Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 467

Search results for: chemistry

467 Virtual Chemistry Laboratory as Pre-Lab Experiences: Stimulating Student's Prediction Skill

Authors: Yenni Kurniawati


Students Prediction Skill in chemistry experiments is an important skill for pre-service chemistry students to stimulate students reflective thinking at each stage of many chemistry experiments, qualitatively and quantitatively. A Virtual Chemistry Laboratory was designed to give students opportunities and times to practicing many kinds of chemistry experiments repeatedly, everywhere and anytime, before they do a real experiment. The Virtual Chemistry Laboratory content was constructed using the Model of Educational Reconstruction and developed to enhance students ability to predicted the experiment results and analyzed the cause of error, calculating the accuracy and precision with carefully in using chemicals. This research showed students changing in making a decision and extremely beware with accuracy, but still had a low concern in precision. It enhancing students level of reflective thinking skill related to their prediction skill 1 until 2 stage in average. Most of them could predict the characteristics of the product in experiment, and even the result will going to be an error. In addition, they take experiments more seriously and curiously about the experiment results. This study recommends for a different subject matter to provide more opportunities for students to learn about other kinds of chemistry experiments design.

Keywords: virtual chemistry laboratory, chemistry experiments, prediction skill, pre-lab experiences

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466 Evaluating the Prominence of Chemical Phenomena in Chemistry Courses

Authors: Vanessa R. Ralph, Leah J. Scharlott, Megan Y. Deshaye, Ryan L. Stowe


Given the traditions of chemistry teaching, one may not question whether chemical phenomena play a prominent role. Yet, the role of chemical phenomena in an introductory chemistry course may define the extent to which the course is introductory, chemistry, and equitable. Picture, for example, the classic Ideal Gas Law problem. If one envisions a prompt wherein students are tasked with calculating a missing variable, then one envisions a prompt that relies on chemical phenomena as a context rather than as a model to understand the natural world. Consider a prompt wherein students are tasked with applying molecular models of gases to explain why the vapor pressure of a gaseous solution of water differs from that of carbon dioxide. Here, the chemical phenomenon is not only the context but also the subject of the prompt. Deliveries of general and organic chemistry were identified as ranging wildly in the integration of chemical phenomena. The more incorporated the phenomena, the more equitable the assessment task was for students of varying access to pre-college math and science preparation. How chemical phenomena are integrated may very well define whether courses are chemistry, are introductory, and are equitable. Educators of chemistry are invited colleagues to discuss the role of chemical phenomena in their courses and consider the long-lasting impacts of replicating tradition for tradition’s sake.

Keywords: equitable educational practices, chemistry curriculum, content organization, assessment design

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465 Professional Ambitions of Students of Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in the Context of Teaching Profession

Authors: Malgorzata Bartoszewicz, Grzegorz Krzysko


Chemistry students plan a career path based on their interests, predispositions, and preferences. This study aims to determine what percentage of all chemistry students selected teaching as a career. There is a lack of science teachers (especially physics and chemistry) in Poland, and there is limited research on students' choices and professional preferences. At the Faculty of Chemistry of the Adam Mickiewicz University in the academic year 2019/2020, changes were introduced to the study program resulting from legal regulations and as part of the funds raised from the project "Teacher - competent practitioner, supervisor, expert", No. POWR.03.01.00-00-KN40/18. The aim of the study was to determine how many first-cycle and second-cycle studies students declare the teaching profession as a career. In the case of first-cycle studies students, 9.5% of respondents choose the teaching profession and 9.2% of second-cycle studies students. It was found that the number of students who chose the teacher preparation programme at Faculty of Chemistry of the Adam Mickiewicz University has decreased since 5 years.

Keywords: faculty of chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, professional ambitions, students, teacher

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464 Implementation of an Undergraduate Integrated Biology and Chemistry Course

Authors: Jayson G. Balansag


An integrated biology and chemistry (iBC) course for freshmen college students was developed in University of Delaware. This course will prepare students to (1) become interdisciplinary thinkers in the field of biology and (2) collaboratively work with others from multiple disciplines in the future. This paper documents and describes the implementation of the course. The information gathered from reading literature, classroom observations, and interviews were used to carry out the purpose of this paper. The major goal of the iBC course is to align the concepts between Biology and Chemistry, so that students can draw science concepts from both disciplines which they can apply in their interdisciplinary researches. This course is offered every fall and spring semesters of each school year. Students enrolled in Biology are also enrolled in Chemistry during the same semester. The iBC is composed of lectures, laboratories, studio sessions, and workshops and is taught by the faculty from the biology and chemistry departments. In addition, the preceptors, graduate teaching assistants, and studio fellows facilitate the laboratory and studio sessions. These roles are interdependent with each other. The iBC can be used as a model for higher education institutions who wish to implement an integrated biology course.

