Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 532

Search results for: fruit

532 A Multi-Beneficial Gift of Nature (Noni Fruit): Nutritional, Functional, and Post-Harvest Aspects

Authors: Mahsa Moteshakeri

Abstract:

Morinda citrifolia L., a miracle fruit with common name of Noni, has been widely used as food and traditional medicine in the Polynesians culture. Current scientific evidences have proved the therapeautical and nutritional properties of this fruit so that its extensive production in tropical regions in recent years has emerged a competitive global Noni market mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of juice or tablet. However, there is not much record on the processing method applied on fresh fruit postharvest or even its mechanism of action in controlling diseases. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive data on phytochemicals, technical, and nutritional advances on Noni fruit and recent patents published, as well as medicinal properties of the fruit in order to benefit future investigations on this precious fruit either in industrial or therapeautical section.

Keywords: noni fruit, phytochemicals, therapeautic properties of fruit, nutritional properties of fruit

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
531 Fruit of the General Status of Usak Provicce District of Sivasli

Authors: Ayşen Melda Çolak, Volkan Okatan, Ercan Yıldız

Abstract:

In our country, fruit production was determined as 17.2 million tons in 2011 according to official data. Turkey fig, apricot, cherry and quince production ranks first in the world. Almost all the regions of our country, despite the growing of fruit 54% of the total fruit production occur in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Region. However, fruit production in the country is consumed in the domestic market and export rates are often very low. In this study, a questionnaire to 100 farmers face-to-face interview. According to the survey, 40% of those in fruit and 7 da of 7 hectares land are small. 30% of soil testing for manufacturers, testing for 20% of the water. Manufacturers who deliberately fertilization rate of only 10%.

Keywords: fruit, generation, potential, Sivasli survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
530 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus Spp.)

Authors: Dinh Ha, Tran, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in four red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August, the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0-90.5 %) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6 g) in hand self- and (403.4 g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2 %) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3 g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona, and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
529 Genetic Variability and Principal Component Analysis in Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, A. Ghalandarzehi, J. A. Koohpayegani

Abstract:

Nine advanced cultivars and lines were planted in transplant trays on March, 2013. In mid-April 2014, nine cultivars and lines were taken from the seedling trays and were evaluated and compared in an experiment in form of a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Zahak. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the studied cultivars in terms of average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, ratio of fruit length to its diameter, the relative number of seeds per fruit, and each plant yield. The total yield of Sohrab and Y6 line with and an average of 41.9 and 36.7 t/ ha allocated the highest yield respectively to themselves. The results of simple correlation between the analyzed traits showed the final yield was affected by the average fruit weight due to direct and indirect effects of fruit weight and plant yield on the final yield. The genotypic and heritability values were high for fruit weight, fruit length and number of seed per fruit. The first two principal components accounted for 81.6% of the total variation among the characters describing genotypes.

Keywords: eggplant, principal component, variation, path analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
528 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
527 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

Abstract:

Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: age, cultivars, fruit, quality, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
526 Effect of Pre Harvest Application of Amino Acids on Fruit Development of Sub-Tropical Peach

Authors: Manjot Kaur, Harminder Singh, S. K. Jawandha

Abstract:

The present investigations were carried out at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during the years 2016 and 2017, with the aim of assessing the effect of amino acids on fruit development, shoot growth and yield of peach. The six-year-old peach trees of cv. Florida Prince were sprayed with 0.25 % and 0.50 % concentrations of amino acids (Peptone P1 023), 7 and 14 days after full bloom and the sprays were repeated after 15 and 30 days. Experimental findings showed that all the amino acid treatments increased fruit growth, shoot growth, fruit retention and yield and decreased fruit drop as compared to control during both the years. Maximum fruit retention (89.29 %) and minimum fruit drop (10.71 %) was observed in T8 (2 sprays @ 0.50%). Highest mean shoot growth (113.89 cm) was recorded in T12 (3 sprays @ 0.50%) while the minimum was in control plants (88.23 cm). Fruit yield was also found to be maximum (53.92 kg/tree) under double spray treatment T8 (2 sprays @ 0.50%) of amino acids and minimum in plants sprayed with triple spray of amino acids. Fruit maturity was advanced by 3-4 days by double spray treatments of amino acids as compared to control. In brief, the application of double spray of amino acids @ 0.50% (applied 14 days after full bloom and 15 days later), was found to be best to improve the fruit growth, fruit retention and yield of Florida Prince peach under Punjab conditions.

