Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 290

Search results for: ultrasonic

290 Autonomous Control of Ultrasonic Transducer Drive System

Authors: Dong-Keun Jeong, Jong-Hyun Kim, Woon-Ha Yoon, Hee-Je Kim


In order to automatically operate the ultrasonic transducer drive system for sonicating aluminum, this paper proposes the ultrasonic transducer sensorless control algorithm. The resonance frequency shift and electrical impedance change is a common phenomenon in the state of the ultrasonic transducer. The proposed control algorithm make use of the impedance change of ultrasonic transducer according to the environment between air state and aluminum alloy state, it controls the ultrasonic transducer drive system autonomous without a sensor. The proposed sensorless autonomous ultrasonic transducer control algorithm was experimentally verified using a 3kW prototype ultrasonic transducer drive system.

Keywords: ultrasonic transducer drive system, impedance change, sensorless, autonomous control algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
289 Non-Destructive Testing of Metal Pipes with Ultrasonic Sensors Based on Determination of Maximum Ultrasonic Frequency

Authors: Herlina Abdul Rahim, Javad Abbaszadeh, Ruzairi Abdul Rahim


In this research, the non-invasive ultrasonic transmission tomography is investigated. In order to model the ultrasonic wave scattering for different thickness of metal pipes, two-dimensional (2D) finite element modeling (FEM) has been utilized. The wall thickness variation of the metal pipe and its influence on propagation of the ultrasonic pressure wave are explored in this paper, includes frequency analysing in order to find the maximum applicable frequency. The simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining the achieved reconstructed images from experimental setup. Finally, the experimental results which are useful for further investigation for the application of ultrasonic transmission tomography in industry are illustrated.

Keywords: ultrasonic transmission tomography, ultrasonic sensors, ultrasonic wave, non-invasive tomography, metal pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
288 Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic

Authors: Yasuyuki Nabeshima


Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.

Keywords: tunnel, lining concrete, void, non-destructive inspection, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
287 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán


This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: PSoC, pulse generator, PVDF, ultrasonic transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
286 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan


In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
285 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky


Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
284 Characterization of Ultrasonic Nonlinearity in Concrete under Cyclic Change of Prestressing Force

Authors: Gyu-Jin Kim, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


In this research, the effect of prestressing force on the nonlinearity of concrete was investigated by an experimental study. For the measurement of ultrasonic nonlinearity, a prestressed concrete beam was prepared and a nonlinear resonant ultrasound method was adopted. When the prestressing force changes, the stress state of the concrete inside the beam is affected, which leads to the occurrence of micro-cracks and changes in mechanical properties. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce nonlinear ultrasonic technology which sensitively reflects microstructural changes. Repetitive prestressing load history, including maximum levels of 45%, 60% and 75%, depending on the compressive strength, is designed to evaluate the impact of loading levels on the nonlinearity. With the experimental results, the possibility of ultrasonic nonlinearity as a trial indicator of stress was evaluated.

Keywords: micro crack, nonlinear ultrasonic resonant spectroscopy, prestressed concrete beam, prestressing force, ultrasonic nonlinearity

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
283 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf


Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
282 Blood Clot Emulsification via Ultrasonic Thrombolysis Device

Authors: Sun Tao, Lou Liang, Tan Xing Haw Marvin, Gu Yuandong Alex


Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness. To treat blood clots, clinicians presently have two options. The first involves drug therapy to thin the blood and thus reduce the clot. The second choice is to invasively remove the clot using a plastic tube called a catheter. Both approaches carry a high risk of bleeding, and invasive procedures, such as catheter intervention, can also damage the blood vessel wall and cause infection. Ultrasonic treatment as a potential alternative therapy to break down clots is attracting growing interests due to the reduced adverse effects. To demonstrate the concept, in this investigation a microfabricated ultrasonic device was electrically packaged with printed circuit board to treat healthy human blood. The red blood cells could be broken down after 3-hour ultrasonic treatment.

