Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: biochar

50 Impact of Syngenetic Elements on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biochar

Authors: Edita Baltrėnaitė, Pranas Baltrėnas, Eglė MarčIulaitienė, Mantas PranskevičIus, Valeriia Chemerys

Abstract:

The growing demand for organic products in the market promotes their use in various fields. One of such products is biochar. Among the innovative environmental applications, biochar has the potential as an adsorbent for retaining contaminants in environmental engineering and agrotechnical systems. Artificial modification of biochar can improve its adsorption capacity. However, indirect/natural change of biochar composition (e.g., contaminated biomass) based on syngenetic elements provides prospects for new applications of biochar as well as decreases the modification costs. Natural lignocellulosic and biochar composition variations would lead to a new field of application of biochar and reduce resources for biochar modifications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syngenetic elements of biochar’s feedstock on the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biochar. Syngenetic elements (e.g., Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg) and other intrinsic properties (e.g., lignin, COHN, moisture, ash) of indifferent types of lignocellulosic feedstock on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar are discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, lignocellulosic biochar, instrinsic properties, syngenetic elements

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49 The Effect of Biochar, Inoculated Biochar and Compost Biological Component of the Soil

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Mikajlo Irina, Záhora Jaroslav, Elbl Jakub

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Biochar can be produced from the waste matter and its application has been associated with returning of carbon in large amounts into the soil. The impacts of this material on physical and chemical properties of soil have been described. The biggest part of the research work is dedicated to the hypothesis of this material’s toxic effects on the soil life regarding its effect on the soil biological component. At present, it has been worked on methods which could eliminate these undesirable properties of biochar. One of the possibilities is to mix biochar with organic material, such as compost, or focusing on the natural processes acceleration in the soil. In the experiment has been used as the addition of compost as well as the elimination of toxic substances by promoting microbial activity in aerated water environment. Biochar was aerated for 7 days in a container with a volume of 20 l. This way modified biochar had six times higher biomass production and reduce mineral nitrogen leaching. Better results have been achieved by mixing biochar with compost.

Keywords: leaching of nitrogen, soil, biochar, compost

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
48 Biodiesel Synthesis Using Animal Excreta-Based Biochar and Waste Cooking Oil

Authors: Sang-Ryong Lee, Min-Woon Jung, Deugwoo Han, Kiyong Kim

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This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of animal excreta to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO2), chicken manure biochar generated from 350 C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40–60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350C was highly recommended.

Keywords: Trasesterification, Animal excreta, FAME, Biochar, Chicken manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
47 Cadmium Adsorption by Modified Magnetic Biochar

Authors: Chompoonut Chaiyaraksa, Chanida Singbubpha, Kliaothong Angkabkingkaew, Thitikorn Boonyasawin

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Heavy metal contamination in an environment is an important problem in Thailand that needs to be addressed urgently, particularly contaminated with water. It can spread to other environments faster. This research aims to study the adsorption of cadmium ion by unmodified biochar and sodium dodecyl sulfate modified magnetic biochar derived from Eichhornia Crassipes. The determination of the adsorbent characteristics was by Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, X-ray Diffractometer, and the pH drift method. This study also included the comparison of adsorption efficiency of both types of biochar, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics. The pH value at the point of zero charges of the unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar was 7.40 and 3.00, respectively. The maximum value of adsorption reached when using pH 8. The equilibrium adsorption time was 5 hours and 1 hour for unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar, respectively. The cadmium adsorption by both adsorbents followed Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin – Radushkevich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The adsorption process was spontaneous at high temperatures and non-spontaneous at low temperatures. It was an endothermic process, physisorption in nature, and can occur naturally.

Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, magnetic biochar, sodium dodecyl sulfate, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
46 Biochar Assisted Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recycling

