Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4402

Search results for: chemical modification

4402 Chemical Modification of PVC and Its Surface Analysis by Means of XPS and Contact Angle Measurements

Authors: Ali Akrmi, Mohamed Beji, Ahmed Baklouti, Fatma Djouani, Philippe Lang, Mohamed M. Chehimi


Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is a highly versatile polymer with excellent balance of properties and numerous applications such as water pipes, packaging and polymer materials of importance in the biomedical sector. However, depending on the applications, it is necessary to modify PVC by mixing with a plasticizer; surface modification using plasma, surface grafting or flame treatment; or bulk chemical modification which affects the entire PVC chains at an extent that can be tuned by the polymer chemist. The targeted applications are improvement of chemical resistance, avoiding or limitation of migration of toxic plasticizers, improvement of antibacterial properties, or control of blood compatibility.

Keywords: poly(vinyl chloride), nucleophilic substitution, sulfonylcarbamates, XPS

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4401 Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water Using Modified Natural Nanozeolite

Authors: T. Meftah, M. M. Zerafat, S. Sabbaghi


Nitrate compounds are considered as groundwater contaminants, the concentration of which has been growing in these resources during recent years. As a result, it seems necessary to use effective methods to remove nitrate from water and wastewater. Adsorption process is generally considered more economical in water treatment. Natural clinoptilolite zeolite is one of the best absorbents because of its high capacity and low cost.In this research, we are going to modify zeolite nanoparticles as a chemical modification. Zeolite nanoparticles have been modified with a kind of organosilane, like 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The advantage of this modification method, in comparison with physical modification, is the good stability in various environmental conditions. In this research, absorbent properties have been analyzed by PSA, FTIR and CHN elemental analysis. Also, nitrate adsorption by modified nanoparticles was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. There would be 〖NH〗_2 groups on the zeolite surface as a result of organosilane modification. In order to adsorption of nitrate, we need to convert 〖NH〗_2 groups to〖NH〗_4^+, that it is possible in acidic condition. As a result, the best nitrate removal is possible in the lowest concentration and pH. We obtained 80.12% nitrate removal in pH=3 and 50 mg⁄l nitrate concentration and 4 g⁄l absorbent optimum concentration.

Keywords: nitrate removal, zeolite, surface modification, organosilane

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4400 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin


The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: uwi starch, edible film, propylen oxide, modification

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4399 Modeling Aggregation of Insoluble Phase in Reactors

Authors: A. Brener, B. Ismailov, G. Berdalieva


In the paper we submit the modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to systems with chemical reactions of first and second orders in which the main product is insoluble. The goal of this work is to create theoretical foundation and engineering procedures for calculating the chemical apparatuses in the conditions of joint course of chemical reactions and processes of aggregation of insoluble dispersed phases which are formed in working zones of the reactor.

Keywords: binary aggregation, clusters, chemical reactions, insoluble phases

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4398 Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers with Oxidative Agents for Usability as Reinforcement in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Yasemin Seki, Aysun Akşit


The goal of this research is to modify the surface characterization of jute yarns with different chemical agents to improve the compatibility with a non-polar polymer, polypropylene, when used as reinforcement. A literature review provided no knowledge on surface treatment of jute fibers with sodium perborate trihydrate. This study also aims to compare the efficiency of sodium perborate trihydrate on jute fiber treatment with other commonly used chemical agents. Accordingly, jute yarns were treated with 0.02% potassium dichromate (PD), potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium perborate trihydrate (SP) aqueous solutions in order to enhance interfacial compatibility with polypropylene in this study. The effect of treatments on surface topography, surface chemistry and interfacial shear strength of jute yarns with polypropylene were investigated. XPS results revealed that surface treatments enhanced surface hydrophobicity by increasing C/O ratios of fiber surface. Surface roughness values increased with the treatments. The highest interfacial adhesion with polypropylene was achieved after SP treatment by providing the highest surface roughness values and hydrophobic character of jute fiber.