Keywords: integrated biology and chemistry, integration, interdisciplinary research, new biology, undergraduate science education

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463 Small-Group Case-Based Teaching: Effects on Student Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Attitude toward Chemistry

Authors: Reynante E. Autida, Maria Ana T. Quimbo


The chemistry education curriculum provides an excellent avenue where students learn the principles and concepts in chemistry and at the same time, as a central science, better understand related fields. However, the teaching approach used by teachers affects student learning. Cased-based teaching (CBT) is one of the various forms of inductive method. The teacher starts with specifics then proceeds to the general principles. The students’ role in inductive learning shifts from being passive in the traditional approach to being active in learning. In this paper, the effects of Small-Group Case-Based Teaching (SGCBT) on college chemistry students’ achievement, critical thinking, and attitude toward chemistry including the relationships between each of these variables were determined. A quasi-experimental counterbalanced design with pre-post control group was used to determine the effects of SGCBT on Engineering students of four intact classes (two treatment groups and two control groups) in one of the State Universities in Mindanao. The independent variables are the type of teaching approach (SGCBT versus pure lecture-discussion teaching or PLDT) while the dependent variables are chemistry achievement (exam scores) and scores in critical thinking and chemistry attitude. Both Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and t-tests (within and between groups and gain scores) were used to compare the effects of SGCBT versus PLDT on students’ chemistry achievement, critical thinking, and attitude toward chemistry, while Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships between each of the variables. Results show that the use of SGCBT fosters positive attitude toward chemistry and provides some indications as well on improved chemistry achievement of students compared with PLDT. Meanwhile, the effects of PLDT and SGCBT on critical thinking are comparable. Furthermore, correlational analysis and focus group interviews indicate that the use of SGCBT not only supports development of positive attitude towards chemistry but also improves chemistry achievement of students. Implications are provided in view of the recent findings on SGCBT and topics for further research are presented as well.

Keywords: case-based teaching, small-group learning, chemistry cases, chemistry achievement, critical thinking, chemistry attitude

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462 Assessment of Online Web-Based Learning for Enhancing Student Grades in Chemistry

Authors: Ian Marc Gealon Cabugsa, Eleanor Pastrano Corcino, Gina Lapaza Montalan


This study focused on the effect of Online Web-Learning (OWL) in the performance of the freshmen Civil Engineering Students of Ateneo de Davao University in their Chem 12 subject. The grades of the students that were required to use OWL were compared to students without OWL. The result of the study suggests promising result for the use of OWL in increasing the performance rate of students taking up Chem 12. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the final grade and OWL grade of the students that had OWL. While the majority of the students find OWL to be helpful in supporting their chemistry knowledge needs, most of them still prefer to learn using the traditional face-to-face instruction.

Keywords: chemistry education, enhanced performance, engineering chemistry, online web-based learning

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461 An Approach to Improve Pre University Students' Responsible Environmental Behaviour through Science Writing Heuristic in Malaysia

Authors: Sheila Shamuganathan, Mageswary Karpudewan


This study investigated the effectiveness of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in enhancing matriculation students’ responsible environmental behaviour. For this purpose 207 matriculation students were randomly assigned into experimental (N=118) and control (N=89) group. For the experimental group the chemistry concepts were taught using the instructional approach of green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) while for the control group the same content was taught using green chemistry. The data was analysed using ANCOVA and findings obtained from the quantitative analysis reveals that there is significant changes in responsible environmental behaviour (F 1,204) = 32.13 (ηp² = 0.14) which favours the experimental group. The responses of the qualitative data obtained from an interview with the experimental group also further strengthen and indicated a significant improvement in responsible environmental behaviour. The outcome of the study suggests that using green chemistry integrated with Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) could be an alternative approach to improve students’ responsible environmental behaviour towards the environment.

Keywords: science writing heuristic, green chemistry, pro environmental behaviour, laboratory

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460 A Green Analytical Curriculum for Renewable STEM Education

Authors: Mian Jiang, Zhenyi Wu


We have incorporated green components into existing analytical chemistry curriculum with the aims to present a more environment benign approach in both teaching laboratory and undergraduate research. These include the use of cheap, sustainable, and market-available material; minimized waste disposal, replacement of non-aqueous media; and scale-down in sample/reagent consumption. Model incorporations have covered topics in quantitative chemistry as well as instrumental analysis, lower division as well as upper level, and research in traditional titration, spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, and chromatography. The green embedding has made chemistry more daily life relevance, and application focus. Our approach has the potential to expand into all STEM fields to make renewable, high-impact education experience for undergraduate students.

Keywords: green analytical chemistry, pencil lead, mercury, renewable

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459 Systematic Exploration and Modulation of Nano-Bio Interactions

Authors: Bing Yan


Nanomaterials are widely used in various industrial sectors, biomedicine, and more than 1300 consumer products. Although there is still no standard safety regulation, their potential toxicity is a major concern worldwide. We discovered that nanoparticles target and enter human cells1, perturb cellular signaling pathways2, affect various cell functions3, and cause malfunctions in animals4,5. Because the majority of atoms in nanoparticles are on the surface, chemistry modification on their surface may change their biological properties significantly. We modified nanoparticle surface using nano-combinatorial chemistry library approach6. Novel nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit significantly reduced toxicity6,7, enhance cancer targeting ability8, or re-program cellular signaling machineries7. Using computational chemistry, quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) is established and predictive models have been built to predict biocompatible nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, nanotoxicity, nano-bio, nano-combinatorial chemistry, nanoparticle library

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458 Relative Effectiveness of Inquiry: Approach and Expository Instructional Methods in Fostering Students’ Retention in Chemistry

Authors: Joy Johnbest Egbo


The study was designed to investigate the relative effectiveness of inquiry role approach and expository instructional methods in fostering students’ retention in chemistry. Two research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A quasi-experimental (the non-equivalent pretest, posttest control group) design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised all senior secondary school class two (SS II) students who were offering Chemistry in single sex schools in Enugu Education Zone. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed Chemistry Retention Test (CRT). Relevant data were collected from a sample of one hundred and forty–one (141) students drawn from two secondary schools (1 male and 1 female schools) using simple random sampling technique. A reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained for the instrument using Kuder Richardson formular20 (K-R20). Mean and Standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while two–way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the students taught with Inquiry role approach retained the chemistry concept significantly higher than their counterparts taught with expository method. Female students retained slightly higher than their male counterparts. There is significant interaction between instructional packages and gender on Chemistry students’ retention. It was recommended, among others, that teachers should be encouraged to employ the use of Inquiry-role approach more in the teaching of chemistry and other subjects in general. By so doing, students’ retention of the subject could be increased.

