Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6632

Search results for: alkali treatment

6632 Determination of Alkali Treatment Conditions Effects That Influence the Variability of Kenaf Fiber Mean Cross-Sectional Area

Authors: Mohd Yussni Hashim, Mohd Nazrul Roslan, Shahruddin Mahzan Mohd Zin, Saparudin Ariffin

Abstract:

Fiber cross-sectional area value is a crucial factor in determining the strength properties of natural fiber. Furthermore, unlike synthetic fiber, a diameter and cross-sectional area of natural fiber has a large variation along and between the fibers. This study aims to determine the main and interaction effects of alkali treatment conditions that influence kenaf bast fiber mean cross-sectional area. Three alkali treatment conditions at two different levels were selected. The conditions setting were alkali concentrations at two and ten w/v %; fiber immersed temperature at room temperature and 1000C; and fiber immersed duration for 30 and 480 minute. Untreated kenaf fiber was used as a control unit. Kenaf bast fiber bundle mounting tab was prepared according to ASTM C1557-03. The cross-sectional area was measured using a Leica video analyzer. The study result showed that kenaf fiber bundle mean cross-sectional area was reduced 6.77% to 29.88% after alkali treatment. From the analysis of variance, it shows that the interaction of alkali concentration and immersed time has a higher magnitude at 0.1619 compared to alkali concentration and immersed temperature interaction that was 0.0896. For the main effect, alkali concentration factor contributes to the higher magnitude at 0.1372 which indicated the decrease pattern of variability when the level changed from lower to the higher level. Then, it was followed by immersed temperature at 0.1261 and immersed time at 0.0696 magnitudes.

Keywords: natural fiber, kenaf bast fiber bundles, alkali treatment, cross-sectional area

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6631 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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6630 Safe Disposal of Pyrite Rich Waste Rock Using Alkali Phosphate Treatment

Authors: Jae Gon Kim, Yongchan Cho, Jungwha Lee

Abstract:

Acid rock drainage (ARD) is generated by the oxidation of pyrite (FeS₂) contained in the excavated rocks upon its exposure to atmosphere and is an environmental concern at construction site due to its high acidity and high concentration of toxic elements. We developed the safe disposal method with the reduction of ARD generation by an alkali phosphate treatment. A pyrite rich andesite was collected from a railway construction site. The collected rock sample was crushed to be less than 3/8 inches in diameter using a jaw crusher. The crushed rock was filled in an acryl tube with 20 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Two treatments for the ARD reduction were conducted with duplicates: 1) the addition of 10mM KH₂PO₄_3% NaHCO₃ and 2) the addition of 10mM KH₂PO₄_3% NaHCO₃ and ordinary portland cement (OPC) on the top of the column. After the treatments, 500 ml of distilled water added to each column for every week for 3 weeks and then the column was flushed with 1,500 ml of distilled water in the 4th week. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), concentrations of anions and cations of the leachates were monitored for 10 months. The pH of the leachates from the untreated column showed 2.1-3.7, but the leachates from the columns treated with the alkali phosphate solution with or without the OPC addition showed pH 6.7–8.9. The leachates from the treated columns had much lower concentrations of SO₄²⁻ and toxic elements such as Al, Mn, Fe and heavy metals than those from the untreated columns. However, the leachates from the treated columns had a higher As concentration than those from the untreated columns. There was no significant difference in chemical property between the leachates from the treated columns with and without the OPC addition. The chemistry of leachates indicates that the alkali phosphate treatment decreased the oxidation of sulfide and neutralized the acidic pore water. No significant effect of the OPC addition on the leachate chemistry has shown during 10-month experiment. However, we expect a positive effect of the OPC addition on the reduction of ARD generation in terms of long period. According to the results of this experiment, the alkali phosphate treatment of sulfide rich rock can be a promising technology for the safe disposal method with the ARD reduction.