Keywords: jute, chemical modification, sodium perborate, polypropylene

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4397 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz


The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

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4396 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki, Elham Moniri


A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeolite, clinoptilolite, modification, naphthalene

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4395 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi


In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: response modification factor, base isolation system, pushover analysis, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

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4394 Efficiency of DMUs in Presence of New Inputs and Outputs in DEA

Authors: Esmat Noroozi, Elahe Sarfi, Farha Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


Examining the impacts of data modification is considered as sensitivity analysis. A lot of studies have considered the data modification of inputs and outputs in DEA. The issues which has not heretofore been considered in DEA sensitivity analysis is modification in the number of inputs and (or) outputs and determining the impacts of this modification in the status of efficiency of DMUs. This paper is going to present systems that show the impacts of adding one or multiple inputs or outputs on the status of efficiency of DMUs and furthermore a model is presented for recognizing the minimum number of inputs and (or) outputs from among specified inputs and outputs which can be added whereas an inefficient DMU will become efficient. Finally the presented systems and model have been utilized for a set of real data and the results have been reported.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, sensitivity analysis, input, out put

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4393 Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Starch Chainat 1 Variety by Physical Modification

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak


The Chainat 1 variety (CN1) of rice, which generally has high amylose starch, is distributed in the lower part of Northern Thailand. CN1 rice starch can be used in both food and non-food products. In this research, the CN1 rice starch from the wet-milling process was prepared by Pre-Gelatinization (Heat-Moisture Treatments, HMT) under different conditions: percentage of moisture contents (20% and 30%) and duration time in minutes (0, 30, 60, and 90) at a specific temperature 110°C. The physicochemical characteristics of CN1 rice starch modification, such as amylose content, viscosity, swelling, and solubility property, were evaluated and compared with native CN1 rice starch. The results showed that modification CN1 rice starch tends to have some characteristics better than native starch. The appearance color and starch granule of modified CN1 by HMT have more effective characteristics than native starch when increased duration time. The duration time and moisture content are significant factors to the CN1 starch characteristic by HMT. Moreover, physical modification of CN1 starch by HMT can be described as a modified rice starch providing in many applications and the advantage of biodegradability development.

Keywords: physicochemical characteristics, physical modification, pre-gelatinization, Heat-Moisture Treatments, rice starch, Chainat 1 variety (CN1)

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4392 Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification

Authors: Bendjelloul Meriem, Elandaloussi El Hadj


In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, lignocellulosic, regenerability

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4391 Nanoprofiling of GaAs Surface in a Combined Low-Temperature Plasma for Microwave Devices

Authors: Victor S. Klimin, Alexey A. Rezvan, Maxim S. Solodovnik, Oleg A. Ageev


In this paper, the problems of existing methods of profiling and surface modification of nanoscale arsenide-gallium structures are analyzed. The use of a combination of methods of local anodic oxidation and plasma chemical etching to solve this problem is considered. The main features that make this technology one of the promising areas of modification and profiling of near-surface layers of solids are demonstrated. In this paper, we studied the effect of formation stress and etching time on the geometrical parameters of the etched layer and the roughness of the etched surface. Experimental dependences of the thickness of the etched layer on the time and stress of formation were obtained. The surface analysis was carried out using atomic force microscopy methods, the corresponding profilograms were constructed from the obtained images, and the roughness of the etched surface was studied accordingly. It was shown that at high formation voltage, the depth of the etched surface increased, this is due to an increase in the number of active particles (oxygen ions and hydroxyl groups) formed as a result of the decomposition of water molecules in an electric field, during the formation of oxide nanostructures on the surface of gallium arsenide. Oxide layers were used as negative masks for subsequent plasma chemical etching by the STE ICPe68 unit. BCl₃ was chosen as the chlorine-containing gas, which differs from analogs in some parameters for the effect of etching of nanostructures based on gallium arsenide in the low-temperature plasma. The gas mixture of reaction chamber consisted of a buffer gas NAr = 100 cm³/min and a chlorine-containing gas NBCl₃ = 15 cm³/min at a pressure P = 2 Pa. The influence of these methods modes, which are formation voltage and etching time, on the roughness and geometric parameters, and corresponding dependences are demonstrated. Probe nanotechnology was used for surface analysis.

Keywords: nanostructures, GaAs, plasma chemical etching, modification structures

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4390 Prosody Generation in Neutral Speech Storytelling Application Using Tilt Model

Authors: Manjare Chandraprabha A., S. D. Shirbahadurkar, Manjare Anil S., Paithne Ajay N.


This paper proposes Intonation Modeling for Prosody generation in Neutral speech for Marathi (language spoken in Maharashtra, India) story telling applications. Nowadays audio story telling devices are very eminent for children. In this paper, we proposed tilt model for stressed words in Marathi for speech modification. Tilt model predicts modification in tone of neutral speech. GMM is used to identify stressed words for modification.