Keywords: amino acids, fruit growth, maturity, peach, shoot growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
525 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: banana waste, biomass, renewable energy, thermo-chemical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
524 Description of a New Fruit Fly Species within Genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) Detected in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

As a result of broad trapping program for the collection of fruit flies fauna of Pakistan, adults or larvae samples of fruit flies were collected from different localities. After sampling, to characterize fruit fly fauna involved, the collected samples were brought to the laboratory for their species identification. In this study, based on extensive literature records, the presence of one fruit fly species Bactrocera abbasi (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) belonging to genus Bactrocera Macquar was recognized for the first time. This new species is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters, supported by data on its ecology and geographic distribution. Information is also given on host plant and location of type specimen, distinguish remarks and diagnosis are as well included.

Keywords: diptera, tephritidae, bactrocera, new species, taxonomy, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
523 Supplementation of Fig Fruit (Ficus carica linn.) Extract in Extender on Sperm Motility and Viability of Native Chicken Semen after Cooling

Authors: N. Isnaini, S. Wahjuningsih

Abstract:

Fig fruit is the fruit of a tropical plant with content of flavanoids, vitamins A, C, and E which are antioxidants that effectively prevent and neutralize free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of fig fruit extract in a physiological NaCl-based diluent on sperm motility and viability of native chicken semen after cooling. Semen was collected from 4 male mature chocks using massage method. Fresh semen evaluated for colour, pH, volume, concentration, mass motility, individual motility, life sperm and sperm abnormality. Semen was diluted with physiological NaCl-based extender supplemented with different levels of fig fruit extract (0, 10, 20 and 30 %) v/v with the ratio of 1 semen: 4 diluter. Semen used had mass motility of 2+ and motility of 70%. Immediately after dilution semen was stored in 3-5 °C and sperm motility and viability percentage were observed at 0, 12 and 24 h. The obtained data were analyze with Analysis of Variant (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference were determined. The experiment was designed using completely random design (4 treatments and 10 replications). The results showed that the level of fig fruit extract had very significant effect (P < 0,01) on sperm motility and viability percentage in 0, 12 and 24 h of cooling. It can be concluded that the best fig fruit extract level for resulting optimal sperm motility and viability was 10%.

Keywords: chock, antioxidant, fig fruit extract, sperm

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
522 Bio-Oil Production and Chromatographic Characterization from the Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Arif Ferdiyanto, Fajar Hamida, Arif Hidayat

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Oil palm empty fruit bunches, derived biomass available in Indonesia, is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. An interesting alternative of utilising the oil palm empty fruit bunches is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to bio-oil is being considered for national energy security and environmental advantages. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at various temperature and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass was submitted to a pyrolysis in a batch reactor. Experiments were carried out at a temperature range of 450–600°C and heating rate range of 10-20°C/min. The yield of bio-oil was found to be maximum at the temperature of 600°C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using FTIR and GC-MS. The bio-char produced as a co-product can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including soil fertility and for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. The present investigation suggests the suitability of oil palm empty fruit bunches as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolysis process.

Keywords: bio-oil, oil palm empty fruit bunches, pyrolysis, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
521 Effect of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine on Ceasing in Sweet Orange

Authors: Zahoor Hussain

Abstract:

Creasing is a physiological disorder of rind in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] fruit and causes serious economic losses in various countries of the world. The reversible inhibitor of ethylene, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) with the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 mgL⁻¹) AVG with 0.05% ‘Tween 20’ as a surfactant applied at the fruit set, the golf ball or at the colour break stage on controlling creasing, rheological properties of fruit and rind as well as fruit quality in of Washington Navel and Lane Late sweet orange was investigated. Creasing was substantially reduced and fruit quality was improved with the exogenous application of AVG depending upon its concentration and stage of application in both cultivars. The spray application of AVG (60 mgL⁻¹) at the golf ball stage was effective in reducing creasing (27.86% and 24.29%) compared to the control (52.14 and 51.53%) in cv. Washington Navel during 2011 and 2012, respectively. Whilst, in cv. Lane Late lowest creasing was observed When AVG was applied at fruit set stage (22.86%) compared to the control (51.43%) during 2012. In cv. Washington Navel, AVG treatment (60 mgL⁻¹) was more effective to increase the fruit firmness (318.97 N) and rind hardness (25.94 N) when applied at fruit set stage. However, rind tensile strength was higher, when AVG was applied at the golf ball stage (54.13 N). In cv. Lane Late, the rind harness (28.61 N), rind tensile strength (78.82 N) was also higher when AVG was sprayed at fruit set stage. Whilst, the fruit compression force (369.68 N) was higher when AVG was applied at the golf ball stage. Similarly, the treatment AVG (60 mgL⁻¹) was more effective in improving fruit weight (281.00 and 298.50 g) and fruit diameter (87.30 and 82.69 mm), rind thickness (5.56 and 5.38 mm) and total sugars (15.27 mg.100ml⁻¹) when AVG was applied at the fruit golf ball stage in cv. Washington Navel and Lane Late, respectively. Similarly, rind harness (25.94 and 28.61 N), total antioxidants (45.30 and 46.48 mM trolox 100ml⁻¹), total sugars (13.64 and 15.27 mg.100ml⁻¹), citric acid (1.66 and 1.32 mg100ml⁻¹), malic acid (0.36 and 0.63 mg.100ml⁻¹) and succinic acid (0.35 and 0.38 mg100ml⁻¹) were also higher, when AVG was applied at the fruit set stage in both cultivars. In conclusion, the exogenous applications of AVG substantially reduces the creasing incidence, improves rheological properties of fruit and rind as well as fruit quality in Washington Navel and Lane Late sweet orange fruit.

Keywords: AVG, creasing, ethylene inhibitor, sweet orange

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
520 Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Fruit Set, Yield, and Quality Attributes of “Farbaly” Apricot Cultivar

Authors: A. Tarantino, F. Lops, G. Disciglio, E. Tarantino

Abstract:

Apulia region (southern Italy) is excellent for heavy production of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Fruit quality is a combination of physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics. The present experiment was laid in the commercial orchard in Cerignola (Foggia district, Apulia region, 41°15’49’’N; 15°53’59’’E; 126 a.s.l.) during the 2014-2015 season. The experiment consisted of the use of three biostimulant treatments (Hendophyt®, Ergostim® and Radicon®) compared with untreated control on ‘Farbaly’ apricot cultivar, in order to evaluate the vegeto-productive and fruit qualitative attributes. Foliar spray of biostimulants was applied at different times during the growth season (at red ball, fruit setting and fruit development stages). Experimental data showed some specific differences among the biostimulant treatments, which fruit set, growth and productivity were affected. Moderate influences were found regarding the qualitative attributes of fruits. The soluble solid content was positively affected by Hendophyt® treatment. Antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in Hendophyt® and Radicon® treatments respect to the untreated control.

Keywords: Prunus Armeniaca L., biostimulants, fruit set, fruit quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
519 Effect of Chilling Accumulation on Fruit Yield of Olive Trees in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed H. El-Sheikh, Hoda F. Zahran

Abstract:

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is considered as a Mediterranean tree which belongs to genus Olea that may comprise about 35 species. In fact, the crop requires mild to cool winters with a chilling accumulation from November to February with average temperatures varying between two groups of accumulated chilling hours (h1) of less than 7.2 °C (C1) and other group (h2) of less than 10 °C (C2) for flower bud differentiation. This work aims at studying the impact of chilling accumulation hours on the fruit yield of olive trees in Borg El Arab City, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt as a case study. Trees were aged around 7 years in 2010 and were exposed to chilling accumulation hours of h1, which was average of 280 hours under C1, and average h2 was around 150 hours under C2 the resulted fruit yield was around 0.5 kg/tree. On the hand, trees were aged around 7 years at 2016 showed that when average of h1 was around 390 hours under C1 and average h2 was around 220 hours under C2 then fruit yield was around 10 kg/tree. Increasing of fruit yield proved chilling accumulation effect on olive trees.

Keywords: chilling accumulation, fruit yield, Olea europaea, olive

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
518 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah

Abstract:

This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
517 Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed into plastic boxes (100 g/box). Each box was provided with 10 larvae of fruit beetle, Waxworms and Tiger worms, respectively. There were 3 replicates in each treatment including the control. Bacteria were isolated weekly from both control and cow faeces to which larvae were added to determine the bacterial populations. Results revealed that the bacterial load was higher in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetles than in the control, while the bacterial load was lower in the cow faeces treated with waxworms and tiger worms than in the control. The activities of the fruit beetle larvae led to the cow faeces being liquefied which provided a more conducive growing media for bacteria. Therefore, higher bacterial load in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetle might be attributed to the liquefaction of cow faeces.