Keywords: acid rock drainage, alkali phosphate treatment, pyrite rich rock, safe disposal

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6629 Investigation of Alfa Fibers Reinforced Epoxy-Amine Composites Properties

Authors: Amar Boukerrou, Ouerdia Belhadj, Dalila Hammiche, Jean Francois Gerard, Jannick Rumeau

Abstract:

The main goal of this study is the investigation of alfa fiber content, treated with alkali treatment, on the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-amine matrix-based composites. The fibers were treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide solution and varied between 10% to 30% weight fractions. The tensile, flexural, and hardness tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of composites. The results show those composites’ mechanical properties are higher than the neat epoxy-amine. It was noticed that the alkali treatment is more effective in the case of the tensile and flexural modulus than the tensile and flexural strength. The decline of both the tensile and flexural behavior of all composites with the increasing of the filler content was due probably to the random dispersion of the fibers in the epoxy resin The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was employed to analyze the chemical structure of epoxy resin before and after curing with amine hardener. FTIR and DSC analysis confirmed that epoxy resin was completely cured with amine hardener at room temperature. SEM analysis has highlighted the microstructure of epoxy matrix and its composites.

Keywords: alfa fiber, epoxy resin, alkali treatment, mechanical properties

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6628 Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: alkali treatment, HZSM-5, methanol-to-propylene, synthesis condition

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6627 Enhance Biogas Production by Enzymatic Pre-Treatment from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: M. S. Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam

Abstract:

To enhance biogas production through anaerobic digestion, the application of various type of pre-treatment method has some limitations in terms of sustainable environmental management. Many studies on pretreatments especially chemical and physical processes are carried out to evaluate the anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production. Among the pretreatment methods acid and alkali pre-treatments gained the highest importance. Previous studies have showed that although acid and alkali pretreatment has significant effect on degradation of biomass, these methods have some negative impact on environment due to their hazard in nature while enzymatic pre-treatment is environmentally friendly. One of the constrains to use of enzyme in pretreatment process for biogas production is high cost which is currently focused to reduce cost through fermentation of waste-based media. As such palm oil mill effluent (POME) as an abundant resource generated during palm oil processing at mill is being used a potential fermentation media for enzyme production. This low cost of enzyme could be an alternative to biogas pretreatment process. This review is to focus direct application of enzyme as enzymatic pre-treatment on POME to enhanced production of biogas.

Keywords: POME, enzymatic pre-treatment, biogas, lignocellulosic biomass, anaerobic digestion

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6626 Optimization of Alkali Silicate Glass Heat Treatment for the Improvement of Thermal Expansion and Flexural Strength

Authors: Stephanie Guerra-Arias, Stephani Nevarez, Calvin Stewart, Rachel Grodsky, Denis Eichorst

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to describe the framework for optimizing the heat treatment of alkali silicate glasses, to enhance the performance of hermetic seals in extreme environments. When connectors are exposed to elevated temperatures, residual stresses develop due to the mismatch of thermal expansions between the glass, metal pin, and metal shell. Excessive thermal expansion mismatch compromises the reliability of hermetic seals. In this study, a series of heat treatment schedules will be performed on two commercial sealing glasses (one conventional sealing glass and one crystallizable sealing glass) using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) will be measured pre- and post-heat treatment using thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Afterwards, the flexural strength of the specimen will be measured using a four-point bend fixture mounted in a static universal testing machine. The measured material properties will be statistically analyzed using MiniTab software to determine which factors of the heat treatment process have a strong correlation to the coefficient of thermal expansion and/or flexural strength. Finally, a heat-treatment will be designed and tested to ensure the optimal performance of the hermetic seals in connectors.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, design of experiment, hermetic connectors, material characterization

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6625 Modification of Date Palm Leaflets Fibers Used as Thermoplastic Reinforcement

Authors: K. Almi, S.Lakel, A. Benchabane, A. Kriker

Abstract:

The fiber–matrix compatibility can be improved if suitable enforcements are chosen. Whenever the reinforcements have more thermal stability, they can resist to the main processes for wood–thermoplastic composites. This paper is an investigation of effect of different treatment process on the mechanical proprieties and on the thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers with a view to improve the date palm fiber proprieties used as reinforcement of thermoplastic materials which main processes require extrusion, hot press. To compare the effect of alkali and acid treatment on the date palm leaflets fiber properties, different treatment were used such as Sodium hydroxide NaOH solution, aluminium chloride AlCl3 and acid treatment with HCL solution. All treatments were performed at 70°C for 4h and 48 h. The mechanical performance (tensile strength and elongation) is affected by immersion time in alkaline and acid solutions. The reduction of the tensile strength and elongation of fibers at 48h was higher in acid treatment than in alkali treatment at high concentration. No significant differences were observed in mechanical and thermal proprieties of raw fibers and fibers submerged in AlCl3 at low concentration 1% for 48h. Fibers treated by NaOH at 6% for 4h showed significant increase in the mechanical proprieties and thermal stability of date palm leaflets fibers. Hence, soda treatment is necessary to improve the fibers proprieties and consequently optimize the composite performance.

Keywords: date palm fibers, surface treatments, thermoplastic composites, thermal analysis

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6624 The Effectschemical Treatment on Alkyl Phenol Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Authors: Rajesh Panda, Jimi Tjong, Sanjay K. Nayak, Mohini M. Sain

Abstract:

The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment of sisal fibre on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of bio based epoxy/fibre composites. The composite samples were manufactured through a vacuum infusion process by adding alkyl phenols from cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL). Changes in the chemical structure of the sisal fibres resulting from the treatments were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Both alkali and silane treatments produced enhancements in the mechanical properties of sisal fibre bundles. The alkali treatment, when combined with the silane treatment, the mechanical properties of epoxy composites notably improved (13%) in comparison to untreated sisal fibre reinforced composites.This was attributed to an enhanced fibre/matrix interface. The incorporation of CSNL into the sisal/epoxy composite enhanced the fibre-matrix interfacial properties because of the addition of -OH groups to the epoxy matrix. The incorporation of sisal fibre imparts stiffness to the epoxy matrix.

Keywords: phenalkamine, sisal fiber, vacuum infusion, cashew nutshell liquid, cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL)

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6623 Flexural Analysis of Palm Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Matrix Composite

Authors: G.Venkatachalam, Gautham Shankar, Dasarath Raghav, Krishna Kuar, Santhosh Kiran, Bhargav Mahesh

Abstract:

Uncertainty in the availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment-friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as a reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

Keywords: Adhesion, CNSL, Flexural Analysis, Hybrid Matrix Composite, Palm Fiber

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6622 Effect of Particle Size on Alkali-Activation of Slag

Authors: E. Petrakis, V. Karmali, K. Komnitsas

Abstract:

In this study grinding experiments were performed in a laboratory ball mill using Polish ferronickel slag in order to study the effect of the particle size on alkali activation and the properties of the produced alkali activated materials (AAMs). In this regard, the particle size distribution and the specific surface area of the grinding products in relation to grinding time were assessed. The experimental results show that products with high compressive strength, e.g. higher than 60 MPa, can be produced when the slag median size decreased from 39.9 μm to 11.9 μm. Also, finer fractions are characterized by higher reactivity and result in the production of AAMs with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

Keywords: alkali activation, compressive strength, grinding time, particle size distribution, slag, structural integrity

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6621 Composite Materials from Beer Bran Fibers and Polylactic Acid: Characterization and Properties

Authors: Camila Hurtado, Maria A. Morales, Diego Torres, L.H. Reyes, Alejandro Maranon, Alicia Porras

Abstract:

This work presents the physical and chemical characterization of beer brand fibers and the properties of novel composite materials made of these fibers and polylactic acid (PLA). Treated and untreated fibers were physically characterized in terms of their moisture content (ASTM D1348), density, and particle size (ASAE S319.2). A chemical analysis following TAPPI standards was performed to determine ash, extractives, lignin, and cellulose content on fibers. Thermal stability was determined by TGA analysis, and an FTIR was carried out to check the influence of the alkali treatment in fiber composition. An alkali treatment with NaOH (5%) of fibers was performed for 90 min, with the objective to improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix in composites. Composite materials based on either treated or untreated beer brand fibers and polylactic acid (PLA) were developed characterized in tension (ASTM D638), bending (ASTM D790) and impact (ASTM D256). Before composites manufacturing, PLA and brand beer fibers (10 wt.%) were mixed in a twin extruder with a temperature profile between 155°C and 180°C. Coupons were manufactured by compression molding (110 bar) at 190°C. Physical characterization showed that alkali treatment does not affect the moisture content (6.9%) and the density (0.48 g/cm³ for untreated fiber and 0.46 g/cm³ for the treated one). Chemical and FTIR analysis showed a slight decrease in ash and extractives. Also, a decrease of 47% and 50% for lignin and hemicellulose content was observed, coupled with an increase of 71% for cellulose content. Fiber thermal stability was improved with the alkali treatment at about 10°C. Tensile strength of composites was found to be between 42 and 44 MPa with no significant statistical difference between coupons with either treated or untreated fibers. However, compared to neat PLA, composites with beer bran fibers present a decrease in tensile strength of 27%. Young modulus increases by 10% with treated fiber, compared to neat PLA. Flexural strength decreases in coupons with treated fiber (67.7 MPa), while flexural modulus increases (3.2 GPa) compared to neat PLA (83.3 MPa and 2.8 GPa, respectively). Izod impact test results showed an improvement of 99.4% in coupons with treated fibers - compared with neat PLA.

Keywords: beer bran, characterization, green composite, polylactic acid, surface treatment

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6620 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal

Abstract:

Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

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6619 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha

Abstract:

Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: composites, acetylation, natural fiber, surface treatment

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6618 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansion

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6617 Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash for the Synthesis of Zeolite: Effects of Different Operation Conditions

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yi-Jie Lin

Abstract:

This study tries to reuse the fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) for the synthesis of zeolites. The fly ashes were treated with NaOH alkali fusion at different temperatures for 40 mins and then synthesized the zeolites with hydrothermal method at 105oC for different operation times. The effects of different operation conditions and the optimum synthesis parameters were explored. The specific surface area, surface morphology, species identification, adsorption capacity, and the reuse potentials of the synthesized zeolites were analyzed and evaluated. Experimental results showed that the optimum operation conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from the mixed fly ash were Si/Al=20, alkali/ash=1.5, alkali fusion reaction with NaOH at 800oC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105oC for 24 hr, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105oC for 48 hr. The largest specific surface area of synthesized zeolite could be increased to 943.05m2/g. The influence of different operation parameters on the synthesis of zeolite from mixed fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al > hydrolysis L/S> hydrothermal time > alkali fusion temperature > alkali/ash ratio. The XRD patterns of synthesized zeolites were identified to be similar with the ZSM-23 zeolite. The adsorption capacities of synthesized zeolite for pollutants were increased as rising the specific surface area of synthesized zeolite. In summary, MSWI fly ash can be treated and reused to synthesize the zeolite with high specific surface area by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal method. The zeolite can be reuse for the adsorption of various pollutants. They have great potential for development.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

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6616 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: Muhammet M. Erdem, Erdoğan Özbay, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı

Abstract:

In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rheology, yield stress, plastic viscosity

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6615 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

Abstract:

Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

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6614 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Yi-Jie Lin, Jyh-Cherng Chen

Abstract:

The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

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6613 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar

Abstract:

Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: hybrid alkaline cements, compressive strength, efflorescence, SEM, ITZ