Keywords: tilt model, fundamental frequency, statistical parametric speech synthesis, GMM

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4389 Durrmeyer Type Modification of q-Generalized Bernstein Operators

Authors: Ruchi, A. M. Acu, Purshottam N. Agrawal


The purpose of this paper to introduce the Durrmeyer type modification of q-generalized-Bernstein operators which include the Bernstein polynomials in the particular α = 0. We investigate the rate of convergence by means of the Lipschitz class and the Peetre’s K-functional. Also, we define the bivariate case of Durrmeyer type modification of q-generalized-Bernstein operators and study the degree of approximation with the aid of the partial modulus of continuity and the Peetre’s K-functional. Finally, we introduce the GBS (Generalized Boolean Sum) of the Durrmeyer type modification of q- generalized-Bernstein operators and investigate the approximation of the Bögel continuous and Bögel differentiable functions with the aid of the Lipschitz class and the mixed modulus of smoothness.

Keywords: Bögel continuous, Bögel differentiable, generalized Boolean sum, Peetre’s K-functional, Lipschitz class, mixed modulus of smoothness

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4388 Changes in the Properties of Composites Caused by Chemical Treatment of Hemp Hurds

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova


The possibility of using industrial hemp as a source of natural fibers for purpose of construction, mainly for the preparation of lightweight composites based on hemp hurds is described. In this article, an overview of measurement results of important technical parameters (compressive strength, density, thermal conductivity) of composites based on organic filler - chemically modified hemp hurds in three solutions (EDTA, NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and inorganic binder MgO-cement after 7, 28, 60, 90 and 180 days of hardening is given. The results of long-term water storage of 28 days hardened composites at room temperature were investigated. Changes in the properties of composites caused by chemical treatment of hemp material are discussed.

Keywords: hemp hurds, chemical modification, lightweight composites, testing material properties

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4387 Adhesive Based upon Polyvinyl Alcohol And Chemical Modified Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) Starch

Authors: Samantha Borja, Vladimir Valle, Pamela Molina


The development of adhesives from renewable raw materials attracts the attention of the scientific community, due to it promises the reduction of the dependence with materials derived from oil. This work proposes the use of modified 'oca (Oxalis tuberosa)' starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the elaboration of adhesives for lignocellulosic substrates. The investigation focused on the formulation of adhesives with 3 different PVA:starch (modified and native) ratios (of 1,0:0,33; 1,0:1,0; 1,0:1,67). The first step to perform it was the chemical modification of starch through acid hydrolysis and a subsequent urea treatment to get carbamate starch. Then, the adhesive obtained was characterized in terms of instantaneous viscosity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and shear strength. The results showed that viscosity and mechanical tests exhibit data with the same tendency in relation to the native and modified starch concentration. It was observed that the data started to reduce its values to a certain concentration, where the values began to grow. On the other hand, two relevant bands were found in the FTIR spectrogram. The first in 3300 cm⁻¹ of OH group with the same intensity for all the essays and the other one in 2900 cm⁻¹, belonging to the group of alkanes with a different intensity for each adhesive. On the whole, the ratio PVA:starch (1:1) will not favor crosslinking in the adhesive structure and causes the viscosity reduction, whereas, in the others ones, the viscosity is higher. It was also observed that adhesives made with modified starch had better characteristics, but the adhesives with high concentrations of native starch could equal the properties of the adhesives made with low concentrations of modified starch.

Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol, PVA, chemical modification, starch, FTIR, viscosity, shear strength

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4386 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov


An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: electrophoresis, microfluidic chip, modification, nucleic acid, polydimethylsiloxane, soft lithography

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4385 Study Properties of Bamboo Composite after Treatment Surface by Chemical Method

