is recognized by the left objects such as monuments, buildings or even a town. The relics were designed and made well, using the good quality material so it could persist a long period of time. At this moment, those relics are cultural heritage that must be preserved and the authenticity maintained. Indonesia, a country consist of various tribes with many cultural heritages, one of them is the city of Lasem. Lasem city lies in the northern part of Central Java since the Majapahit kingdom era (13th century) poses as a busy harbor city and a trading center. Lasem is one of the residences of Chinese immigrants in Java, seen by the domination of Chinese architectural building styles. The residential was built since the 15th century and the building has the courtyard which is different from other China’s building in another part of Java. This city loses ground since the trade activity experience difficulties during the Japanese colonial era and continues after the Indonesian independence time. Many Chinese people left Lasem city and let the buildings empty not maintained. This paper will present the result of observation to Chinese architectural style buildings in Lasem city which still hold out until this moment. Using typo morphology method, the case study is chosen based on the transformation type. The occurring transformation is parallel with adaptive reuse concept as an effort to revitalize the existence of the buildings. With this concept, it is expected that the buildings could be re functioned and the glory of the foretime Lasem city could be experienced again. Intervention from the local government is expected, issuing regulations, hoping the new building functions won’t ruin the cultural heritage but instead beautifies it.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, brown field area, building transformation, Lasem city

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