Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 903

Search results for: oil palm empty fruit bunch

903 Fabrication and Evaluation of Particleboards from Oil Palm Fronds Blend with Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat Fadzila


The aim of this study is to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from mixing the oil palm fronds particles with empty fruit bunch fibers. Variables were two blending ratios (100:0 and 70:30), press temperature (160°C and 180°C) and press time (180 and 300 s). Experimental boards with a target density of 750 kg m-3 were manufactured from these two particles and fibers blended with urea formaldehyde resin and compressed into targeted thickness. The effect of these manufacturing conditions on bending strength, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were determined. From this research, it can be concluded that hybridization of fibers with fronds particles improved some properties of particleboard. Empty fruit bunch fibers and fronds particleboard showed better modulus of rupture and internal bonding than fronds particleboards.

Keywords: oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunch, particleboards, chemistry, environment

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902 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus


In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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901 Optimization of the Fabrication Process for Particleboards Made from Oil Palm Fronds Blended with Empty Fruit Bunch Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat-Fadzil, Zulkafli Hassan, Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh


The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimum fabrication process variables to produce particleboards from oil palm fronds (OPF) particles and empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). Response surface methodology was employed to analyse the effect of hot press temperature (150–190°C); press time (3–7 minutes) and EFB blending ratio (0–40%) on particleboards modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling. A Box-Behnken experimental design was carried out to develop statistical models used for the optimisation of the fabrication process variables. All factors were found to be statistically significant on particleboards properties. The statistical analysis indicated that all models showed significant fit with experimental results. The optimum particleboards properties were obtained at optimal fabrication process condition; press temperature; 186°C, press time; 5.7 min and EFB / OPF ratio; 30.4%. Incorporating of oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch to produce particleboards has improved the particleboards properties. The OPF–EFB particleboards fabricated at optimized conditions have satisfied the ANSI A208.1–1999 specification for general purpose particleboards.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch fiber, oil palm fronds, particleboards, response surface methodology

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900 Bio-Oil Production and Chromatographic Characterization from the Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Arif Ferdiyanto, Fajar Hamida, Arif Hidayat


Oil palm empty fruit bunches, derived biomass available in Indonesia, is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. An interesting alternative of utilising the oil palm empty fruit bunches is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to bio-oil is being considered for national energy security and environmental advantages. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at various temperature and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass was submitted to a pyrolysis in a batch reactor. Experiments were carried out at a temperature range of 450–600°C and heating rate range of 10-20°C/min. The yield of bio-oil was found to be maximum at the temperature of 600°C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using FTIR and GC-MS. The bio-char produced as a co-product can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including soil fertility and for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. The present investigation suggests the suitability of oil palm empty fruit bunches as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolysis process.

Keywords: bio-oil, oil palm empty fruit bunches, pyrolysis, renewable energy

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899 Optimization of Reaction Parameters' Influences on Production of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chayanoot Sangwichien, Taweesak Reungpeerakul, Kyaw Thu


Oil palm mills in Southern Thailand produced a large amount of biomass solid wastes. Lignocellulose biomass is the main source for production of biofuel which can be combined or used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biomass composed of three main constituents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Thermochemical conversion process applied to produce biofuel from biomass. Pyrolysis of biomass is the best way to thermochemical conversion of biomass into pyrolytic products (bio-oil, gas, and char). Operating parameters play an important role to optimize the product yields from fast pyrolysis of biomass. This present work concerns with the modeling of reaction kinetics parameters for fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch in the fluidized bed reactor. A global kinetic model used to predict the product yields from fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters are mainly affected by product yields of EFB pyrolysis. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters effects on empty fruit bunch pyrolysis are considered at the reaction temperature in the range of 450-500˚C and at a vapor residence time of 2 s, respectively. The optimum simulated bio-oil yield of 53 wt.% obtained at the reaction temperature and vapor residence time of 450˚C and 2 s, 500˚C and 1 s, respectively. The simulated data are in good agreement with the reported experimental data. These simulated data can be applied to the performance of experiment work for the fast pyrolysis of biomass.