Authors: Kiatnarong Supapanmanee, Ekkarin Phongphinittana, Pongsak Nimdum


Natural fibers are readily available raw materials that are widely used as composite materials. The most common problem facing many researchers with composites made from this fiber is the adhesion between the natural fiber contact surface and the matrix material. Part of the problem is due to the hydrophilic properties of natural fibers and the hydrophobic properties of the matrix material. Based on the aforementioned problems, this research selected bamboo fiber, which is a strong natural fiber in the research study. The first step was to study the effect of the mechanical properties of the pure bamboo strip by testing the tensile strength of different measurement lengths. The bamboo strip was modified surface with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 6wt% concentrations for different soaking periods. After surface modification, the physical and mechanical properties of the pure bamboo strip fibers were studied. The modified and unmodified bamboo strips were molded into a composite material using epoxy as a matrix to compare the mechanical properties and adhesion between the fiber surface and the material with tensile and bending tests. In addition, the results of these tests were compared with the finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the length of the bamboo strip affects the strength of the fibers, with shorter fibers causing higher tensile stress. Effects of surface modification of bamboo strip with NaOH, this chemical eliminates lignin and hemicellulose, resulting in the smaller dimension of the bamboo strip and increased density. From the pretreatment results above, it was found that the treated bamboo strip and composite material had better Ultimate tensile stress and Young's modulus. Moreover, that results in better adhesion between bamboo fiber and matrix material.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, bamboo strip, composite material, bamboo composite, pure bamboo, surface modification, mechanical properties of bamboo, bamboo finite element method

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4384 Copolymers of Pyrrole and α,ω-Dithienyl Terminated Poly(ethylene glycol)

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan


This work presents synthesis of α,ω-dithienyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGTh) capable for further chain extension by either chemical or electrochemical polymerization. PEGTh was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Further, copolymerization of PEGTh and pyrrole (Py) was performed by chemical oxidative polymerization using ceric (IV) salt as an oxidant (PPy-PEGTh). PEG without end group modification was used directly to prepare copolymers with Py by Ce (IV) salt (PPy-PEG). Block copolymers with mole ratio of pyrrole to PEGTh (PEG) 50:1 and 10:1 were synthesized. The electrical conductivities of copolymers PPy-PEGTh and PPy-PEG were determined by four-point probe technique. Influence of the synthetic route and content of the insulating segment on conductivity and yield of the copolymers were investigated.

Keywords: chemical oxidative polymerization, conducting polymer, poly(ethylene glycol), polypyrrole

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4383 Cognitive Behavioral Modification in the Treatment of Aggressive Behavior in Children

Authors: Dijana Sulejmanović


Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage the desired behaviors. A crucial element of cognitive-behavioral modification is that a change the behavior precedes awareness of how it affects others. CBM is oriented toward changing inner speech and learning to control behaviors through self-regulation techniques. It aims to teach individuals how to develop the ability to recognize, monitor and modify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The review of literature emphasizes the efficiency the CBM approach in the treatment of children's hyperactivity and negative emotions such as anger. The results of earlier research show how impulsive and hyperactive behavior, agitation, and aggression may slow down and block the child from being able to actively monitor and participate in regular classes, resulting in the disruption of the classroom and the teaching process, and the children may feel rejected, isolated and develop long-term poor image of themselves and others. In this article, we will provide how the use of CBM, adapted to child's age, can incorporate measures of cognitive and emotional functioning which can help us to better understand the children’s cognitive processes, their cognitive strengths, and weaknesses, and to identify factors that may influence their behavioral and emotional regulation. Such a comprehensive evaluation can also help identify cognitive and emotional risk factors associated with aggressive behavior, specifically the processes involved in modulating and regulating cognition and emotions.

Keywords: aggressive behavior, cognitive behavioral modification, cognitive behavioral theory, modification

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4382 The Morphological Processes of Bura Verbs

Authors: Yakubu Bitrus Gali


Bura refers both to the kingdom, the people as well as to the language. It is a language spoken in North-Eastern Nigeria. It is also classified under the Chadic group of languages, subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. Three morphological processes were found to be operating in Bura language viz: affixation, reduplication and modification. Affixation could be prefixation, infixation and suffixation, while reduplication and modification are divided into complete and partial. Verbs as well, can be formed through various processes like affixation, reduplication and modification. The aim of this paper is to examine the morphological processes that are found in Bura language. In this study, research informants were selected by means of sampling technique. The study helps us to understand that Bura like other languages morphological processes of verbs is possible.

Keywords: Bura language, infixation, morphological processes, prefixation, suffixation

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4381 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento


Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: emulsion, polymer, polysaccharide, stability, chemical modification

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4380 Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance

Authors: Binnur Sagbas


Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.