Keywords: inquiry role approach, retention, exposition method, chemistry

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457 Classroom Interaction Patterns as Correlates of Senior Secondary School Achievement in Chemistry in Awka Education Zone

Authors: Emmanuel Nkemakolam Okwuduba, Fransica Chinelo Offiah


The technique of teaching chemistry to students is one of the determining factors towards their achievement. Thus, the study investigated the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and students’ achievement in Chemistry. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of interaction in an observed chemistry classroom, determine the amount of teacher talk, student talk and period of silence and to find out the relationship between them and the mean achievement scores of students. Five research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study was a correlational survey. The sample consisted of 450 (212males and 238 females) senior secondary one students and 12 (5males and 7 females) chemistry teachers drawn from 12 selected secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra state. In each of the 12 selected schools, an intact class was used. Science Interaction Category (SIC) and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) were developed, validated and used for data collection. Each teacher was observed three times and the interaction patterns coded using a coding sheet containing the Science Interaction Category. At the end of the observational period, the Chemistry Achievement Test (for collection of data on students’ achievement in chemistry) was administered on the students. Frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation were used for data analysis. The result showed that the percentages of teacher talk, student talk and silence were 59.6%, 37.6% and 2.8% respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient(r) for teacher talk, student talk and silence were -0.61, 0.76 and-0.18 respectively. The result showed negative and significant relationship between teacher talk and mean achievement scores of students; positive and significant relationship between student talk and mean achievement scores of students but there is no relationship between period of silence and mean achievement scores of students at 0.05 significant levels. The following recommendations were made based on the findings: teachers should establish high level of student talk through initiation and response as it promotes involvement and enhances achievement.

Keywords: academic achievement, chemistry, classroom, interactions patterns

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456 Exploring the Efficacy of Context-Based Instructional Strategy in Fostering Students Achievement in Chemistry

Authors: Charles U. Eze, Joy Johnbest Egbo


The study investigated the effect of Context-Based Instructional Strategy (CBIS) on students’ achievement in chemistry. CBIS was used as an experimental group and expository method (EM) as a control group, sources showed that students poor achievement in chemistry is from teaching strategy adopted by the chemistry teachers. Two research questions were answered, and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested. This strategy recognizes the need for student-centered, relevance of tasks and students’ voice; it also helps students develop creative and critical learning skills. A quasi-experimental (non-equivalent, pretest, posttest control group) design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised all senior secondary class one (SSI) students who were offering chemistry in co-education schools in Agbani Education zone. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed Basic Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT). Relevant data were collected from a sample of SSI chemistry students using purposive random sampling techniques from two co-education schools in Agbani Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. A reliability co-efficient was obtained for the instrument using Kuder-Richardson formula 20. Mean and standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the experimental group taught with context-based instructional strategy (CBIS) obtained a higher mean achievement score than the control group in the post BCAT; male students had higher mean achievement scores than their female counterparts. The difference was significant. It was recommended, among others, that CBIS should be given more emphasis in the training and re-training program of secondary school chemistry teachers.

Keywords: context-based instructional strategy, expository strategy, student-centered

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455 Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Luluah A. Al Jabr


The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions. In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, chemistry textbooks, scientific activities

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454 Representational Conference Profile of Secondary Students in Understanding Selected Chemical Principles

Authors: Ryan Villafuerte Lansangan


Assessing students’ understanding in the microscopic level of an abstract subject like chemistry poses a challenge to teachers. Literature reveals that the use of representations serves as an essential avenue of measuring the extent of understanding in the discipline as an alternative to traditional assessment methods. This undertaking explored the representational competence profile of high school students from the University of Santo Tomas High School in understanding selected chemical principles and correlate this with their academic profile in chemistry based on their performance in the academic achievement examination in chemistry administered by the Center for Education Measurement (CEM). The common misconceptions of the students on the selected chemistry principles based on their representations were taken into consideration as well as the students’ views regarding their understanding of the role of chemical representations in their learning. The students’ level of representation task instrument consisting of the main lessons in chemistry with a corresponding scoring guide was prepared and utilized in the study. The study revealed that most of the students under study are unanimously rated as Level 2 (symbolic level) in terms of their representational competence in understanding the selected chemical principles through the use of chemical representations. Alternative misrepresentations were most observed on the students’ representations on chemical bonding concepts while the concept of chemical equation appeared to be the most comprehensible topic in chemistry for the students. Data implies that teachers’ representations play an important role in helping the student understand the concept in a microscopic level. Results also showed that the academic achievement in the chemistry of the students based on the standardized CEM examination has a significant association with the students’ representational competence. In addition, the students’ responses on the students’ views in chemical representations questionnaire evidently showed a good understanding of what a chemical representation or a mental model is by drawing a negative response that these tools should be an exact replica. Moreover, the students confirmed a greater appreciation that chemical representations are explanatory tools.