Keywords: kinetics, empty fruit bunch, fast pyrolysis, modeling

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898 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit


This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
897 Synthesis of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Using Phosphotungstic Acid

Authors: Yogi Wibisono Budhi, Ferry Iskandar, Veinardi Suendo, Muhammad Fakhrudin, Neng Tresna Umi Culsum


Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), an abundant agro-waste in Indonesia, is being studied as raw material of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) synthesis. Instead of conventional acid mineral, phosphotungstic acid (H₃PW₁₂O₄₀, HPW) was used to hydrolyze cellulose due to recycling ability and easy handling. Before hydrolysis process, dried EFB was treated by 4% NaOH solution at 90oC for 2 hours and then bleached using 2% NaClO₂ solution at 80oC for 3 hours to remove hemicellulose and lignin. Hydrolysis reaction parameters such as temperature, acid concentration, and reaction time were optimized with fixed solid-liquid ratio of 1:40. Response surface method was used for experimental design to determine the optimum condition of each parameter. HPW was extracted from the mixed solution and recycled with diethyl ether. CNC was separated from the solution by centrifuging and washing with distilled water and ethanol to remove degraded sugars and unreacted celluloses. In this study, pulp from dried EFB produced 44.8% yield of CNC. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis showed that most of CNC equivalent diameter was 140 nm. Crystallinity index was observed at 73.3% using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thus, a green established process for the preparation of CNC was achieved.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals, oil palm empty fruit bunch, phosphotungstic acid

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896 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana


Humic Acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
895 Nanocrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fiber

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Beg, Rosli M. Yunus


Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were produced by using the ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with different hydrolysis time then were analyzed by using FESEM and TGA as in comparison with EFB fiber and EFB pulp. Based on the FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a rod like shaped under the acid hydrolysis with an assistant of ultrasound. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained show remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to EFB fiber and EFB pulp. However, as the hydrolysis time increase, the thermal stability of NCC was deceased. As in conclusion, the NCC can be prepared by using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The NCC obtained have good thermal stability and have a great potential as the reinforcement in composite materials.

Keywords: Nanocrystalline cellulose, ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis, thermal stability, morphology, empty fruit bunch (EFB)

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894 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun


In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound

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893 "Gurza Incinerator" : Biomass Incinerator Powered by Empty Bunch of Palm Oil Fruits as Electrical Biomass Base Development

Authors: Andi Ismanto


Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world. The increasing number of palm oil extensification in Indonesia started on 2000-2011. Based on preliminary figures from the Directorate General of Plantation, palm oil area in Indonesia until 2011 is about 8.91 million hectares.On 2011 production of palm oil CPO reaches 22.51 million tons. In the other hands, the increasing palm oil production has impact to environment. The Empty Bunch of Palm Oil (EBPO)waste was increased to 20 million tons in 2009. Utilization of waste EBPO currently only used as an organic fertilizer for plants. But, it was not a good solution, because TKKS that used as organic compost has high content of carbon and hydrogen compound. The EBPO waste has potential used as fuel by gasification because it has short time of decomposition. So, the process will be more efficient in time. Utilization of urban wastehas been created using an incinerator used as a source of electrical energy for household.Usually, waste burning process by incinerator is using diesel fuel and kerosene. It is certainly less effective and not environment friendly, considering the waste incineration process using Incinerator tools are continuously. Considering biomass is a renewable source of energy and the world's energy system must be switch from an energy based on fossil resources into the energy based on renewable resources, the "Gurza Incinerator": Design Build Powerful Biomass Incinerator Empty Bunch of Palm Oil (EBPO) as Elecrical Biomass Base Development, a renewable future technology. The tools is using EBPO waste as source of burning to burn garbage inside the Incinerator hopper. EBPO waste will be processed by means of gasification. Gasification isa process to produce gases that can be used as fuel for electrical power. Hopefully, this technology could be a renewable future energy and also as starting point of electrical biomass base development.