Keywords: artificial joints, plasma surface modification, UHMWPE, vitamin E, wear

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4379 Layer-By-Layer Deposition of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Nanolayers on Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabric: Electrostatic and Thermal Properties

Authors: Dawid Stawski, Silviya Halacheva, Dorota Zielińska


The surface properties of many materials can be readily and predictably modified by the controlled deposition of thin layers containing appropriate functional groups and this research area is now a subject of widespread interest. The layer-by-layer (lbl) method involves depositing oppositely charged layers of polyelectrolytes onto the substrate material which are stabilized due to strong electrostatic forces between adjacent layers. This type of modification affords products that combine the properties of the original material with the superficial parameters of the new external layers. Through an appropriate selection of the deposited layers, the surface properties can be precisely controlled and readily adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the intended application. In the presented paper a variety of anionic (poly(acrylic acid)) and cationic (linear poly(ethylene imine), polymers were successfully deposited onto the polypropylene nonwoven using the lbl technique. The chemical structure of the surface before and after modification was confirmed by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, volumetric analysis and selective dyeing tests. As a direct result of this work, new materials with greatly improved properties have been produced. For example, following a modification process significant changes in the electrostatic activity of a range of novel nanocomposite materials were observed. The deposition of polyelectrolyte nanolayers was found to strongly accelerate the loss of electrostatically generated charges and to increase considerably the thermal resistance properties of the modified fabric (the difference in T50% is over 20°C). From our results, a clear relationship between the type of polyelectrolyte layer deposited onto the flat fabric surface and the properties of the modified fabric was identified.

Keywords: layer-by-layer technique, polypropylene nonwoven, surface modification, surface properties

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4378 Chemically Modified Chitosan Derivatives with Ameliorated Properties Appropriate for Drug Delivery

Authors: Georgia M. Michailidou, Nina-Maria S. Ainali, Eleftheria C. Xanthopoulou, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris


Polysaccharides are polymeric materials derived from nature. They are extensively used in pharmaceutical technology due to their low cost, their ready availability and their low toxicity. Chitosan is the product derived from the deacetylation of chitin usually obtained from arthropods. It is a linear polysaccharide which is composed of repeated units of N-deacetylated amino groups and some N-acetylated groups residues. Due to its excellent biological properties, it is an attractive natural polymer. It is biocompatible with low toxicity and complete biodegradability. Although it has excellent properties, the chemical modification of its structure results in new derivatives with ameliorated and more improved properties compared to the initial polymer. This is the exact purpose of the present study in which chitosan was modified with three different monomers, namely trans-aconitic acid, succinic anhydride and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. In chitosan’s modification with trans aconitic acid, EDC was utilized as an activator of the carboxylic groups of the monomer, and then a coupling reaction with the amino groups took place. Succinic anhydride reacted with chitosan through a ring opening reaction while 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate reacted through the addition of chitosan’s amino group to the double bond of the monomer. Through FTIR and NMR measurements the success of each reaction was confirmed, and the new structures of the derivatives were verified. X-ray diffraction was utilized in order to examine the effect of the modifications in chitosan’s crystallinity. Finally, swelling tests were conducted in order to assess the improved ability of the new polymeric materials to absorb water. Our results support the successful modification of chitosan’s macromolecular chains in all three reactions. Furthermore, the new derivatives appear to be amorphous concerning their crystallinity and have great ability in absorbing water.

Keywords: chitosan, derivatives, modification, polysaccharide

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4377 Impact of Syngenetic Elements on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biochar

Authors: Edita Baltrėnaitė, Pranas Baltrėnas, Eglė MarčIulaitienė, Mantas PranskevičIus, Valeriia Chemerys


The growing demand for organic products in the market promotes their use in various fields. One of such products is biochar. Among the innovative environmental applications, biochar has the potential as an adsorbent for retaining contaminants in environmental engineering and agrotechnical systems. Artificial modification of biochar can improve its adsorption capacity. However, indirect/natural change of biochar composition (e.g., contaminated biomass) based on syngenetic elements provides prospects for new applications of biochar as well as decreases the modification costs. Natural lignocellulosic and biochar composition variations would lead to a new field of application of biochar and reduce resources for biochar modifications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syngenetic elements of biochar’s feedstock on the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biochar. Syngenetic elements (e.g., Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg) and other intrinsic properties (e.g., lignin, COHN, moisture, ash) of indifferent types of lignocellulosic feedstock on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar are discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, lignocellulosic biochar, instrinsic properties, syngenetic elements

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4376 Durability Enhancement of CaSO4 in Repetitive Operation of Chemical Heat Pump

Authors: Y. Shiren, M. Masuzawa, H. Ohkura, T. Yamagata, Y. Aman, N. Kobayashi


An important problem for the CaSO4/CaSO4・1/2H2O Chemical heat pump (CHP) is that the material is deactivated through repetitive reaction between hydration and dehydration in which the crystal phase of the material is transformed from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. We investigated suppression on the phase change by adding a sulfated compound. The most effective material was MgSO4. MgSO4 doping increased the durability of CaSO4 in the actual CHP repetitive cycle of hydration/dehydration to 3.6 times that of undoped CaSO4. The MgSO4-doped CaSO4 showed a higher phase transition temperature and activation energy for crystal transformation from III-CaSO4 to II-CaSO4. MgSO4 doping decreased the crystal lattice size of CaSO4・1/2H2O and II-CaSO4 to smaller than that of undoped CaSO4. Modification of the crystal structure is considered to be related to the durability change in CaSO4 resulting from MgSO4 doping.