Keywords: chemical representations, representational competence, academic profile in chemistry, secondary students

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453 Building in Language Support in a Hong Kong Chemistry Classroom with English as a Medium of Instruction: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Kai Yip Michael Tsang


Science writing has played a crucial part in science assessments. This paper reports a study in an area that has received little research attention – how Language across the Curriculum (LAC, i.e. science language and literacy) learning activities in science lessons can increase the science knowledge development of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in Hong Kong. The data comes from a school-based interventional study in chemistry classrooms, with written data from questionnaires, assessments and teachers’ logs and verbal data from interviews and classroom observations. The effectiveness of the LAC teaching and learning activities in various chemistry classrooms were compared and evaluated, with discussion of some implications. Students in the treatment group with lower achieving students received LAC learning and teaching activities while students in the control group with higher achieving students received conventional learning and teaching activities. After the study, they performed better in control group in formative assessments. Moreover, they had a better attitude to learning chemistry content with a richer language support. The paper concludes that LAC teaching and learning activities yielded positive learning outcomes among chemistry learners with low English ability.

Keywords: science learning and teaching, content and language integrated learning, language across the curriculum, English as a foreign language

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452 Designing the Lesson Instructional Plans for Exploring the STEM Education and Creative Learning Processes to Students' Logical Thinking Abilities with Different Learning Outcomes in Chemistry Classes

Authors: Pajaree Naramitpanich, Natchanok Jansawang, Panwilai Chomchid


The aims of this are compared between the students’ logical thinking abilities of their learning for designing the 5-lesson instructional plans of the 2-instructional methods, namely; the STEM Education and the Creative Learning Process (CLP) for developing students’ logical thinking abilities that a sample consisted of 90 students from two chemistry classes of different learning outcomes in Wapi Phathum School with the cluster random sampling technique was used at the 11th grade level. To administer of their learning environments with the 45-experimenl student group by the STEM Education method and the 45-controlling student group by the Creative Learning Process. These learning different groups were obtained using the 5 instruments; the 5-lesson instructional plans of the STEM Education and the Creative Learning Process to enhance the logical thinking tests on Mineral issue were used. The efficiency of the Creative Learning Processes (CLP) Model and the STEM Education’s innovations of these each five instructional lesson plans based on criteria are higher than of 80/80 standard level with the IOC index from the expert educators. The averages mean scores of students’ learning achievement motives were assessed with the Pre and Post Techniques and Logical Thinking Ability Test (LTAT) and dependent t-test analysis were differentiated between the CLP and the STEM, significantly. Students’ perceptions of their chemistry classroom environment inventories with the MCI with the CLP and the STEM methods also were found, differently. Associations between students’ perceptions of their chemistry classroom learning environment inventories on the CLP Model and the STEM Education learning designs toward their logical thinking abilities toward chemistry, the predictive efficiency of R2 values indicate that 68% and 76% of the variances in students’ logical thinking abilities toward chemistry to their controlling and experimental chemistry classroom learning environmental groups with the MCI were correlated at .05 levels, significantly. Implementations of this result are showed the students’ learning by the CLP of the potential thinking life-changing roles in most their logical thinking abilities that it is revealed that the students perceive their abilities to be highly learning achievement in chemistry group are differentiated with the STEM education of students’ outcomes.

Keywords: design, the lesson instructional plans, the stem education, the creative learning process, logical thinking ability, different, learning outcome, student, chemistry class

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451 Remedying Students' Misconceptions in Learning of Chemical Bonding and Spontaneity through Intervention Discussion Learning Model (IDLM)

Authors: Ihuarulam A. Ikenna


In the past few decades, the field of chemistry education has grown tremendously and researches indicated that after traditional chemistry instruction students often lacked deep conceptual understanding and failed to integrate their ideas into coherent conceptual framework. For several concepts in chemistry, students at all levels have demonstrated difficulty in changing their initial perceptions. Their perceptions are most often wrong and do not agree with correct scientific concepts. This study explored the effectiveness of intervention discussion sections for a college general chemistry course designed to apply research on students preconceptions, knowledge integration and student explanation. Three interventions discussions lasting three hours on bond energy and spontaneity were done tested and intervention (treatment) students’ performances were compared with that of control group which did not use the experimental pedagogy. Results indicated that this instruction which was capable of identifying students' misconceptions, initial conceptions and integrating those ideas into class discussion led to enhanced conceptual understanding and better achievement for the experimental group.

Keywords: remedying, students’ misconceptions, learning, intervention discussion, learning model

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450 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan


Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

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449 Polymer-Nanographite Nanocomposites for Biosensor Applications

Authors: Payal Mazumdar, Sunita Rattan, Monalisa Mukherjee


Polymer nanocomposites are a special class of materials having unique properties and wide application in diverse areas such as EMI shielding, sensors, photovoltaic cells, membrane separation properties, drug delivery etc. Recently the nanocomposites are being investigated for their use in biomedical fields as biosensors. Though nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles have received worldwide attention in the past few years, comparatively less work has been done on nanographite although it has in-plane electrical, thermal and mechanical properties comparable to that of carbon nanotubes. The main challenge in the fabrication of these nanocomposites lies in the establishment of homogeneous dispersion of nanographite in polymer matrix. In the present work, attempts have been made to synthesize the nanocomposites of polystyrene and nanographite using click chemistry. The polymer and the nanographite are functionalized prior to the formation of nanocomposites. The polymer, polystyrene, was functionalized with alkyne moeity and nanographite with azide moiety. The fabricating of the nanocomposites was accomplished through click chemistry using Cu (I)-catalyzed Huisgen dipolar cycloaddition. The functionalization of filler and polymer was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The nanocomposites formed by the click chemistry exhibit better electrical properties and the sensors are evaluated for their application as biosensors.