Keywords: incinerator, biomass, empty bunch palm oil, electrical energy

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892 Feasibility of Agro Waste-Derived Adsorbent for Colour Removal

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, P. W. Vidanage, H. K. D. Jayampath, K. W. P. M. Kothalawala


Feasibility of utilizing Empty Bunch (EB) fibre, a solid waste of palm oil extraction process, as an adsorbent is analysed in this study. Empty bunch fibre is generated after the extraction of retained oil in the sterilized and threshed empty fruit bunches. Besides the numerous characteristics of EB fibre, which enable its utilization as a fuel, a bio-composite material, or mulch, EB fibre also shows exceptional characteristics of a good adsorbent. Fixed bed adsorption method is used to study the adsorptivity of EB fibre using a continuous adsorption column with Methyl-blue (1.13ppm) as the feed. Adsorptivity is assumed to be solely dependent on the bed porosity keeping other parameters (feed flow rate, bed height, bed diameter, and operating temperature) constant. Bed porosity is changed by means of compact ratio and the variation of the feed concentration is analysed using a photometric method. Break through curves are plotted at different porosity levels and optimum bed porosity is identified for a given feed stream. Feasibility of using the EB fibre as an inexpensive and an abundant adsorbent in wastewater treatment facilities, where the effluent colour reduction is adamant, is also discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, fixed bed, break through time, methylene blue, oil palm fibre

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891 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil


Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fiber, polyethylene, polymer nanocomposite, impact strength

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890 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib


Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, bio-oil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: banana waste, biomass, renewable energy, thermo-chemical characteristics

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889 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho


Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss

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888 Optimization and Kinetic Analysis of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch To Xylose Using Crude Xylanase from Trichoderma Viride ITB CC L.67

Authors: Efri Mardawati, Ronny Purwadi, Made Tri Ari Penia Kresnowati, Tjandra Setiadi


EFB are mainly composed of cellulose (≈ 43%), hemicellulose (≈ 23%) and lignin (≈20%). The palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) is the lignosellulosic waste from crude palm oil industries mainly compose of (≈ 43%), hemicellulose (≈ 23%) and lignin (≈20%). Xylan, a polymer made of pentose sugar xylose and the most abundant component of hemicellulose in plant cell wall. Further xylose can be used as a raw material for production of a wide variety of chemicals such as xylitol, which is extensively used in food, pharmaceutical and thin coating applications. Currently, xylose is mostly produced from xylan via chemical hydrolysis processes. However, these processes are normally conducted at a high temperature and pressure, which is costly, and the required downstream processes are relatively complex. As an alternative method, enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to xylose offers an environmentally friendly biotechnological process, which is performed at ambient temperature and pressure with high specificity and at low cost. This process is catalysed by xylanolytic enzymes that can be produced by some fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crysogenum, Tricoderma reseei, etc. Fungal that will be used to produce crude xylanase enzyme in this study is T. Viride ITB CC L.67. It is the purposes of this research to study the influence of pretreatment of EFB for the enzymatic hydrolysis process, optimation of temperature and pH of the hydrolysis process, the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration to the enzymatic hydrolysis process, the dynamics of hydrolysis process and followingly to study the kinetics of this process. Xylose as the product of enzymatic hydrolysis process analyzed by HPLC. The results show that the thermal pretreatment of EFB enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The enzymatic hydrolysis can be well approached by the Michaelis Menten kinetic model, and kinetic parameters are obtained from experimental data.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), xylose, enzymatic hydrolysis, kinetic modelling

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887 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria


Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and bio-derived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based. In this research, the green phenolic resin was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) was used as filler. The matrix was synthesized from soda lignin, phenol and hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. The phenolic resin was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol during the process. Later, the phenolic resin was mixed with EFB by using mechanical stirrer and was molded with hot press at 180 oC. In this research, the composites were prepared with EFB content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the EFB filler remained embedded in the resin. From impact and hardness testing, samples 10% of EFB showed the optimum properties meanwhile sample 15% showed the optimum properties for flexural testing. Thermal stability of the composites was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin

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886 Chemical Modifications of Three Underutilized Vegetable Fibres for Improved Composite Value Addition and Dye Absorption Performance

Authors: Abayomi O. Adetuyi, Jamiu M. Jabar, Samuel O. Afolabi


Vegetable fibres are classes of fibres of low density, biodegradable and non-abrasive that are largely abundant fibre materials with specific properties and mostly found/ obtained in plants on earth surface. They are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant from which they are gotten from namely: fruit, Blast and Leaf fibre. Ever since four/five millennium B.C, attention has been focussing on the commonest and highly utilized cotton fibre obtained from the fruit of cotton plants (Gossypium spp), for the production of cotton fabric used in every home today. The present study, therefore, focused on the ability of three underutilized vegetable (fruit) fibres namely: coir fiber (Eleas coniferus), palm kernel fiber and empty fruit bunch fiber (Elias guinensis) through chemical modifications for better composite value addition performance to polyurethane form and dye adsorption. These fibres were sourced from their parents’ plants, identified and cleansed with 2% hot detergent solution 1:100, rinsed in distilled water and oven-dried to constant weight, before been chemically modified through alkali bleaching, mercerization and acetylation. The alkali bleaching involves treating 0.5g of each fiber material with 100 mL of 2% H2O2 in 25 % NaOH solution with refluxing for 2 h. While that of mercerization and acetylation involves the use of 5% sodium hydroxide NaOH solution for 2 h and 10% acetic acid- acetic anhydride 1:1 (v/v) (CH3COOH) / (CH3CO)2O solution with conc. H2SO4 as catalyst for 1 h, respectively on the fibres. All were subsequently washed thoroughly with distilled water and oven dried at 105 0C for 1 h. These modified fibres were incorporated as composite into polyurethane form and used in dye adsorption study of indigo. The first two treatments led to fiber weight reduction, while the acidified acetic anhydride treatment gave the fibers weight increment. All the treated fibers were found to be of less hydrophilic nature, better mechanical properties, higher thermal stabilities as well as better adsorption surfaces/capacities than the untreated ones. These were confirmed by gravimetric analysis, Instron Universal Testing Machine, Thermogravimetric Analyser and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The fiber morphology of the modified fibers showed smoother surfaces than unmodified fibres.The empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre are better than the palm kernel fibres as reinforcers for composites or as adsorbents for waste-water treatment. Acetylation and alkaline bleaching treatment improve the potentials of the fibres more than mercerization treatment. Conclusively, vegetable fibres, especially empty fruit bunch fibre and the coconut coir fibre, which are cheap, abundant and underutilized, can replace the very costly powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment and as reinforcer in foam.

Keywords: chemical modification, industrial application, value addition, vegetable fibre

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885 Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Malaysian Palm Oil Board-Senegal Oil Palm Germplasm Using Multivariate Tools

Authors: Khin Aye Myint, Mohd Rafii Yusop, Mohd Yusoff Abd Samad, Shairul Izan Ramlee, Mohd Din Amiruddin, Zulkifli Yaakub