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6612 Kinetic Studies of Bioethanol Production from Salt-Pretreated Sugarcane Leaves

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley, E. B. Gueguim Kana

Abstract:

This study examines the kinetics of S. cerevisiae BY4743 growth and bioethanol production from sugarcane leaf waste (SLW), utilizing two different optimized pretreatment regimes; under two fermentation modes: steam salt-alkali filtered enzymatic hydrolysate (SSA-F), steam salt-alkali unfiltered (SSA-U), microwave salt-alkali filtered (MSA-F) and microwave salt-alkali unfiltered (MSA-U). The kinetic coefficients were determined by fitting the Monod, modified Gompertz, and logistic models to the experimental data with high coefficients of determination R² > 0.97. A maximum specific growth rate (µₘₐₓ) of 0.153 h⁻¹ was obtained under SSA-F and SSA-U whereas, 0.150 h⁻¹ was observed with MSA-F and MSA-U. SSA-U gave a potential maximum bioethanol concentration (Pₘ) of 31.06 g/L compared to 30.49, 23.26 and 21.79g/L for SSA-F, MSA-F and MSA-U respectively. An insignificant difference was observed in the μmax and Pm for the filtered and unfiltered enzymatic hydrolysate for both SSA and MSA pretreatments, thus potentially reducing a unit operation. These findings provide significant insights for process scale up.

Keywords: lignocellulosic bioethanol, microwave pretreatment, sugarcane leaves, kinetics

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6611 Comparison of Different Activators Impact on the Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites

Authors: Laura Dembovska, Ina Pundiene, Diana Bajare

Abstract:

Alkali-activated aluminium-silicate composites (AASC) can be used in the production of innovative materials with a wide range of properties and applications. AASC are associated with low CO₂ emissions; in the production process, it is possible to use industrial by-products and waste, thereby minimizing the use of a non-renewable natural resource. This study deals with the preparation of heat-resistant porous AASC based on chamotte for high-temperature applications up to 1200°C. Different fillers, aluminium scrap recycling waste as pores forming agent and alkali activation with 6M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution were used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is widely used for the synthesis of AASC compared to potassium hydroxide (KOH), but comparison of using different activator for geopolymer synthesis is not well established. Changes in chemical composition of AASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analyzed by using DTA, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of AASC was determined by XRD. Lightweight porous AASC activated with NaOH have been obtained with density in range from 600 to 880 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.8 to 2.7 MPa, but for AAM activated with KOH density was in range from 750 to 850 kg/m³ and compressive strength from 0.7 to 2.1 MPa.

Keywords: alkali activation, alkali activated materials, elevated temperature application, heat resistance

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6610 Alcoxysilanes Production from Silica and Dimethylcarbonate Promoted by Alkali Bases: A DFT Investigation of the Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Valeria Butera, Norihisa Fukaya, Jun-Chu Choi, Kazuhiko Sato, Yoong-Kee Choe

Abstract:

Several silicon dioxide sources can react with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in presence of alkali bases catalysts to ultimately produce tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Experimental findings suggested that the reaction proceeds through several steps in which the first molecule of DMC is converted to dimethylsilyloxide (DMOS) and CO₂. Following the same mechanistic steps, a second molecule of DMC reacts with the DMOS to afford the final product TMOS. Using a cluster model approach, a quantum-mechanical investigation of the first part of the reaction leading to DMOS formation is reported with a twofold purpose: (1) verify the viability of the reaction mechanism proposed on the basis of experimental evidences .(2) compare the behaviors of three different alkali hydroxides MOH, where M=Li, K and Cs, to determine whether diverse ionic radius and charge density can be considered responsible for the observed differences in reactivity. Our findings confirm the observed experimental trend and furnish important information about the effective role of the alkali hydroxides giving an explanation of the different catalytic activity of the three metal cations.