Keywords: nanocomposites, click chemistry, nanographite, biosensor

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448 Animations for Teaching Food Chemistry: A Design Approach for Linking Chemistry Theory to Everyday Food

Authors: Paulomi (Polly) Burey, Zoe Lynch


In STEM education, students often have difficulty linking static images and words from textbooks or online resources, to the underlying mechanisms of the topic of study. This can often dissuade some students from pursuing study in the physical and chemical sciences. A growing movement in current day students demonstrates that the YouTube generation feel they learn best from video or dynamic, interactive learning tools, and will seek these out as alternatives to their textbooks and the classroom learning environment. Chemistry, and in particular visualization of molecular structures in everyday materials, can prove difficult to comprehend without significant interaction with the teacher of the content and concepts, beyond the timeframe of a typical class. This can cause a learning hurdle for distance education students, and so it is necessary to provide strong electronic tools and resources to aid their learning. As one of the electronic resources, an animation design approach to link everyday materials to their underlying chemistry would be beneficial for student learning, with the focus here being on food. These animations were designed and storyboarded with a scaling approach and commence with a focus on the food material itself and its component parts. This is followed by animated transitions to its underlying microstructure and identifying features, and finally showing the molecules responsible for these microstructural features. The animation ends with a reverse transition back through the molecular structure, microstructure, all the way back to the original food material, and also animates some reactions that may occur during food processing to demonstrate the purpose of the underlying chemistry and how it affects the food we eat. Using this cyclical approach of linking students’ existing knowledge of food to help guide them to understanding more complex knowledge, and then reinforcing their learning by linking back to their prior knowledge again, enhances student understanding. Food is also an ideal material system for students to interact with, in a hands-on manner to further reinforce their learning. These animations were launched this year in a 2nd year University Food Chemistry course with improved learning outcomes for the cohort.

Keywords: chemistry, food science, future pedagogy, STEM Education

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447 Integrations of the Instructional System Design for Students Learning Achievement Motives and Science Attitudes with Stem Educational Model on Stoichiometry Issue in Chemistry Classes with Different Genders

Authors: Tiptunya Duangsri, Panwilai Chomchid, Natchanok Jansawang


This research study was to investigate of education decisions must be made which a part of it should be passed on to future generations as obligatory for all members of a chemistry class for students who will prepare themselves for a special position. The descriptions of instructional design were provided and the recent criticisms are discussed. This research study to an outline of an integrative framework for the description of information and the instructional design model give structure to negotiate a semblance of conscious understanding. The aims of this study are to describe the instructional design model for comparisons between students’ genders of their effects on STEM educational learning achievement motives to their science attitudes and logical thinking abilities with a sample size of 18 students at the 11th grade level with the cluster random sampling technique in Mahawichanukul School were designed. The chemistry learning environment was administered with the STEM education method. To build up the 5-instrument lesson instructional plan issues were instructed innovations, the 30-item Logical Thinking Test (LTT) on 5 scales, namely; Inference, Recognition of Assumptions, Deduction, Interpretation and Evaluation scales was used. Students’ responses of their perceptions with the Test Of Chemistry-Related Attitude (TOCRA) were assessed of their attitude in science toward chemistry. The validity from Index Objective Congruence value (IOC) checked by five expert specialist educator in two chemistry classroom targets in STEM education, the E1/E2 process were equaled evidence of 84.05/81.42 which results based on criteria are higher than of 80/80 standard level with the IOC from the expert educators. Comparisons between students’ learning achievement motives with STEM educational model on stoichiometry issue in chemistry classes with different genders were differentiated at evidence level of .05, significantly. Associations between students’ learning achievement motives on their posttest outcomes and logical thinking abilities, the predictive efficiency (R2) values indicate that 69% and 70% of the variances in different male and female student groups of their logical thinking abilities. The predictive efficiency (R2) values indicate that 73%; and 74% of the variances in different male and female student groups of their science attitudes toward chemistry were associated. Statistically significant on students’ perceptions of their chemistry learning classroom environment and their science attitude toward chemistry when using the MCI and TOCRA, the predictive efficiency (R2) values indicated that 72% and 74% of the variances in different male and female student groups of their chemistry classroom climate, consequently. Suggestions that supporting chemistry or science teachers from science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in addressing complex teaching and learning issues related instructional design to develop, teach, and assess traditional are important strategies with a focus on STEM education instructional method.