Keywords: microfabrication, blood clot, ultrasonic thrombolysis device, ultrasonic device

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
281 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini


The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc welding

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280 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han


In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
279 Evaluation of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Estimation of Air Voids in Asphalt Concrete

Authors: Majid Zargar, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


One of the important factors in the design of asphalt concrete mixes is the accurate measurement of air voids and their variable distribution. Both can have significant impact on long and short term fatigue and creep behaviour under traffic. While some simple methods exist for overall evaluation of air voids, measuring air void distribution in asphalt concrete is very complex, involving expensive techniques such as X-ray methodologies. The research reported in the paper investigated the use of non-destructive ultrasonic techniques as an alternative to estimate the amount of air voids and their distribution within asphalt samples. Seventy-four Standard AC–14 asphalt samples made with three types of bitumen; Multigrade, PMB and C320 were analysed using ultrasonic techniques. The results have illustrated that ultrasonic testing has the potential of being a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method of estimating air void distribution in asphalt.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, air voids, ultrasonic, mechanical behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
278 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita Belousova


The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, bone tissue density of jaws, bone tissue density of phalanges of fingers, orthodontic treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
277 Non-Destructing Testing of Sandstones from Unconventional Reservoir in Poland with Use of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Technique and X-Ray Computed Microtomography

Authors: Michał Maksimczuk, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Tomasz Wejrzanowski


This study concerns high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) and ultrasonic pulse analysis of Cambrian sandstones from a borehole located in the Baltic Sea Coast of northern Poland. µCT and ultrasonic technique are non-destructive methods commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the author to create accurate 3-D visualizations of structure geometry and to calculate the ratio of pores volume to the total sample volume. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Furthermore, samples Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio were obtained with use of ultrasonic pulse technique. µCT and ultrasonic pulse technique provide complex information which can be used for explorations and characterization of reservoir rocks.

Keywords: elastic parameters, linear absorption coefficient, northern Poland, tight gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
276 Effect of Inclusions in the Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Maraging 300 Steel

Authors: G. M. Dominguez Almaraz, J. A. Ruiz Vilchez, M. A. Sanchez Miranda


Ultrasonic fatigue tests have been carried out in the maraging 300 steel. Experimental results show that fatigue endurance under this modality of testing is closely related to the nature and geometrical properties of inclusions present in this alloy. A model was proposed to correlate the ultrasonic fatigue endurance with the nature and geometrical properties of the crack initiation inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were obtained on the fracture surfaces, in order to assess the crack initiation inclusion and to introduce these parameters in the proposed model, with good agreement for the fatigue life prediction.

Keywords: inclusions, ultrasonic fatigue, maraging 300 steel, crack initiation

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275 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers

Authors: J. Belovickis, V. Samulionis, J. Banys, M. V. Silibin, A. V. Solnyshkin, A. V. Sysa


Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymer composites, PVDF-TrFE, ultrasonic spectroscopy

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274 Ultrasonic Techniques to Characterize and Monitor Water-in-Oil Emulsion

Authors: E. A. Alshaafi, A. Prakash


Oil-water emulsions are commonly encountered in various industrial operations and at different stages of crude oil production and processing. Emulsions are often difficult to track and treat and can cause a number of costly problems which need to be avoided. The characteristics of the emulsion phase can vary with crude composition and types of impurities present in oil. The objectives of this study are the development of ultrasonic techniques to track and characterize emulsion phase generated during production and cleaning of crude oil. The position of emulsion layer is monitored with the help of ultrasonic probes suitably placed in the vessel. The sensitivity of the technique and its potential has been demonstrated based on extensive testing with different oil samples. The technique is also being developed to monitor emulsion phase characteristics such as stability, composition, and droplet size distribution. The ultrasonic parameters recorded are changes in acoustic velocity, signal attenuation and its frequency spectrum. Emulsion has been prepared with light mineral oil sample and the effects of various factors including mixing speed, temperature, surfactant, and solid particles concentrations have been investigated. The applied frequency for ultrasonic waves has been varied from 1 to 5 MHz to carry out a sensitivity analysis. Emulsion droplet structure is observed with optical microscopy and stability is examined by tracking the changes in ultrasonic parameters with time. A model based on ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy is being developed and tested to track changes in droplet size distribution with time.

Keywords: ultrasonic techniques, emulsion, characterization, droplet size

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273 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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272 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla


Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining

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271 The Design of Acoustic Horns for Ultrasonic Aided Tube Double Side Flange Making

Authors: Kuen-Ming Shu, Jyun-Wei Chen


Encapsulated O-rings are specifically designed to address the problem of sealing the most hostile chemicals and extreme temperature applications. Ultrasonic vibration hot embossing and ultrasonic welding techniques provide a fast and reliable method to fabricate encapsulated O-ring. This paper performs the design and analysis method of the acoustic horns with double extrusion to process tube double side flange simultaneously. The paper deals with study through Finite Element Method (FEM) of ultrasonic stepped horn used to process a capsulated O-ring, the theoretical dimensions of horns, and their natural frequencies and amplitudes are obtained through the simulations of COMOSOL software. Furthermore, real horns were fabricated, tested and verified to proof the practical utility of these horns.