Authors: A. Pokharel, A. Farooque, B. Acharya

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Pyrolysis can be used for energy production from waste biomass of agriculture and forestry. Biochar is the solid byproduct of pyrolysis and its cascading use can offset the cost of the process. A wide variety of research on biochar has highlighted its ability to absorb nutrients, metal and complex compounds; filter suspended solids; enhance microorganisms’ growth; retain water and nutrients as well as to increase carbon content of soil. In addition, sustainable biochar systems are an attractive approach for carbon sequestration and total waste management cycle. Commercially available biochar from Sigma Aldrich was studied for adsorption of nitrogen from effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. Adsorption isotherm and breakthrough curve were determined for the biochar. Similarly, biochar’s effects in aerobic as well as anaerobic bioreactors were also studied. In both cases, the biomass was increased in presence of biochar. The amount of gas produced for anaerobic digestion of fruit mix (apple and banana) was similar but the rate of production was significantly faster in biochar fed reactors. The cumulative goal of the study is to use biochar in various wastewater treatment units like aeration tank, secondary clarifier and tertiary nutrient recovery system as well as in anaerobic digestion of the sludge to optimize utilization and add value before being used as a soil amendment.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recyling, wastewater treatment, soil amendment

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45 Investigation of Biochar from Banana Peel

Authors: Anurita Selvarajoo, Svenja Hanson

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Growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues are creating awareness for alternative energy which substitutes the non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels. Agricultural wastes are a good feedstock for biochar production through the pyrolysis process. There is potential to generate solid fuel from agricultural wastes, as there are large quantities of agricultural wastes available in Malaysia. This paper outlines the experimental study on the pyrolysis of banana peel. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yield of biochar from the banana peel were investigated. Banana peel was pyrolysed in a horizontal tubular reactor under inert atmosphere by varying the temperatures between 300 and 700 0C. With increasing temperature, the total biochar yield decreased with increased heating value. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature had major effect on the yield of biochar product. It also exerted major influence on the heating value and C,H and O composition. The obtained biochar ranged between 31.9 to 56.7 %wt, at different pyrolysis temperatures. The optimum biochar yield was obtained at 325 0C. Biochar yield obtained at optimum temperature was 47 % wt with a heating value of 25.9 MJ kg-1. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate that agricultural wastes like banana peel are also important source of solid fuel.

Keywords: agricultural Wastes, banana peel, biochar, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
44 The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought

Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Jakub Elbl, Irina Mikajlo, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Olga Urbánková, Jaroslav Záhora

Abstract:

Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1–V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1–V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3–V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.

Keywords: arable soil, biochar, drought, mineral nitrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
43 Environmental Potential of Biochar from Wood Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

Authors: Cora Bulmău

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Soil polluted with hydrocarbons spills is a major global concern today. As a response to this issue, our experimental study tries to put in evidence the option to choose for one environmentally friendly method: use of the biochar, despite to a classical procedure; incineration of contaminated soil. Biochar represents the solid product obtained through the pyrolysis of biomass, its additional use being as an additive intended to improve the quality of the soil. The positive effect of biochar addition to soil is represented by its capacity to adsorb and contain petroleum products within its pores. Taking into consideration the capacity of the biochar to interact with organic contaminants, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally establish the effects of the addition of wooden biomass-derived biochar on a soil contaminated with oil. So, the contaminated soil was amended with biochar (10%) produced by pyrolysis in different operational conditions of the thermochemical process. After 25 days, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil treated with biochar was measured. An analytical method as Soxhlet extraction was adopted to estimate the concentrations of total petroleum products (TPH) in the soil samples: This technique was applied to contaminated soil, also to soils remediated by incineration/adding biochar. The treatment of soil using biochar obtained from pyrolysis of the Birchwood led to a considerable decrease in the concentrations of petroleum products. The incineration treatments conducted under experimental stage to clean up the same soil, contaminated with petroleum products, involved specific parameters: temperature of about 600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and treatment time 30 and 60 minutes. The experimental results revealed that the method using biochar has registered values of efficiency up to those of all incineration processes applied for the shortest time.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, remediaton, soil, TPH

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
42 Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals

Authors: Kalyani Mer

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Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.

Keywords: biochar, ultrasound, heavy metals, in-situ chemical oxidation, chemical activation

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41 Effect of Core Puncture Diameter on Bio-Char Kiln Efficiency

Authors: W. Intagun, T. Khamdaeng, P. Prom-ngarm, N. Panyoyai

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Biochar has been used as a soil amendment since it has high porous structure and has proper nutrients and chemical properties for plants. Product yields produced from biochar kiln are dependent on process parameters and kiln types used. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of core puncture diameter on biochar kiln efficiency, i.e., yields of biochar and produced gas. Corncobs were used as raw material to produce biochar. Briquettes from agricultural wastes were used as fuel. Each treatment was performed by changing the core puncture diameter. From the experiment, it is revealed that the yield of biochar at the core puncture diameter of 3.18 mm, 4.76 mm, and 6.35 mm was 10.62 wt. %, 24.12 wt. %, and 12.24 wt. %, of total solid yields, respectively. The yield of produced gas increased with increasing the core puncture diameter. The maximum percentage by weight of the yield of produced gas was 81.53 wt. % which was found at the core puncture diameter of 6.35 mm. The core puncture diameter was furthermore found to affect the temperature distribution inside the kiln and its thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the high efficient biochar kiln can be designed and constructed by using the proper core puncture diameter.