Keywords: Alcoxysilanes production, cluster model approach, DFT, DMC conversion

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6609 Optimum Design of Alkali Activated Slag Concretes for Low Chloride Ion Permeability and Water Absorption Capacity

Authors: Müzeyyen Balçikanli, Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan Tacettin Türker, Okan Karahan, Cengiz Duran Atiş

Abstract:

In this research, effect of curing time (TC), curing temperature (CT), sodium concentration (SC) and silicate modules (SM) on the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and water absorption capacity of alkali activated slag (AAS) concretes were investigated. For maximization of compressive strength while for minimization of chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity of AAS concretes, best possible combination of CT, CTime, SC and SM were determined. An experimental program was conducted by using the central composite design method. Alkali solution-slag ratio was kept constant at 0.53 in all mixture. The effects of the independent parameters were characterized and analyzed by using statistically significant quadratic regression models on the measured properties (dependent parameters). The proposed regression models are valid for AAS concretes with the SC from 0.1% to 7.5%, SM from 0.4 to 3.2, CT from 20 °C to 94 °C and TC from 1.2 hours to 25 hours. The results of test and analysis indicate that the most effective parameter for the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity is the sodium concentration.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption capacity

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6608 Understanding the Role of Alkali-Free Accelerators in Wet-Mix Shotcrete

Authors: Ezgi Yurdakul, Klaus-Alexander Rieder, Richard Sibbick

Abstract:

Most of the shotcrete projects require compliance with meeting a specified early-age strength target (e.g., reaching 1 MPa in 1 hour) that is selected based on the underground conditions. To meet the desired early-age performance characteristics, accelerators are commonly used as they increase early-age strength development rate and accelerate the setting thereby reducing sagging and rebound. The selection of accelerator type and its dosage is made by the setting time and strength required for the shotcrete application. While alkaline and alkali-free accelerators are the two main types used in wet-mix shotcrete; alkali-free admixtures increasingly substitute the alkaline accelerators to improve the performance and working safety. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of alkali-free accelerators in wet-mix on various tests including set time, early and later-age compressive strength, boiled absorption, and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the comparison between accelerated and non-accelerated samples will be made to demonstrate the interaction between cement and accelerators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescent resin impregnated thin section and cut and polished surface images will be used to understand the microstructure characterization of mixes in the presence of accelerators.

Keywords: accelerators, chemical admixtures, shotcrete, sprayed concrete

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6607 Influence of Superplasticizer and Alkali Activator Concentration on Slag-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer

Authors: Sulaem Musaddiq Laskar, Sudip Talukdar

Abstract:

Sustainable supplementary cementitious material is the prime need in the construction industry. Geopolymer has strong potential for replacing the conventional Portland cement used in mortar and concrete in the industry. This study deals with experimental investigations performed on geopolymer mixes prepared from both ultra-fine ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash in a certain proportion. Geopolymer mixes were prepared with alkali activator composed of sodium hydroxide solution and varying amount of superplasticizer. The mixes were tested to study fresh and hardened state properties such as setting time, workability and compressive strength. Influence of concentration of alkali activator on effectiveness of superplasticizer in modifying the properties of geopolymer mixes was also investigated. Results indicated that addition of superplasticizer to ultra-fine slag-fly ash based geopolymer is advantageous in terms of setting time, workability and strength performance but up to certain dosage level. Higher concentration of alkali activator renders ineffectiveness in superplasticizer in improving the fresh and hardened state properties of geopolymer mixes.