Keywords: encapsulated O-rings, ultrasonic vibration hot embossing, flange making, acoustic horn, finite element analysis

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270 2D-Modeling with Lego Mindstorms

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nozicka


The whole work is based on possibility to use Lego Mindstorms robotics systems to reduce costs. Lego Mindstorms consists of a wide variety of hardware components necessary to simulate, programme and test of robotics systems in practice. To programme algorithm, which simulates space using the ultrasonic sensor, was used development environment supplied with kit. Software Matlab was used to render values afterwards they were measured by ultrasonic sensor. The algorithm created for this paper uses theoretical knowledge from area of signal processing. Data being processed by algorithm are collected by ultrasonic sensor that scans 2D space in front of it. Ultrasonic sensor is placed on moving arm of robot which provides horizontal moving of sensor. Vertical movement of sensor is provided by wheel drive. The robot follows map in order to get correct positioning of measured data. Based on discovered facts it is possible to consider Lego Mindstorm for low-cost and capable kit for real-time modelling.

Keywords: LEGO Mindstorms, ultrasonic sensor, real-time modeling, 2D object, low-cost robotics systems, sensors, Matlab, EV3 Home Edition Software

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
269 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porosity Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya


The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser generation of ultrasound pulses combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, porosity, composite, local elastic moduli

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268 Laser - Ultrasonic Method for the Measurement of Residual Stresses in Metals

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya


The theoretical analysis is carried out to get the relation between the ultrasonic wave velocity and the value of residual stresses. The laser-ultrasonic method is developed to evaluate the residual stresses and subsurface defects in metals. The method is based on the laser thermooptical excitation of longitudinal ultrasonic wave sand their detection by a broadband piezoelectric detector. A laser pulse with the time duration of 8 ns of the full width at half of maximum and with the energy of 300 µJ is absorbed in a thin layer of the special generator that is inclined relative to the object under study. The non-uniform heating of the generator causes the formation of a broadband powerful pulse of longitudinal ultrasonic waves. It is shown that the temporal profile of this pulse is the convolution of the temporal envelope of the laser pulse and the profile of the in-depth distribution of the heat sources. The ultrasonic waves reach the surface of the object through the prism that serves as an acoustic duct. At the interface ‚laser-ultrasonic transducer-object‘ the conversion of the most part of the longitudinal wave energy takes place into the shear, subsurface longitudinal and Rayleigh waves. They spread within the subsurface layer of the studied object and are detected by the piezoelectric detector. The electrical signal that corresponds to the detected acoustic signal is acquired by an analog-to-digital converter and when is mathematically processed and visualized with a personal computer. The distance between the generator and the piezodetector as well as the spread times of acoustic waves in the acoustic ducts are the characteristic parameters of the laser-ultrasonic transducer and are determined using the calibration samples. There lative precision of the measurement of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves is 0.05% that corresponds to approximately ±3 m/s for the steels of conventional quality. This precision allows one to determine the mechanical stress in the steel samples with the minimal detection threshold of approximately 22.7 MPa. The results are presented for the measured dependencies of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the samples on the values of the applied compression stress in the range of 20-100 MPa.

Keywords: laser-ultrasonic method, longitudinal ultrasonic waves, metals, residual stresses

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267 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi


Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: MEB, thin disulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-Ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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266 An Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Machining of Pure Titanium Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Jatinder Kumar


Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. There is a considerable lack of research on its application to the cost-effective machining of tough materials such as titanium. In this investigation, the application of USM process for machining of titanium (ASTM Grade-I) has been explored. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of different parameters of USM process on machining rate and tool wear rate as response characteristics. The process parameters that were included in this study are: abrasive grit size, tool material and power rating of the ultrasonic machine. It has been concluded that titanium is fairly machinable with USM process. Significant improvement in the machining rate can be realized by manipulating the process parameters and obtaining the optimum combination of these parameters.

Keywords: abrasive grit size, tool material, titanium, ultrasonic machining

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265 Algae Growth and Biofilm Control by Ultrasonic Technology