Keywords: anila stove, bio-char, soil conditioning materials, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
40 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

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We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: biochar, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction, fixed bed, fluidized bed

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39 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah

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Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
38 Experimental Research of Biogas Production by Using Sewage Sludge and Chicken Manure Bioloadings with Wood Biochar Additive

Authors: P. Baltrenas, D. Paliulis, V. Kolodynskij, D. Urbanas

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Bioreactor; special device, which is used for biogas production from various organic material under anaerobic conditions. In this research, a batch bioreactor with a mechanical mixer was used for biogas production from sewage sludge and chicken manure bioloadings. The process of anaerobic digestion was mesophilic (35 °C). Produced biogas was stoted in a gasholder and the concentration of its components was measured with INCA 4000 biogas analyser. Also, a specific additive (pine wood biochar) was applied to prepare bioloadings. The application of wood biochar in bioloading increases the CH₄ concentration in the produced gas by 6-7%. The highest concentrations of CH₄ were found in biogas produced during the decomposition of sewage sludge bioloadings. The maximum CH₄ reached 77.4%. Studies have shown that the application of biochar in bioloadings also reduces average CO₂ and H₂S concentrations in biogas.

Keywords: biochar, biogas, bioreactor, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
37 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

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The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, ammonium, NH₄-N, chemical oxygen demand, COD, greywater, nitrate, NO₃-N, total suspended solids, TSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
36 Biochar as a Strong Adsorbent for Multiple-Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Mai E. Khedr, Randa Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad

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In the past few years, biochar - a highly carbon-rich material produced from agro-wastes by pyrolysis process - was used as an effective adsorbent for heavy metals removal from polluted water. In this study, different types of biochar (rice straw 'RSB', corn cob 'CCB', and Jatropha shell 'JSB' were used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of heavy metals removal from multiple-metal solutions (Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd). Kinetics modeling has been examined to illustrate potential adsorption mechanisms. The results showed that the potential removal of metal is dependent on the metal and biochar types. The adsorption capacity of the biochars followed the order: RSB > JSB > CCB. In general, RSB and JSB biochars presented high potential removal of heavy metals from polluted water, which was higher than 90 and 80% after 2 hrs of contact time for all metals, respectively. According to the kinetics data, the pseudo-second-order model was agreed strongly with Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cd adsorption onto the biochars (R2 ≥ 0.97), indicating the dominance of specific adsorption process, i.e., chemisorption. In conclusion, this study revealed that RSB and JSB biochar have the potential to be a strong adsorbent for multiple-metal removal from wastewater.

Keywords: adsorption, biochar, chemisorption, polluted water

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35 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

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Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
34 Effect of Two Different Biochars on Germination and Seedlings Growth of Salad, Cress and Barley

Authors: L. Bouqbis, H.W. Koyro, M. C. Harrouni, S. Daoud, L. F. Z. Ainlhout, C. I. Kammann

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The application of biochar to soils is becoming more and more common. Its application which is generally reported to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils, has an indirect effect on soil health and increased crop yields. However, many of the previous results are highly variable and dependent mainly on the initial soil properties, biochar characteristics, and production conditions. In this study, two biochars which are biochar II (BC II) derived from a blend of paper sludge and wheat husks and biochar 005 (BC 005) derived from sewage sludge with a KCl additive, are used, and the physical and chemical properties of BC II are characterized. To determine the potential impact of salt stress and toxic and volatile substances, the second part of this study focused on the effect biochars have on germination of salad (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and cress (Lepidium sativum) respectively. Our results indicate that Biochar II showed some unique properties compared to the soil, such as high EC, high content of K, Na, Mg, and low content of heavy metals. Concerning salad and barley germination test, no negative effect of BC II and BC 005 was observed. However, a negative effect of BC 005 at 8% level was revealed. The test of the effect of volatile substances on germination of cress revealed a positive effect of BC II, while a negative effect was observed for BC 005. Moreover, the water holding capacities of biochar-sand mixtures increased with increasing biochar application. Collectively, BC II could be safely used for agriculture and could provide the potential for a better plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, phytotoxic tests, seedlings growth, water holding capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
33 Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method

Authors: Muhammed Ertuğrul Çeloğlu, Mehmet Yılmaz

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In this study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50 and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at 400 °C, resulting in three different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10% and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 400 °C temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.