Keywords: fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms, waste conditioning, composting

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
516 Time Series Analysis on the Production of Fruit Juice: A Case Study of National Horticultural Research Institute (Nihort) Ibadan, Oyo State

Authors: Abiodun Ayodele Sanyaolu

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The research was carried out to investigate the time series analysis on quarterly production of fruit juice at the National Horticultural Research Institute Ibadan from 2010 to 2018. Documentary method of data collection was used, and the method of least square and moving average were used in the analysis. From the calculation and the graph, it was glaring that there was increase, decrease, and uniform movements in both the graph of the original data and the tabulated quarter values of the original data. Time series analysis was used to detect the trend in the highest number of fruit juice and it appears to be good over a period of time and the methods used to forecast are additive and multiplicative models. Since it was observed that the production of fruit juice is usually high in January of every year, it is strongly advised that National Horticultural Research Institute should make more provision for fruit juice storage outside this period of the year.

Keywords: fruit juice, least square, multiplicative models, time series

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
515 Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples

Authors: Rahil Malekipoor, Zora Singh, Alan Payne

Abstract:

Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.

Keywords: apple, cold storage, organic oil, ozone

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
514 Systematic NIR of Internal Disorder and Quality Detection of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji, Saeed Alzahrani

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic convener belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300 nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950 nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950 nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
513 Novel NIR System for Detection of Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
512 New NIR System for Detecting the Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The importance of fruit quality and freshness is potential in today’s life. Most recent studies show and automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics design, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
511 The Plant Hormone Auxin Impacts the Profile of Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum)

Authors: Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Bruna Lima Gomes, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto

Abstract:

The plant hormone ethylene is closely related to the metabolic changes that occur during fruit ripening, including volatile biosynthesis. Although knowledge about the biochemistry pathways that produce flavor compounds and the importance of ethylene to these processes are extensively covered, little is known about the regulation mechanisms. In addition, growing body of evidences indicates that auxin is also involved in controlling ripening. However, there is scarce information about the involvement of auxin in fruit volatile production. This study aimed to assess auxin-ethylene interactions and its influence on tomato fruit volatile profile. Fruits from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom were treated with IAA and ethylene, separately and in combination. The hormonal treatment was performed by injection (IAA) or gas exposure (ethylene) and the volatiles were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC-MS. Ethylene levels and color were measured by gas chromatography and colorimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the treatment with IAA (even in the presence of high concentrations of exogenous ethylene), impacted the profile of volatile compounds derived from fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and isoprenoids. Ethylene is a well-known regulator of the transition from green to red color and also is implicated in the biosynthesis of characteristic volatile compounds of tomato fruit. The effects observed suggest the existence of a crosstalk between IAA and ethylene in the aroma volatile formation in the fruit. A possible interference of IAA in the ethylene sensitivity in the fruit flesh is discussed. The data suggest that auxin plays an important role in the volatile synthesis in the tomato fruit and introduce a new level of complexity in the regulation of the fruit aroma formation during ripening.

Keywords: aroma compounds, fruit ripening, fruit quality, phytohormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
510 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: metabolism, acidity, ascorbic acid, pharmaceuticals

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509 Anaerobic Fermentation Process for Production of Biohydrogen from Pretreated Fruit Wastes

Authors: A. K. R. Gobinath, He Jianzhong, Kun-Lin Yang

Abstract:

Fruit waste was used as a feedstock to produce biohydrogen in this study. Fruit waste used in this study was collected from several fruit juice stalls in Singapore. Based on our observation, the fruit waste contained 35-40% orange, 10-20% watermelon, 10-15% apple, 10-15% pineapple, 1-5% mango. They were mixed with water (1:1 ratio based on wet biomass) and blended to attain homogenous mixtures. Later, fruit waste was subjected to one of the following pretreatments: autoclave (121 °C for 20min), microwave (20min) or both. After pretreatment, the total sugar concentration in the hydrolysate was high (>12g/l) when both autoclave and microwave were applied. In contrast, samples without pretreatment measured only less than 2g/l of sugar. While using these hydrolysates as carbon sources, Clostridium strain BOH3 produces 2526-3126 ml/l of hydrogen after 72h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen yield was 295-300 ml/g of sugar which is close to the hydrogen yields from glucose (338 ml/gm) and xylose (330 ml/gm). Our HPLC analysis showed that fruit waste hydrolysate contained oligosugars (25-27%), sucrose (18-23%), fructose (25-30%), glucose (10-15%) and mannose (2-5%). Additionally, pretreatment led to the release of free amino acids (160-512 mg/l), calcium (7.8-12.9 ppm), magnesium (4.32-6.55 ppm), potassium (5.4-65.1 ppm) and sodium (0.4-0.5 ppm) into the hydrolysate. These nutrients were able to support strain-BOH3 to grow and produce high level of hydrogen. Notably, unlike other pretreatment methods (with strong acids and bases), these pretreatment techniques did not generate any inhibitors (e.g. furfural and phenolic acids) to suppress the hydrogen production. Interestingly, strain BOH3 can also ferment pretreated fruit waste slurry and produce hydrogen with a high yield (156-343 ml/gm fruit waste). While fermenting pretreated fruit waste slurry, strain-BOH3 excreted several saccharolytic enzymes majorly xylanase (1.84U/ml), amylase (1.10U/ml), pectinase (0.36U/ml) and cellulase (0.43U/ml). Due to expressions of these enzymes, strain BOH3 was able to directly utilize pretreated fruit waste hydrolysate and produces high-level of hydrogen.

Keywords: autoclave pretreatment, biohydrogen production, clostridial fermentation, fruit waste, and microwave pretreatment

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508 Development of an NIR Sorting Machine, an Experimental Study in Detecting Internal Disorder and Quality of Apple Fruitpple Fruit

Authors: Eid Alharbi, Yaser Miaji

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The quality level for fresh fruits is very important for the fruit industries. In presents study, an automatic online sorting system according to the internal disorder for fresh apple fruit has developed by using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technology. The automatic conveyer belts system along with sorting mechanism was constructed. To check the internal quality of the apple fruit, apple was exposed to the NIR radiations in the range 650-1300nm and the data were collected in form of absorption spectra. The collected data were compared to the reference (data of known sample) analyzed and an electronic signal was pass to the sorting system. The sorting system was separate the apple fruit samples according to electronic signal passed to the system. It is found that absorption of NIR radiation in the range 930-950nm was higher in the internally defected samples as compared to healthy samples. On the base of this high absorption of NIR radiation in 930-950nm region the online sorting system was constructed.

Keywords: mechatronics, NIR, fruit quality, spectroscopic technology, mechatronic design

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507 Evaluation of Hazelnut Hulls as an Alternative Forage Resource for Ruminant Animals

Authors: N. Cetinkaya, Y. S. Kuleyin

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The aim of this study was to estimate the digestibility of the fruit internal skin of different varieties of hazelnuts to propose hazelnut fruit skin as an alternative feed source as roughage in ruminant nutrition. In 2015, the fruit internal skins of three different varieties of round hazelnuts (RH), pointed hazelnuts (PH) and almond hazelnuts (AH) were obtained from hazelnut processing factory then their crude nutrients analysis were carried out. Organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) values of hazelnut fruit skins were estimated from gas measured by in vitro gas production method. Their antioxidant activities were determined by spectrophotometric method. Crude nutrient values of three different varieties were; organic matter (OM): 87.83, 87.81 and 87.78%), crude protein (CP): 5.97, 5.93 and 5.89%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 30.30, 30.29 and 30.29%, acid detergent fiber (ADF): 48.68, 48.67 and 48.66% and acid detergent lignin (ADL): 25.43, 25.43 and 25.39% respectively. OMD from 24 h incubation time of RH, PH and AH were 22.04, 22.46 and 22.74%; MEGP values were 3.69, 3.75 and 3.79 MJ/kg DM; and antioxidant activity values were 94.60, 94.54 and 94.52 IC 50 mg/mL respectively. The fruit internal skin of different varieties of hazelnuts may be considered as an alternative roughage for ruminant nutrition regarding to their crude and digestible nutritive values. Moreover, hazelnut fruit skin has a rich antioxidant content so it may be used as a feed additive for both ruminant and non-ruminant animals.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, hazelnut fruit skin, metabolizable energy, organic matter digestibility

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506 Morphological Comparison of the Gustatory Papillae of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Using Scanning Electron Microscopic Examinations