Keywords: development, the instructional design model, students learning achievement motives, science attitudes with STEM educational model, stoichiometry issue, chemistry classes, genders

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
446 Material Chemistry Level Deformation and Failure in Cementitious Materials

Authors: Ram V. Mohan, John Rivas-Murillo, Ahmed Mohamed, Wayne D. Hodo


Cementitious materials, an excellent example of highly complex, heterogeneous material systems, are cement-based systems that include cement paste, mortar, and concrete that are heavily used in civil infrastructure; though commonly used are one of the most complex in terms of the material morphology and structure than most materials, for example, crystalline metals. Processes and features occurring at the nanometer sized morphological structures affect the performance, deformation/failure behavior at larger length scales. In addition, cementitious materials undergo chemical and morphological changes gaining strength during the transient hydration process. Hydration in cement is a very complex process creating complex microstructures and the associated molecular structures that vary with hydration. A fundamental understanding can be gained through multi-scale level modeling for the behavior and properties of cementitious materials starting from the material chemistry level atomistic scale to further explore their role and the manifested effects at larger length and engineering scales. This predictive modeling enables the understanding, and studying the influence of material chemistry level changes and nanomaterial additives on the expected resultant material characteristics and deformation behavior. Atomistic-molecular dynamic level modeling is required to couple material science to engineering mechanics. Starting at the molecular level a comprehensive description of the material’s chemistry is required to understand the fundamental properties that govern behavior occurring across each relevant length scale. Material chemistry level models and molecular dynamics modeling and simulations are employed in our work to describe the molecular-level chemistry features of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), one of the key hydrated constituents of cement paste, their associated deformation and failure. The molecular level atomic structure for CSH can be represented by Jennite mineral structure. Jennite has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of the CSH gel formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. This paper will focus on our recent work on the shear and compressive deformation and failure behavior of CSH represented by Jennite mineral structure that has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of CSH formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. The deformation and failure behavior under shear and compression loading deformation in traditional hydrated CSH; effect of material chemistry changes on the predicted stress-strain behavior, transition from linear to non-linear behavior and identify the on-set of failure based on material chemistry structures of CSH Jennite and changes in its chemistry structure will be discussed.

Keywords: cementitious materials, deformation, failure, material chemistry modeling

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445 Comparisons between Student Leaning Achievements and Their Problem Solving Skills on Stoichiometry Issue with the Think-Pair-Share Model and Stem Education Method

Authors: P. Thachitasing, N. Jansawang, W. Rakrai, T. Santiboon


The aim of this study is to investigate of the comparing the instructional design models between the Think-Pair-Share and Conventional Learning (5E Inquiry Model) Processes to enhance students’ learning achievements and their problem solving skills on stoichiometry issue for concerning the 2-instructional method with a sample consisted of 80 students in 2 classes at the 11th grade level in Chaturaphak Phiman Ratchadaphisek School. Students’ different learning outcomes in chemistry classes with the cluster random sampling technique were used. Instructional Methods designed with the 40-experimenl student group by Think-Pair-Share process and the 40-controlling student group by the conventional learning (5E Inquiry Model) method. These learning different groups were obtained using the 5 instruments; the 5-lesson instructional plans of Think-Pair-Share and STEM Education Method, students’ learning achievements and their problem solving skills were assessed with the pretest and posttest techniques, students’ outcomes of their instructional the Think-Pair-Share (TPSM) and the STEM Education Methods were compared. Statistically significant was differences with the paired t-test and F-test between posttest and pretest technique of the whole students in chemistry classes were found, significantly. Associations between student learning outcomes in chemistry and two methods of their learning to students’ learning achievements and their problem solving skills also were found. The use of two methods for this study is revealed that the students perceive their learning achievements to their problem solving skills to be differently learning achievements in different groups are guiding practical improvements in chemistry classrooms to assist teacher in implementing effective approaches for improving instructional methods. Students’ learning achievements of mean average scores to their controlling group with the Think-Pair-Share Model (TPSM) are lower than experimental student group for the STEM education method, evidence significantly. The E1/E2 process were revealed evidence of 82.56/80.44, and 83.02/81.65 which results based on criteria are higher than of 80/80 standard level with the IOC, consequently. The predictive efficiency (R2) values indicate that 61% and 67% and indicate that 63% and 67% of the variances in chemistry classes to their learning achievements on posttest in chemistry classes of the variances in students’ problem solving skills to their learning achievements to their chemistry classrooms on Stoichiometry issue with the posttest were attributable to their different learning outcomes for the TPSM and STEMe instructional methods.

Keywords: comparisons, students’ learning achievements, think-pare-share model (TPSM), stem education, problem solving skills, chemistry classes, stoichiometry issue

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444 How Context and Problem Based Learning Effects Students Behaviors in Teaching Thermodynamics

Authors: Mukadder Baran, Mustafa Sözbilir


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicabillity of the Context- and Problem-Based Learning (CPBL) in general chemistry course to the subject of “Thermodynamics” but also the influence of CPBL on students’ achievement, retention of knowledge, their interest, attitudes, motivation and problem-solving skills. The study group included 13 freshman students who were selected with the sampling method appropriate to the purpose among those taking the course of General Chemistry within the Program of Medical Laboratory Techniques at Hakkari University. The application was carried out in the Spring Term of the academic year of 2012-2013. As the data collection tool, Lesson Observation form were used. In the light of the observations held, it was revealed that CPBL increased the students’ intragroup and intergroup communication skills as well as their self-confidence and developed their skills in time management, presentation, reporting, and technology use; and that they were able to relate chemistry to daily life. Depending on these findings, it could be suggested that the area of use of CPBL be widened; that seminars related to constructive methods be organized for teachers. In this way, it is believed that students will not be passive in the group any longer. In addition, it was concluded that in order to avoid the negative effects of the socio-cultural structure on the education system, research should be conducted in places where there is socio-cultural obstacles, and appropriate solutions should be suggested and put into practice.