Keywords: rheology, biomass, pyrolysis, biochar

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
32 Effect of PGPB Inoculation, Addition of Biochar and Mineral N Fertilization on Mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Irina Mikajlo, Jaroslav Záhora, Helena Dvořáčková, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jakub Elbl

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Strong anthropogenic impact has uncontrolled consequences on the nature of the soil. Hence, up-to-date sustainable methods of soil state improvement are essential. Investigators provide the evidence that biochar can positively effects physical, chemical and biological soil properties and the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which are in the focus of this study. The main aim of the present investigation is to demonstrate the effect of two types of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculums along with the beech wood biochar and mineral N additives on mycorrhizal colonization. Experiment has been set up in laboratory conditions with containers filled with arable soil from the protection zone of the main water source ‘Brezova nad Svitavou’. Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been selected as a model plant. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonization increased as the result of combined influence of biochar and PGPB inoculums amendment. In addition, correlation analyses showed that the numbers of main groups of cultivated bacteria were dependent on the degree of mycorrhizal colonization.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza, biochar, PGPB inoculum, soil microorganisms

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31 Degradation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides (Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid) Using Biochar of Rice Husk and Fruit Peels

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Sadia Bashir, Muhammad Awais Khalid, Aamir Ghafoor, Zara Hussain, Mashal Shahid

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The irrational use of insecticides in everyday life has drawn attention worldwide towards its harmful effects. To mitigate the toxic effects of insecticides to humans, present study was planned on the degradation/detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Biocarbon of fruit peels (Banana & Watermelon) and biochar (activated or non-activated) of rice husk was utilized as adsorbents for degradation of selected pesticides. Both activated and non-activated biochar were prepared for treatment and then applied in different concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 ppm) and dosage (1.0 to 2.5g) to insecticides (Acetamiprid & Imidacloprid) as well as studied at different times (30-120 minutes). Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with Photodiode array detector was used to quantify the insecticides. Results depicted that activated biochar of rice husk minimized the 73% concentrations of both insecticides however, watermelon activated biocarbon degraded 72% of imidacloprid and 56% of acetamiprid. Results proved the efficiency of the method employed and it was also inferred that high concentration of biocarbon resulted in larger percentage of degradation. The applied method is cheaper, easy and accessible that can be used to minimize the pesticide residues in animal feed. Degradation using biochar proved significant degradation, eco-friendly and economic method to reduce toxicity of insecticides.

Keywords: insecticides, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, biochar, HPLC

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30 High Physical Properties of Biochar Issued from Cashew Nut Shell to Adsorb Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins and Ochratoxine A) and Its Effects on Toxigenic Molds

Authors: Abderahim Ahmadou, Alfredo Napoli, Noel Durand, Didier Montet

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Biochar is a microporous and adsorbent solid carbon product obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass, agricultural waste). Biochar is distinguished from vegetable charcoal by its manufacture methods. Biochar is used as the amendment in soils to give them favorable characteristics under certain conditions, i.e., absorption of water and its release at low speed. Cashew nuts shell from Mali is usually discarded on land by local processors or burnt as a mean for waste management. The burning of this biomass poses serious socio-environmental problems including greenhouse gas emission and accumulation of tars and soot on houses closed to factories, leading to neighbor complaints. Some mycotoxins as aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of molds that develop on plants in the field and during their conservation. They are found at high level on some seeds and nuts in Africa. Ochratoxin A, member of mycotoxins, is produced by various species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Human exposure to Ochratoxin A can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain, as well as coffee, wine grapes. We showed that cashew shell biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C adsorbed aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) at 100% by filtration (rapid contact) as well as by stirring (long contact). The average percentage of adsorption of Ochratoxin A was 35% by filtration and 80% by stirring. The duration of the biochar-mycotoxin contact was a significant parameter. The effect of biochar was also tested on two strains of toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus (producers of Aflatoxins) and Aspergillus carbonarius (producers of Ochratoxins). The growth of the strain Aspergillus carbonarius was inhibited at up to 60% by the biochar at 600°C. An opposite effect to the inhibition was observed on Aspergillus parasiticus using the same biochar. In conclusion, we observed that biochar adsorbs mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A to different degrees; 100% adsorption of aflatoxins under all conditions (filtration and stirring) and adsorption of Ochratoxin A varied depending on the type of biochar and the experiment conditions (35% by filtration and 85% by stirring). The effects of biochar at 600 °C on the toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus carbonarius, varied according to the experimental conditions and the strains. We observed an opposite effect on the growth with an inhibition of Aspergillus carbonarius up to 60% and a stimulated growth of Aspergillus parasiticus.