Keywords: ultra-fine slag, fly ash, superplasticizer, setting time, workability, compressive strength

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6606 Flexural Properties of Typha Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Sana Rezig, Yosr Ben Mlik, Mounir Jaouadi, Foued Khoffi, Slah Msahli, Bernard Durand

Abstract:

Increasing interest in environmental concerns, natural fibers are once again being considered as reinforcements for polymer composites. The main objective of this study is to explore another natural resource, Typha fiber; which is renewable without production cost and available abundantly in nature. The aim of this study was to study the flexural properties of composite resin with and without reinforcing Typha leaf and stem fibers. The specimens were made by the hand-lay-up process using polyester matrix. In our work, we focused on the effect of various treatment conditions (sea water, alkali treatment and a combination of the two treatments), as a surface modifier, on the flexural properties of the Typha fibers reinforced polyester composites. Moreover, weight ratio of Typha leaf or stem fibers was investigated. Besides, both fibers from leaf and stem of Typha plant were used to evaluate the reinforcing effect. Another parameter, which is reinforcement structure, was investigated. In fact, a first composite was made with air-laid nonwoven structure of fibers. A second composite was with a mixture of fibers and resin for each kind of treatment. Results show that alkali treatment and combined process provided better mechanical properties of composites in comparison with fiber treated by sea water. The fiber weight ratio influenced the flexural properties of composites. Indeed, a maximum value of flexural strength of 69.8 and 62,32 MPa with flexural modulus of 6.16 and 6.34 GPawas observed respectively for composite reinforced with leaf and stem fibers for 12.6 % fiber weight ratio. For the different treatments carried out, the treatment using caustic soda, whether alone or after retting seawater, show the best results because it improves adhesion between the polyester matrix and the fibers of reinforcement. SEM photographs were made to ascertain the effects of the surface treatment of the fibers. By varying the structure of the fibers of Typha, the reinforcement used in bulk shows more effective results as that used in the non-woven structure. In addition, flexural strength rises with about (65.32 %) in the case of composite reinforced with a mixture of 12.6% leaf fibers and (27.45 %) in the case of a composite reinforced with a nonwoven structure of 12.6 % of leaf fibers. Thus, to better evaluate the effect of the fiber origin, the reinforcing structure, the processing performed and the reinforcement factor on the performance of composite materials, a statistical study was performed using Minitab. Thus, ANOVA was used, and the patterns of the main effects of these parameters and interaction between them were established. Statistical analysis, the fiber treatment and reinforcement structure seem to be the most significant parameters.

Keywords: flexural properties, fiber treatment, structure and weight ratio, SEM photographs, Typha leaf and stem fibers

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6605 Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture

Authors: Xia Chen, Hua-Quan Yang, Shi-Hua Zhou

Abstract:

Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45 μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45 μm less than 8% was easily obtainable, and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C3A and C2S within 3days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.

Keywords: concrete, mineral admixture, hydration, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
6604 Microwave-Assisted Chemical Pre-Treatment of Waste Sorghum Leaves: Process Optimization and Development of an Intelligent Model for Determination of Volatile Compound Fractions

Authors: Daneal Rorke, Gueguim Kana

Abstract:

The shift towards renewable energy sources for biofuel production has received increasing attention. However, the use and pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material are inundated with the generation of fermentation inhibitors which severely impact the feasibility of bioprocesses. This study reports the profiling of all volatile compounds generated during microwave assisted chemical pre-treatment of sorghum leaves. Furthermore, the optimization of reducing sugar (RS) from microwave assisted acid pre-treatment of sorghum leaves was assessed and gave a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.76, producing an optimal RS yield of 2.74 g FS/g substrate. The development of an intelligent model to predict volatile compound fractions gave R2 values of up to 0.93 for 21 volatile compounds. Sensitivity analysis revealed that furfural and phenol exhibited high sensitivity to acid concentration, alkali concentration and S:L ratio, while phenol showed high sensitivity to microwave duration and intensity as well. These findings illustrate the potential of using an intelligent model to predict the volatile compound fraction profile of compounds generated during pre-treatment of sorghum leaves in order to establish a more robust and efficient pre-treatment regime for biofuel production.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fermentation inhibitors, lignocellulosic pre-treatment, sorghum leaves

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6603 Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

Authors: Ji-Sun Lee, Soong-Keun Hyun, Jin-Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

Keywords: glass composition, fiber diameter, continuous filament fiber, continuous spinning, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 248