Keywords: chemistry, education, science, context-based learning

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443 Podcasting: A Tool for an Enhanced Learning Experience of Introductory Courses to Science and Engineering Students

Authors: Yaser E. Greish, Emad F. Hindawy, Maryam S. Al Nehayan


Introductory courses such as General Chemistry I, General Physics I and General Biology need special attention as students taking these courses are usually at their first year of the university. In addition to the language barrier for most of them, they also face other difficulties if these elementary courses are taught in the traditional way. Changing the routine method of teaching of these courses is therefore mandated. In this regard, podcasting of chemistry lectures was used as an add-on to the traditional and non-traditional methods of teaching chemistry to science and non-science students. Podcasts refer to video files that are distributed in a digital format through the Internet using personal computers or mobile devices. Pedagogical strategy is another way of identifying podcasts. Three distinct teaching approaches are evident in the current literature and include receptive viewing, problem-solving, and created video podcasts. The digital format and dispensing of video podcasts have stabilized over the past eight years, the type of podcasts vary considerably according to their purpose, degree of segmentation, pedagogical strategy, and academic focus. In this regard, the whole syllabus of 'General Chemistry I' course was developed as podcasts and were delivered to students throughout the semester. Students used the podcasted files extensively during their studies, especially as part of their preparations for exams. Feedback of students strongly supported the idea of using podcasting as it reflected its effect on the overall understanding of the subject, and a consequent improvement of their grades.

Keywords: podcasting, introductory course, interactivity, flipped classroom

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442 Nano-Zinc Oxide: A Powerful and Recyclable Catalyst for Chemospecific Synthesis of Dicoumarols Based on Aryl Glyoxals

Authors: F. Jafari, S. GharehzadehShirazi, S. Khodabakhshi


An efficient, simple, and environmentally benign procedure for the one-pot synthesis of dicoumarols was reported. The reaction entails the condensation of aryl glyoxals and 4-hydroxyxoumarin in the presence of catalytic amount of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as recyclable catalyst in aqueous media. High product yields and use of clean conditions are important factors of green chemistry.Part of our continued interest to achieve high atom economic reactions by the use safe catalysts. The reaction mixture was refluxed with catalytic amount (3 mol%) of zinc oxide nanoparticles.Reducing the amount of toxic waste and byproducts arising from chemical reactions is an important issue in the context of green chemistry. In comparison with commonly organic solvents, the aqueous media is cheaper and more environmentally friendly. Avoiding the use of organic solvents is an important way to prevent waste in chemical processes. In the context of green and sustainable chemistry, one ofthe most promising approaches is the use of water as the reaction media. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition that water is an attractive media for manyorganic reactions. Using water continues to attract wide attention among synthetic chemists in the design of new synthetic methods.

Keywords: zinc oxide, dicoumarol, aryl glyoxal, green chemistry, catalyst

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441 Recovery from Detrimental pH Troughs in a Moorland River Using Monitored Calcium Carbonate Introductions

Authors: Lauren Dawson, Sean Comber, Richard Sandford, Alan Tappin, Bruce Stockley


The West Dart River is underperforming for Salmon (Salmo salar) survival rates due to acidified pH troughs under the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). These troughs have been identified as being caused by historic acid rain pollution which is being held in situ by peat bog presence at site and released during flushing events. Natural recovery has been deemed unlikely by the year 2020 using steady state water chemistry models and therefore a program of monitored calcium carbonate (CaCO3) introductions are being conducted to eliminate these troughs, which can drop to pH 2.93 (salmon survival – pH 5.5). The river should be naturally acidic (pH 5.5-6) due to the granite geology of Dartmoor and therefore the CaCO3 introductions are under new methodology (the encasing of the CaCO3 in permeable sacks) to ensure removal should the water pH rise above neutral levels. The water chemistry and ecology are undergoing comprehensive monitoring, including pH and turbidity levels, dissolved organic carbon and aluminum concentration and speciation, while the aquatic biota is being used to assess the potential water chemistry changes. While this project is ongoing, results from the preliminary field trial show only a temporary, localized increase in pH following CaCO3 introductions into the water column. However, changes to the water chemistry have only been identified in the West Dart after methodology adjustments to account for flow rates and spate-dissolution, though no long-term changes have so far been found in the ecology of the river. However, this is not necessarily a negative factor, as the aim of the study is to protect the current ecological communities and the natural pH of the river while remediating only the detrimental pH troughs.

Keywords: anthropogenic acidification recovery, calcium carbonate introductions, ecology monitoring, water chemistry monitoring

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440 Variability of Physico-Chemical and Carbonate Chemistry of Seawater in Selected Portions of the Central Atlantic Coastline of Ghana