Authors: Mohamed Abumandour

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This research presents a comparison of the morphological structure of the gustatory papillae in New Zealand white rabbits as domestic mammals and Egyptian fruit bats as wild mammals. In this study, the tongues of adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits and Egyptian fruit bats of both sexes were used. In the New Zealand white rabbits, there are three types of the gustatory papillae; fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae while the Egyptian fruit bats tongue contain only two types; fungiform and circumvallate papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only one subtype is the round shape fungiform papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are two subtypes; small rectangular fungiform papillae and large round fungiform papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only two circumvallate papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are three papillae. The shape, size, number, and distribution of the lingual papillae were varied according to their location within the tongue (region-specific) in relation to the feeding habits, strategies for obtaining food, climate conditions, and types of food particles.

Keywords: morphology, circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae, foliate papillae

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505 In Silico Analysis of Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family by RNA-Seq during Tomato Fruit Ripening

Authors: Debora P. Arce, Flavia J. Krsticevic, Marco R. Bertolaccini, Joaquín Ezpeleta, Estela M. Valle, Sergio D. Ponce, Elizabeth Tapia

Abstract:

Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are low molecular weight chaperones that play an important role during stress response and development in all living organisms. Fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce sHSP synthesis both in Arabidopsis and tomato plants. RNA-Seq technology is becoming widely used in various transcriptomics studies; however, analyzing and interpreting the RNA-Seq data face serious challenges. In the present work, we de novo assembled the Solanum lycopersicum transcriptome for three different maturation stages (mature green, breaker and red ripe). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out during tomato fruit development. We identified 12 sHSPs differentially expressed that might be involved in breaker and red ripe fruit maturation. Interestingly, these sHSPs have different subcellular localization and suggest a complex regulation of the fruit maturation network process.

Keywords: sHSPs, maturation, tomato, RNA-Seq, assembly

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504 The Utilization of Salicylic Acid of the Extract from Avocado Skin as an Inhibitor of Ethylene Production to Keep the Quality of Banana in Storage

Authors: Adira Nofeadri Ryofi, Alvin Andrianus, Anna Khairunnisa, Anugrah Cahyo Widodo, Arbhyando Tri Putrananda, Arsy Imanda N. Raswati, Gita Rahmaningsih, Ina Agustina

Abstract:

The consumption level of fresh bananas from 2005 until 2010, increased from 8.2 to 10 kg/capita/year. The commercial scale of banana generally harvested when it still green to make the banana avoid physical damage, chemical, and disease after harvest and ripe fruit. That first metabolism activity can be used as a synthesis reaction. Ripening fruit was influenced by ethylene hormone that synthesized in fruit which is experiencing ripe and including hormone in the ripening fruit process in klimaterik phase. This ethylene hormone is affected by the respiration level that would speed up the restructuring of carbohydrates inside the fruit, so the weighting of fruit will be decreased. Compared to other klimaterik fruit, banana is a fruit that has a medium ethylene production rate and the rate of respiration is low. The salicylic acid can regulate the result number of the growth process or the development of fruits and plants. Salicylic acid serves to hinder biosynthesis ethylene and delay senses. The research aims to understand the influence of salicylic acid concentration that derived from the waste of avocado skin in inhibition process to ethylene production that the maturation can be controlled, so it can keep the quality of banana for storage. It is also to increase the potential value of the waste of avocado skin that were still used in industrial cosmetics.

Keywords: ethylene hormone, extract avocado skin, inhibitor, salicylic acid

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503 AlertTrap: A Study on Object Detection in Remote Insects Trap Monitoring System Using On-The-Edge Deep Learning Platform

Authors: An Dinh Le, Duy Anh Pham, Dong Thanh Pham, Hien Bich Vo

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Fruit flies are one of the most harmful insect species to fruit yields. In AlertTrap, implementation of SSD architecture with different state-of-the-art backbone feature extractors such as MobileNetV1 and MobileNetV2 appear to be potential solutions for the real-time detection problem. SSD-MobileNetV1 and SSD-MobileNetV2 perform well and result in [email protected] of 0.957 and 1.0, respectively. YOLOv4-tiny outperforms the SSD family with 1.0 in [email protected]; however, its throughput velocity is slightly slower.

Keywords: fruit fly, environmental data, smart IoT, edge computing, YOLOv4-tiny, mobile net, raspberry Pi, TPU

Procedia PDF Downloads 6