The narrow base of genetic is the main obstacle of breeding and genetic improvement in oil palm industry. In order to broaden the genetic bases, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board has been extensively collected wild germplasm from its original area of 11 African countries which are Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Madagascar, and Tanzania. The germplasm collections were established and maintained as a field gene bank in Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Research Station in Kluang, Johor, Malaysia to conserve a wide range of oil palm genetic resources for genetic improvement of Malaysian oil palm industry. Therefore, assessing the performance and genetic diversity of the wild materials is very important for understanding the genetic structure of natural oil palm population and to explore genetic resources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Cluster analysis are very efficient multivariate tools in the evaluation of genetic variation of germplasm and have been applied in many crops. In this study, eight populations of MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm were studied to explore the genetic variation pattern using PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 20 yield and yield component traits were used to analyze PCA and Ward’s clustering using SAS 9.4 version software. The first four principal components which have eigenvalue >1 accounted for 93% of total variation with the value of 44%, 19%, 18% and 12% respectively for each principal component. PC1 showed highest positive correlation with fresh fruit bunch (0.315), bunch number (0.321), oil yield (0.317), kernel yield (0.326), total economic product (0.324), and total oil (0.324) while PC 2 has the largest positive association with oil to wet mesocarp (0.397) and oil to fruit (0.458). The oil palm population were grouped into four distinct clusters based on 20 evaluated traits, this imply that high genetic variation existed in among the germplasm. Cluster 1 contains two populations which are SEN 12 and SEN 10, while cluster 2 has only one population of SEN 3. Cluster 3 consists of three populations which are SEN 4, SEN 6, and SEN 7 while SEN 2 and SEN 5 were grouped in cluster 4. Cluster 4 showed the highest mean value of fresh fruit bunch, bunch number, oil yield, kernel yield, total economic product, and total oil and Cluster 1 was characterized by high oil to wet mesocarp, and oil to fruit. The desired traits that have the largest positive correlation on extracted PCs could be utilized for the improvement of oil palm breeding program. The populations from different clusters with the highest cluster means could be used for hybridization. The information from this study can be utilized for effective conservation and selection of the MPOB-Senegal oil palm germplasm for the future breeding program.

Keywords: cluster analysis, genetic variability, germplasm, oil palm, principal component analysis

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884 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu


As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: groundnut, incidence, neem, palm, severity, termites

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883 Maturity Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches Using Thermal Imaging Technique

Authors: Shahrzad Zolfagharnassab, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Reza Ehsani, Hawa Ze Jaffar, Ishak Aris


Ripeness estimation of oil palm fresh fruit is important processes that affect the profitableness and salability of oil palm fruits. The adulthood or ripeness of the oil palm fruits influences the quality of oil palm. Conventional procedure includes physical grading of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) maturity by calculating the number of loose fruits per bunch. This physical classification of oil palm FFB is costly, time consuming and the results may have human error. Hence, many researchers try to develop the methods for ascertaining the maturity of oil palm fruits and thereby, deviously the oil content of distinct palm fruits without the need for exhausting oil extraction and analysis. This research investigates the potential of infrared images (Thermal Images) as a predictor to classify the oil palm FFB ripeness. A total of 270 oil palm fresh fruit bunches from most common cultivar of oil palm bunches Nigresens according to three maturity categories: under ripe, ripe and over ripe were collected. Each sample was scanned by the thermal imaging cameras FLIR E60 and FLIR T440. The average temperature of each bunches were calculated by using image processing in FLIR Tools and FLIR ThermaCAM researcher pro 2.10 environment software. The results show that temperature content decreased from immature to over mature oil palm FFBs. An overall analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) test was proved that this predictor gave significant difference between underripe, ripe and overripe maturity categories. This shows that the temperature as predictors can be good indicators to classify oil palm FFB. Classification analysis was performed by using the temperature of the FFB as predictors through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Mahalanobis Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) methods. The highest overall classification accuracy was 88.2% by using Artificial Neural Network. This research proves that thermal imaging and neural network method can be used as predictors of oil palm maturity classification.

Keywords: artificial neural network, maturity classification, oil palm FFB, thermal imaging

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882 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

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881 Nanocellulose Incorporated Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel

Authors: Rosli Mohd Yunus, Zianor Azrina Zianon Abdin, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg, Ridzuan Ramli


Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has gained considerable interest as a promising biomaterial due to their outstanding properties such as high surface area, high mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The NCC also has good stability in water which is compatible for mixing of water based polymer solution or emulsions with NCC. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) contained different amount of lignocellulosic materials such as lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose is the most significant materials that can be extracted from EFB as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). In this work the nanocrystalline cellulose were produced through acid hydrolysis together with ultrasound technique. The morphology of NCC was characterized by TEM, thermal behavior has been studied with DSC, TGA analysis. Structural properties were illustrated X-Ray diffraction as well as FTIR. The hydrogel was produced using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with different concentration of NCC. The hydrogel composite was characterized by swelling ratio, crosslinking density, mechanical properties and morphology.