Authors: Robert Kwame Kpaliba, Dennis Kpakpor Adotey, Yaw Serfor-Armah


Increase in the oceanic carbon dioxide absorbance from the atmosphere due to climate change has led to appreciable change in the chemistry of the oceans. The change in oceanic pH referred to as ocean acidification poses multiple threats and stresses on marine species, biodiversity, goods and services, and livelihoods. Marine ecosystems are continuously threatened by plethora of natural and anthropogenic stressors including carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions causing a lot of changes which has not been experienced for approximately 60 years. Little has been done in Africa as a whole and Ghana in particular to improve the understanding of the variations of the carbonate chemistry of seawater and the biophysical impacts of ocean acidification on security of seafood, nutrition, climate and environmental change. There is, therefore, the need for regular monitoring of carbonate chemistry of seawater along Ghana’s coastline to generate reliable data to aid marine policy formulation. Samples of seawater were collected thrice every month for a one-year period from five study sites for the various parameters to be analyzed. Analysis of the measured physico-chemical and the carbonate chemistry parameters was done using simple statistics. Correlation test and ANOVA were run on both of the physico-chemical and carbonate chemistry parameters. The carbonate chemistry parameters were measured using computer software programme (CO₂cal v4.0.9) except total alkalinity and pH. The study assessed the variability of seawater carbonate chemistry in selected portions of the Central Atlantic Coastline of Ghana (Tsokomey/Bortianor, Kokrobitey, Gomoa Nyanyanor, Gomoa Fetteh, and Senya Breku landing beaches) over a 1-year period (June 2016–May 2017). For physico-chemical parameters, there was insignificant variation in nitrate (NO₃⁻) (1.62 - 2.3 mg/L), ammonia (NH₃) (1.52 - 2.05 mg/L), and salinity (sal) (34.50 - 34.74 ppt). Carbonate chemistry parameters for all the five study sites showed significant variation: partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO₂) (414.08-715.5 µmol/kg), carbonate ion (CO₃²⁻) (115-157.92 µmol/kg), pH (7.9-8.12), total alkalinity (TA) (1711.8-1986 µmol/kg), total carbon dioxide (TCO₂) (1512.1 - 1792 µmol/kg), dissolved carbon dioxide (CO₂aq) (10.97-18.92 µmol/kg), Revelle Factor (RF) (9.62-11.84), aragonite (ΩAr) (0.75-1.48) and calcite (ΩCa) (1.08-2.14). The study revealed that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature did not have a significant effect on each other (r² = 0.31) (p-value = 0.0717). There was an appreciable effect of pH on dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.921) (p-value = 0.0000). The variation between total alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide was appreciable (r² = 0.731) (p-value = 0.0008). There was a significant correlation between total carbon dioxide and dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.852) (p-value = 0.0000). Revelle factor correlated strongly with dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.982) (p-value = 0.0000). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide corresponds strongly with atmospheric carbon dioxide (r² = 0.9999) (p-value = 0.00000).

Keywords: carbonate chemistry, seawater, central atlantic coastline, Ghana, ocean acidification

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439 Thermochemical Study of the Degradation of the Panels of Wings in a Space Shuttle by Utilization of HSC Chemistry Software and Its Database

Authors: Ahmed Ait Hou


The wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle are fabricated from a reinforced carbon/carbon material. This material attains its durability from a diffusion coating of silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass sealant. During re-entry into the atmosphere, this material is subject to an oxidizing high-temperature environment. The use of thermochemical calculations resulting at the HSC CHEMISTRY software and its database allows us to interpret the phenomena of oxidation and chloridation observed on the wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle during its mission in space. First study is the monitoring of the oxidation reaction of SiC. It has been demonstrated that thermal oxidation of the SiC gives the two compounds SiO₂(s) and CO(g). In the extreme conditions of very low oxygen partial pressures and high temperatures, there is a reaction between SiC and SiO₂, leading to SiO(g) and CO(g). We had represented the phase stability diagram of Si-C-O system calculated by the use of the HSC Chemistry at 1300°C. The principal characteristic of this diagram of predominance is the line of SiC + SiO₂ coexistence. Second study is the monitoring of the chloridation reaction of SiC. The other problem encountered in addition to oxidation is the phenomenon of chloridation due to the presence of NaCl. Indeed, after many missions, the leading edge wing surfaces have exhibited small pinholes. We have used the HSC Chemistry database to analyze these various reactions. Our calculations concorde with the phenomena we announced in research work resulting in NASA LEWIS Research center.

Keywords: thermochchemicals calculations, HSC software, oxidation and chloridation, wings in space

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438 Characteristics and Item Parameters Fitness on Chemistry Teacher-Made Test Instrument

Authors: Rizki Nor Amelia, Farida A. Setiawati


This study aimed to: (1) describe the characteristics of teacher-made test instrument used to measure the ability of students’chemistry, and (2) identify the presence of the compability difficulty level set by teachers to difficulty level by empirical results. Based on these objectives, this study was a descriptive research. The analysis in this study used the Rasch model and Chi-square statistics. Analysis using Rasch Model was based on the response patterns of high school students to the teacher-made test instrument on chemistry subject Academic Year 2015/2016 in the Yogyakarta. The sample of this research were 358 students taken by cluster random sampling technique. The analysis showed that: (1) a teacher-made tests instrument has a medium on the mean difficulty level. This instrument is capable to measure the ability on the interval of -0,259 ≤ θ ≤ 0,659 logit. Maximum Test Information Function obtained at 18.187 on the ability +0,2 logit; (2) 100% items categorized either as easy or difficult by rasch model is match with the teachers’ judgment; while 37 items are categorized according to rasch model which 8.10% and 10.81% categorized as easy and difficult items respectively according to the teachers, the others are medium categorized. Overall, the distribution of the level of difficulty formulated by the teachers has the distinction (not match) to the level of difficulty based on the empirical results.

Keywords: chemistry, items parameter fitness, Rasch model, teacher-made test

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