Keywords: biochar, cashew nut shell, mycotoxins, toxicogenic molds

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29 Evaluation of Sugarcane Straw Derived Biochar for the Remediation of Chromium and Nickel Contaminated Soil

Authors: Selam M. Tefera

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Soil constitutes a crucial component of rural and urban environments. This fact is making role of heavy and trace elements in the soil system an issue of global concern. Heavy metals constitute an ill-defined group of inorganic chemical hazards, whose main source is anthropogenic activities mainly related to fabrications. This accumulation of heavy metals soils can prove toxic to the environment. The application of biochar to soil is one way of immobilizing these contaminants through sorption by exploiting the high surface area of this material among its other essential properties. This research examined the ability of sugar cane straw, an organic waste material from sugar farm, derived biochar and ash to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals mainly Chromium and Zinc from the effluent of electroplating industry. Biochar was produced by varying the temperature from 300 °C to 500 °C and ash at 700 °C. The highest yield (50%) was obtained at the lowest temperature (300 °C). The proximate analysis showed ash content of 42.8%, ultimate analysis with carbon content of 67.18%, the Hydrogen to Carbon ratio of 0.54 and the results from FTIR analysis disclosed the organic nature of biochar. Methylene blue absorption indicated its fine surface area and pore structure, which increases with severity of temperature. Biochar was mixed with soil with at a ration varying from 4% w/w to 10% w/w of soil, and the response variables were determined at a time interval of 150 days, 180 days, and 210 days. As for ash (10% w/w), the characterization was performed at incubation time of 210 days. The results of pH indicated that biochar (9.24) had a notable liming capacity of acidic soil (4.8) by increasing it to 6.89 whereas ash increased it to 7.5. The immobilization capacity of biochar was found to effected mostly by the highest production temperature (500 °C), which was 75.5% for chromium and 80.5% for nickel. In addition, ash was shown to possess an outstanding immobilization capacity of 95.5% and 90.5% for Chromium and Nickel, respectively. All in all, the results from these methods showed that biochar produced from this specific biomass possesses the typical functional groups that enable it to store carbon, the appropriate pH that could remediate acidic soil, a fine amount of macro and micro nutrients that would aid plant growth.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, heavy metal immobalization, soil remediation

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28 Biochar and Food Security in Central Uganda

Authors: Nataliya Apanovich, Mark Wright

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Uganda is among the poorest but fastest growing populations in the world. Its annual population growth of 3% puts additional stress through land fragmentation, agricultural intensification, and deforestation on already highly weathered tropical (Ferralsol) soils. All of these factors lead to decreased agricultural yields and consequently diminished food security. The central region of Uganda, Buganda Kingdom, is especially vulnerable in terms of food security as its high population density coupled with mismanagement of natural resources led to gradual loss of its soil and even changes in microclimate. These changes are negatively affecting livelihoods of smallholder farmers who comprise 80% of all population in Uganda. This research focuses on biochar for soil remediation in Masaka District, Uganda. If produced on a small scale from locally sourced materials, biochar can increase the quality of soil in a cost and time effective manner. To assess biochar potential, 151 smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of crops grown, agricultural residues produced and their use, as well as on attitudes towards biochar use and its production on a small scale. The interviews were conducted in 7 sub-counties, 32 parishes, and 92 villages. The total farmland covered by the study was 606.2 kilometers. Additional information on the state of agricultural development and environmental degradation in the district was solicited from four local government officials via informal interviews. This project has been conducted in collaboration with the international agricultural research institution, Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. The results of this research can have implications on the way farmers perceive the value of their agricultural residues and what they decide to do with them. The underlying objective is to help smallholders in degraded soils increase their agricultural yields through the use of biochar without diverting the already established uses of agricultural residues to a new soil management practice.