Keywords: nanocellulose, oil palm, hydrogel, water treatment

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880 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

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879 Growth Studies and Leaf Mineral Composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. in Soil Medium Supplemended with Palm Bunch Ash Extract from Elaeis Guineensis jacq. in Abak Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Authors: Etukudo, M. Mbosowo, Nyananyo, L. Bio, Negbenebor, A. Charles


An aqueous extract of palm bunch ash from Elaeis guineensis Jacq., equilibrated with water was used to assess the growth and minerals composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. in agricultural soil of Abak, Akwa Ibom State, nigeria. Various concentrations, 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of palm bunch extract per 4kg of sandy-loam soil were used for the study. Chemical characteristics of the extract, Growth parameters (Plant height, root length, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content), leaf minerals composition (Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) of the crop and soil chemical composition before and after harvest (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were examined. The results showed that palm bunch ash extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the soil pH at all levels of treatments compared to the control. Similarly, the soil and leaf minerals component (N, P, K. Ca, and Mg) of the crop increased with increase in the concentration of palm bunch extract, except at 40 and 50% for leaf minerals composition, Soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus J(before and after harvest). In addition, The plant height, Root length, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content of the crop increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in the concentration of the extract, Except at 30, 40 and 50% where these growth parameters decreased in relation to the control treatment. Therefore, this study suggests that palm bunch ash extract could be utilized at lower concentration as a nutrient supplement for both Amaranthus hubridus L. and soil medium, most especially in the tropical soils of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Keywords: Amaranthus hybridus L., growth, leaf minerals composition, palm bunch ash extract

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878 The Preventive Effect of Date Palm (Phoenixdactylifera) Seed and Fruit Hydroalcoholic Extracts on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Male Rat’s Hind Paw

Authors: Siavash Azarbani


Background and Objective: The side effects of NSAIDs drugs have caused the increasing interest of scientists in herbal medicines as an alternative treatment. In this study, the effect of anti-inflammatory of seed and fruit of date palm hydroalcoholic extracts, due to having antioxidants, was studied. Materials and Methods: In this study, the extract of date palm seed and fruit were prepared by the maceration method in 70% alcohol. Eighty male rats Wistar, divided into 10 groups of eight in each, 4 groups received different doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) of seed extract and four other groups different doses (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) of fruits extract of the palm, and the positive control aspirin (300mg/kg) and the negative control group saline (5ml/kg) via injection intraperitoneally. Half an hour later, all animals received 100 µl of 1% carrageenan into the rats hind paw subcutaneous. The changes in rats paw edema were measured by plethysmometer every hour for five hours. Results: The effect of all of the doses of date palm seed extract on edema was less than aspirin (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference between the group that received 400 and 600 mg/kg of date palm fruit extract when compared with the aspirin group. The Dose 400 mg/kg of fruit extract showed the most anti-inflammatory effect and it was assigned as the best dose. Conclusion: It is likely that with further studies on a different models of animals and also on a human models the palm fruit extract could be used for pain treatment.

Keywords: extract, date, inflammatory, carrageenan, palm

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877 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Nanocomposite from Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, A. B. Suriani, S. Zakaria


There is an increasing interest in the development of flexible energy storage for application of Carbon Nanotubes and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). In this study, nanocomposite is consisting of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) mixed with suspension of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB). The use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as additive nanocomposite was improved the conductivity and mechanical properties of nanocomposite from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The nanocomposite were characterized for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties in uniaxial tension, which were tensile to measure the bond of fibers in nanocomposite. The processing route is environmental friendly which leads to well-mixed structures and good results as well.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), mechanical properties, electrical conductivity

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876 Modeling Palm Oil Quality During the Ripening Process of Fresh Fruits

Authors: Afshin Keshvadi, Johari Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad, Farah Saleena