Authors: Vojtech Stejskal, Hana Skalova, Petr Kvapil, George Hutchinson


Algae growth has been an important issue in water management of water plants, ponds and lakes, swimming pools, aquaculture & fish farms, gardens or golf courses for last decades. There are solutions based on chemical or biological principles. Apart of these traditional principles for inhibition of algae growth and biofilm production there are also physical methods which are very competitive compared to the traditional ones. Ultrasonic technology is one of these alternatives. Ultrasonic emitter is able to eliminate the biofilm which behaves as a host and attachment point for algae and is original reason for the algae growth. The ultrasound waves prevent majority of the bacteria in planktonic form becoming strongly attached sessile bacteria that creates welcoming layer for the biofilm production. Biofilm creation is very fast – in the serene water it takes between 30 minutes to 4 hours, depending on temperature and other parameters. Ultrasound device is not killing bacteria. Ultrasound waves are passing through bacteria, which retract as if they were in very turbulent water even though the water is visually completely serene. In these conditions, bacteria does not excrete the polysaccharide glue they use to attach to the surface of the pool or pond, where ultrasonic technology is used. Ultrasonic waves decrease the production of biofilm on the surfaces in the selected area. In case there are already at the start of the application of ultrasonic technology in a pond or basin clean inner surfaces, the biofilm production is almost absolutely inhibited. This paper talks about two different pilot applications – one in Czech Republic and second in United States of America, where the used ultrasonic technology (AlgaeControl) is coming from. On both sites, there was used Mezzo Ultrasonic Algae Control System with very positive results not only on biofilm production, but also algae growth in the surrounding area. Technology has been successfully tested in two different environments. The poster describes the differences and their influence on the efficiency of ultrasonic technology application. Conclusions and lessons learned can be possibly applied also on other sites within Europe or even further.

Keywords: algae growth, biofilm production, ultrasonic solution, ultrasound

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264 Near Field Focusing Behaviour of Airborne Ultrasonic Phased Arrays Influenced by Airflows

Authors: D. Sun, T. F. Lu, A. Zander, M. Trinkle


This paper investigates the potential use of airborne ultrasonic phased arrays for imaging in outdoor environments as a means of overcoming the limitations experienced by kinect sensors, which may fail to work in the outdoor environments due to the oversaturation of the infrared photo diodes. Ultrasonic phased arrays have been well studied for static media, yet there appears to be no comparable examination in the literature of the impact of a flowing medium on the focusing behaviour of near field focused ultrasonic arrays. This paper presents a method for predicting the sound pressure fields produced by a single ultrasound element or an ultrasonic phased array influenced by airflows. The approach can be used to determine the actual focal point location of an array exposed in a known flow field. From the presented simulation results based upon this model, it can be concluded that uniform flows in the direction orthogonal to the acoustic propagation have a noticeable influence on the sound pressure field, which is reflected in the twisting of the steering angle of the array. Uniform flows in the same direction as the acoustic propagation have negligible influence on the array. For an array impacted by a turbulent flow, determining the location of the focused sound field becomes difficult due to the irregularity and continuously changing direction and the speed of the turbulent flow. In some circumstances, ultrasonic phased arrays impacted by turbulent flows may not be capable of producing a focused sound field.

Keywords: airborne, airflow, focused sound field, ultrasonic phased array

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263 Effect of High Intensity Ultrasonic Treatment on the Micro Structure, Corrosion and Mechanical Behavior of ac4c Aluminium Alloy

Authors: A.Farrag Farrag, A. M. El-Aziz Abdel Aziz, W. Khlifa Khlifa


Ultrasonic treatment is a promising process nowadays in the engineering field due to its high efficiency and it is a low-cost process. It enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and homogeneity of the microstructure. In this study, the effect of ultrasonic treatment and several casting conditions on microstructure, hardness and corrosion behavior of AC4C aluminum alloy was examined. Various ultrasonic treatments of the AC4C alloys were carried out to prepare billets for thixocasting process. Treatment temperatures varied from about 630oC and cooled down to under ultrasonic field. Treatment time was about 90s. A 600-watts ultrasonic system with 19.5 kHz and intensity of 170 W/cm2 was used. Billets were reheated to semisolid state and held for 5 minutes at 582 oC and temperatures (soaking) using high-frequency induction system, then thixocasted using a die casting machine. Microstructures of the thixocast parts were studied using optical and SEM microscopes. On the other hand, two samples were conventionally cast and poured at 634 oC and 750 oC. The microstructure showed a globular none dendritic grains for AC4C with the application of UST at 630-582 oC, Less dendritic grains when the sample was conventionally cast without the application of UST and poured at 624 oC and a fully dendritic microstructure When the sample was cast and poured at 750 oC without UST .The ultrasonic treatment during solidification proved that it has a positive influence on the microstructure as it produced the finest and globular grains thus it is expected to increase the mechanical properties of the alloy. Higher values of corrosion resistance and hardness were recorded for the ultrasound-treated sample in comparison to cast one.

Keywords: ultrasonic treatment, aluminum alloys, corrosion behaviour, mechanical behaviour, microstructure

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262 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi


Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: structural and optical properties, tin sulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray

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261 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf


Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: SnS, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

Procedia PDF Downloads 360