Keywords: agricultural residues, biochar, central Uganda, food security, soil erosion, soil remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
27 Sugarcane Trash Biochar: Effect of the Temperature in the Porosity

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Elias R. D. Padilla, Joao L. Barros, Gabriela B. Belini, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji

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Biochar can be an alternative to use sugarcane trash. Biochar is a solid material obtained from pyrolysis, that is a biomass thermal degradation with low or no O₂ concentration. Pyrolysis transforms the carbon that is commonly found in other organic structures into a carbon with more stability that can resist microbial decomposition. Biochar has a versatility of uses such as soil fertility, carbon sequestration, energy generation, ecological restoration, and soil remediation. Biochar has a great ability to retain water and nutrients in the soil so that this material can improve the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization. The aim of this study was to characterize biochar produced from sugarcane trash in three different pyrolysis temperatures and determine the lowest temperature with the high yield and carbon content. Physical characterization of this biochar was performed to help the evaluation for the best production conditions. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) trash was collected at Corredeira Farm, located in Ibaté, São Paulo State, Brazil. The farm has 800 hectares of planted area with an average yield of 87 t·ha⁻¹. The sugarcane varieties planted on the farm are: RB 855453, RB 867515, RB 855536, SP 803280, SP 813250. Sugarcane trash was dried and crushed into 50 mm pieces. Crucibles and lids were used to settle the sugarcane trash samples. The higher amount of sugarcane trash was added to the crucible to avoid the O₂ concentration. Biochar production was performed in three different pyrolysis temperatures (200°C, 325°C, 450°C) in 2 hours residence time in the muffle furnace. Gravimetric yield of biochar was obtained. Proximate analysis of biochar was done using ASTM E-872 and ABNT NBR 8112. Volatile matter and ash content were calculated by direct weight loss and fixed carbon content calculated by difference. Porosity measurement was evaluated using an automatic gas adsorption device, Autosorb-1, with CO₂ described by Nakatani. Approximately 0.5 g of biochar in 2 mm particle sizes were used for each measurement. Vacuum outgassing was performed as a pre-treatment in different conditions for each biochar temperature. The pore size distribution of micropores was determined using Horváth-Kawazoe method. Biochar presented different colors for each treatment. Biochar - 200°C presented a higher number of pieces with 10mm or more and did not present the dark black color like other treatments after 2 h residence time in muffle furnace. Also, this treatment had the higher content of volatiles and the lower amount of fixed carbon. In porosity analysis, while the temperature treatments increase, the amount of pores also increase. The increase in temperature resulted in a biochar with a better quality. The pores in biochar can help in the soil aeration, adsorption, water retention. Acknowledgment: This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brazil – PROAP-CAPES, PDSE and CAPES - Finance Code 001.

Keywords: proximate analysis, pyrolysis, soil amendment, sugarcane straw

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
26 Influence of Biochar Application on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and Nutrition of Corn (Zea mays L.) Grown on Sandy Loam Soils of Gujarat, India