Experiments were conducted to develop a model for analyzing the ripening process of oil palm fresh fruits in relation to oil yield and oil quality of palm oil produced. This research was carried out on 8-year-old Tenera (Dura × Pisifera) palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested from designated palms during January till May of 2010. The bunches were divided into three regions (top, middle and bottom), and fruits from the outer and inner layers were randomly sampled for analysis at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis to establish relationships between maturity and oil development in the mesocarp and kernel. Computations on data related to ripening time, oil content and oil quality were performed using several computer software programs (MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel). Nine nonlinear mathematical models were utilized using MATLAB software to fit the data collected. The results showed mean mesocarp oil percent increased from 1.24 % at 8 weeks after anthesis to 29.6 % at 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruits from the top part of the bunch had the highest mesocarp oil content of 10.09 %. The lowest kernel oil percent of 0.03 % was recorded at 12 weeks after anthesis. Palmitic acid and oleic acid comprised of more than 73 % of total mesocarp fatty acids at 8 weeks after anthesis, and increased to more than 80 % at fruit maturity at 20 weeks. The Logistic model with the highest R2 and the lowest root mean square error was found to be the best fit model.

Keywords: oil palm, oil yield, ripening process, anthesis, fatty acids, modeling

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875 Design and Analysis of a Rear Bumper of an Automobile with a Hybrid Polymer Composite of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Banana Fibres

Authors: S. O. Ologe, U. P. Anaidhuno, Duru C. A.


This research investigated the design and analysis of a rear bumper of an automobile with a hybrid polymer composite of OPEBF/Banana fibre. OPEBF/Banana fibre hybrid polymers composite is of low cost, lightweight, as well as possesses satisfactory mechanical properties. In this research work, hybrid composites have been developed using the hand layup technique based on the percentage combination of OPEBF/Banana fibre at 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50. 60:40, 70:30. 20:80, 90:10, 95:5. The mechanical properties in the context of compressive strength of 65MPa, a flexural strength of 20MPa, and impact strength of 3.25Joule were observed, and the simulation analysis on the induction of 500N load at the factor of safety of 3 was observed to have displayed a good strength suitable for automobile bumper with the advantages of weight reduction.

Keywords: OPEBF, Banana, fibre, hybrid

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874 Water Footprint for the Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Vijaya Subramaniam, Loh Soh Kheang, Astimar Abdul Aziz


Water footprint (WFP) has gained importance due to the increase in water scarcity in the world. This study analyses the WFP for an agriculture sector, i.e., the oil palm supply chain, which produces oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB), crude palm oil, palm kernel, and crude palm kernel oil. The water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) method was used. This method analyses the water depletion index (WDI) based on the local blue water scarcity. The main contribution towards the WFP at the plantation was the production of FFB from the crop itself at 0.23m³/tonne FFB. At the mill, the burden shifts to the water added during the process, which consists of the boiler and process water, which accounted for 6.91m³/tonne crude palm oil. There was a 33% reduction in the WFP when there was no dilution or water addition after the screw press at the mill. When allocation was performed, the WFP reduced by 42% as the burden was shared with the palm kernel and palm kernel shell. At the kernel crushing plant (KCP), the main contributor towards the WFP 4.96 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil which came from the palm kernel which carried the burden from upstream followed by electricity, 0.33 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil used for the process and 0.08 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil for transportation of the palm kernel. A comparison was carried out for mills with biogas capture versus no biogas capture, and the WFP had no difference for both scenarios. The comparison when the KCPs operate in the proximity of mills as compared to those operating in the proximity of ports only gave a reduction of 6% for the WFP. Both these scenarios showed no difference and insignificant difference, which differed from previous life cycle assessment studies on the carbon footprint, which showed significant differences. This shows that findings change when only certain impact categories are focused on. It can be concluded that the impact from the water used by the oil palm tree is low due to the practice of no irrigation at the plantations and the high availability of water from rainfall in Malaysia. This reiterates the importance of planting oil palm trees in regions with high rainfall all year long, like the tropics. The milling stage had the most significant impact on the WFP. Mills should avoid dilution to reduce this impact.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, water footprint, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil, WAVE method

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