Keywords: CaSO4, chemical heat pump, durability of chemical heat storage material, heat storage

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4375 Effect of the Polymer Modification on the Cytocompatibility of Human and Rat Cells

Authors: N. Slepickova Kasalkova, P. Slepicka, L. Bacakova, V. Svorcik


Tissue engineering includes combination of materials and techniques used for the improvement, repair or replacement of the tissue. Scaffolds, permanent or temporally material, are used as support for the creation of the "new cell structures". For this important component (scaffold), a variety of materials can be used. The advantage of some polymeric materials is their cytocompatibility and possibility of biodegradation. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable,  semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. PLLA can be fully degraded into H2O and CO2. In this experiment, the effect of the surface modification of biodegradable polymer (performed by plasma treatment) on the various cell types was studied. The surface parameters and changes of the physicochemical properties of modified PLLA substrates were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was determined by goniometry, surface morphology and roughness study were performed with atomic force microscopy and chemical composition was determined using photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties were studied in relation to cytocompatibility of human osteoblast (MG 63 cells), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and human stem cells (ASC) of the adipose tissue in vitro. A fluorescence microscopy was chosen to study and compare cell-material interaction. Important parameters of the cytocompatibility like adhesion, proliferation, viability, shape, spreading of the cells were evaluated. It was found that the modification leads to the change of the surface wettability depending on the time of modification. Short time of exposition (10-120 s) can reduce the wettability of the aged samples, exposition longer than 150 s causes to increase of contact angle of the aged PLLA. The surface morphology is significantly influenced by duration of modification, too. The plasma treatment involves the formation of the crystallites, whose number increases with increasing time of modification. On the basis of physicochemical properties evaluation, the cells were cultivated on the selected samples. Cell-material interactions are strongly affected by material chemical structure and surface morphology. It was proved that the plasma treatment of PLLA has a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and viability of all cultivated cells. This effect was even more apparent for the VSMCs and ASCs which homogeneously covered almost the whole surface of the substrate after 7 days of cultivation. The viability of these cells was high (more than 98% for VSMCs, 89-96% for ASCs). This experiment is one part of the basic research, which aims to easily create scaffolds for tissue engineering with subsequent use of stem cells and their subsequent "reorientation" towards the bone cells or smooth muscle cells.

Keywords: poly(L-lactic acid), plasma treatment, surface characterization, cytocompatibility, human osteoblast, rat vascular smooth muscle cells, human stem cells

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4374 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban


Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending

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4373 Adherence of Hypertensive Patients to Lifestyle Modification Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fadwa Alhalaiqa, Ahmad Al-Nawafleh, Abdul-Monim Batiha, Rami Masadeh, Aida Abd Alrazek


Healthy lifestyle recommendations (e.g. physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, increased cholesterol levels, obesity, and poor stress management) play an important role in controlling BP. This study aimed to assess lifestyle modification factors among patient diagnosed with hypertension. Methods and materials: A cross section-survey design was used. Data was collected by four questionnaires one was the beliefs about medication (BMQ) and rest were developed to collect data about demographics and clinical characteristics and lifestyle modification factors. Results: Total 312 questionnaires had been completed. The participants had a mean age of 57.6 years (SD =11.8). The results revealed that our participants did not follow healthy lifestyle recommendations; for example the means BS level, BMI, and cholesterol levels were 155 mg/dl (SD= 71.9), 29 kg/2m (SD= 5.4) and 197 mg/dl (SD= 86.6) respectively. A significant correlation was shown between age and BP (P= 0.000). Increase in DBP correlates with a significant increase in cholesterol level (P= .002) and BMI (P= .006). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients did not adhere to healthy lifestyle modification factors. Therefore, an urgent action by addressing behavioral risk factors has a positive impact on preventing and controlling hypertension.

Keywords: adherence, healthy lifestyle, hypertension, patients

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