Authors: Pravinchandra Patel

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Sustainable agriculture in sandy loam soil generally faces large constraints due to low water holding and nutrient retention capacity, and accelerated mineralization of soil organic matter. There is need to increase soil organic carbon in the soil for higher crop productivity and soil sustainability. Recently biochar is considered as sixth element and work as a catalyst for increasing crop yield, soil fertility, soil sustainability and mitigation of climate change. Biochar was generated at the Sansoli Farm of Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat, India by pyrolysis at temperatures (250-400°C) in absence of oxygen using slow chemical process (using two kilns) from corn stover (Zea mays, L), cluster bean stover (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and Prosopis julifera wood. There were 16 treatments; 4 organic sources (3 biochar; corn stover biochar (MS), cluster bean stover (CB) & Prosopis julifera wood (PJ) and one farmyard manure-FYM) with two rate of application (5 & 10 metric tons/ha), so there were eight treatments of organic sources. Eight organic sources was applied with the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) (80-40-0 kg/ha N-P-K) while remaining eight organic sources were kept without RDF. Application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with RDF (RDF+MS) increased dry matter (DM) yield, crude protein (CP) yield, chlorophyll content and plant height (at 30 and 60 days after sowing) than CB and PJ biochar and FYM. Nutrient uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Cu were significantly increased with the application of RDF + corn stover @ 10 metric tons/ha while uptake of N and Mn were significantly increased in RDF + corn stover @ 5 metric tons/ha. It was found that soil application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (RDF+MS ) exhibited the highest impact in obtaining significantly higher dry matter and crude protein yields and larger removal of nutrients from the soil and it also beneficial for built up nutrients in soil. It also showed significantly higher organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity in sandy loam soil. The lower dose of corn stover biochar @ 5 metric tons/ha (RDF+ MS) was also remained the second highest for increasing dry matter and crude protein yields of forage corn crop which ultimately resulted in larger removals of nutrients from the soil. This study highlights the importance of mixing of biochar along with recommended dose of fertilizers on its synergistic effect on sandy loam soil nutrient retention, organic carbon content and water holding capacity hence, the amendment value of biochar in sandy loam soil.

Keywords: biochar, corn yield, plant nutrient, fertility status

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
25 Biochar from Empty Fruit Bunches Generated in the Palm Oil Extraction and Its Nutrients Contribution in Cultivated Soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia

Authors: Alvarado M. Lady G., Ortiz V. Yaylenne, Quintero B. Quelbis R.

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The oil palm sector has seen significant growth in Colombia after the insertion of policies to stimulate the use of biofuels, which eventually contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) that deteriorate not only the environment but the health of people. However, the policy of using biofuels has been strongly questioned by the impacts that can generate; an example is the increase of other more harmful GHGs like the CH₄ that underlies the amount of solid waste generated. Casanare's department is estimated be one of the major producers of palm oil of the country given that has recently expanded its sowed area, which implies an increase in waste generated primarily in the industrial stage. For this reason, the following study evaluated the agronomic potential of the biochar obtained from empty fruit bunches and its nutritional contribution in cultivated soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia. The biochar was obtained by slow pyrolysis of the clusters in a retort oven at an average temperature of 190 °C and a residence time of 8 hours. The final product was taken to the laboratory for its physical and chemical analysis as well as a soil sample from a cultivation of Elaeis guineensis located in Tauramena-Casanare. With the results obtained plus the bibliographical reports of the nutrient demand in this cultivation, the possible nutritional contribution of the biochar was determined. It is estimated that the cultivation requirements of nitrogen is 12.1 kg.ha⁻¹, potassium is 59.3 kg.ha⁻¹, magnesium is -31.5 kg.ha⁻¹ and phosphorus is 5.6 kg.ha⁻¹ obtaining a biochar contribution of 143.1 kg.ha⁻¹, 1204.5 kg.ha⁻¹, 39.2 kg.ha⁻¹ and 71.6 kg.ha⁻¹ respectively. The incorporation of biochar into the soil would significantly improve the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg, nutrients considered important in the yield of palm oil, coupled with the importance of nutrient recycling in agricultural production systems sustainable. The biochar application improves the physical properties of soils, mainly in the humidity retention. On the other hand, it regulates the availability of nutrients for plants absorption, with economic savings in the application of synthetic fertilizers and water by irrigation. It also becomes an alternative to manage agricultural waste, reducing the involuntary emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment by decomposition in the field, reducing the CO₂ content in the atmosphere.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recycling, oil palm, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
24 The Effect of Feedstock Type and Slow Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Yield from Coconut Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nur Syairah Mohamad Aziz, Norsyahidah Md Saleh, Nur Syuhada Izzati Ruzali

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The first objective of this study is to investigate the suitability of coconut frond (CF) and coconut husk (CH) as feedstocks using a laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis experimental setup. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar yield. The properties of CF and CH feedstocks were compared. The properties of the CF and CH feedstocks were investigated using proximate and elemental analysis, lignocellulosic determination, and also thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The CF and CH feedstocks were pyrolysed at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C for 2 hours at 10 °C/min heating rate. The proximate analysis showed that CF feedstock has 89.96 mf wt% volatile matter, 4.67 mf wt% ash content and 5.37 mf wt% fixed carbon. The lignocelluloses analysis showed that CF feedstock contained 21.46% lignin, 39.05% cellulose and 22.49% hemicelluloses. The CH feedstock contained 84.13 mf wt% volatile matter, 0.33 mf wt% ash content, 15.54 mf wt% fixed carbon, 28.22% lignin, 33.61% cellulose and 22.03% hemicelluloses. Carbon and oxygen are the major component of the CF and CH feedstock compositions. Both of CF and CH feedstocks contained very low percentage of sulfur, 0.77% and 0.33%, respectively. TGA analysis indicated that coconut wastes are easily degraded. It may be due to their high volatile content. Between the temperature ranges of 300 and 800 °C, the TGA curves showed that the weight percentage of CF feedstock is lower than CH feedstock by 0.62%-5.88%. From the D TGA curves, most of the weight loss occurred between 210 and 400 °C for both feedstocks. The maximum weight loss for both CF and CH are 0.0074 wt%/min and 0.0061 wt%/min, respectively, which occurred at 324.5 °C. The yield percentage of both CF and CH biochars decreased significantly as the pyrolysis temperature was increased. For CF biochar, the yield decreased from 49.40 wt% to 28.12 wt% as the temperature increased from 300 to 700 °C. The yield for CH biochars also decreased from 52.18 wt% to 28.72 wt%. The findings of this study indicated that both CF and CH are suitable feedstock for slow pyrolysis of biochar.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, coconut wastes, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
23 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

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Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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22 Enhanced Methane Yield from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste with Coconut Biochar as Syntrophic Metabolism Biostimulant

Authors: Maria Altamirano, Alfonso Duran

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Biostimulation has recently become important in order to improve the stability and performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. This strategy involves the addition of nutrients or supplements to improve the rate of degradation of a native microbial consortium. With the aim of biostimulate sytrophism between secondary fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea, improving metabolite degradation and efficient conversion to methane, the addition of conductive materials, mainly carbon based have been studied. This research seeks to highlight the effect that coconut biochar (CBC) has on the metanogenic conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), analyzing the surface chemistry properties that give biochar its capacity to serve as a redox mediator in the anaerobic digestion process. The biochar characterization techniques were electrical conductivity (EC) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Effect of coconut biochar addition was studied using Authomatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS II) applying a one-way variance analysis to determine the dose that leads to higher methane performance. The surface chemistry of the CBC could confer properties that enhance the AD process, such as the presence of alkaline and alkaline earth metals and their hydrophobicity that may be related to their buffering capacity and the adsorption of polar and non-polar compounds, such as NH4+ and CO2. It also has aromatic functional groups, just as quinones, whose potential as a redox mediator has been demonstrated and its morphology allows it to form an immobilizing matrix that favors a closer activity among the syntrophic microorganisms, which directly contributed in the oxidation of secondary metabolites and the final reduction to methane, whose yield is increased by 39% compared to controls, with a CBC dose of 1 g/L.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biochar, biostimulation, syntrophic metabolism

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21 Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Hybrid Hydrogel-Biochar Matrix: An Understanding of Process Parameters

Authors: Vibha Sinha, Sumedha Chakma

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Arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water is a serious concern worldwide resulting in severe health maladies. To tackle this problem, several hydrogel based matrix which selectively uptake toxic metals from contaminated water has increasingly been examined as a potential practical method for metal removal. The major concern in hydrogels is low stability of matrix, resulting in poor performance. In this study, the potential of hybrid hydrogel-biochar matrix synthesized from natural plant polymers, specific for As removal was explored. Various compositional and functional group changes of the elements contained in the matrix due to the adsorption of As were identified. Moreover, to resolve the stability issue in hydrogel matrix, optimum and effective mixing of hydrogel with biochar was studied. Mixing varied proportions of matrix components at the time of digestion process was tested. Preliminary results suggest that partial premixing methods may increase the stability and reduce cost. Addition of nanoparticles and specific catalysts with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V) under batch conditions was performed to study their role in performance enhancement of the hydrogel matrix. Further, effect of process parameters, optimal uptake conditions and detailed mechanism derived from experimental studies were suitably conducted. This study provides an efficient, specific and a low-cost As removal method that offers excellent regeneration abilities which can be reused for value.

Keywords: arsenic, catalysts, hybrid hydrogel-biochar, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 47