Search results for: bitumen
69 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen
Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi
Abstract:In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper, the effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.
Keywords: bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadiene-rubber, rheological propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 266
68 Effects of Asphalt Modification with Nanomaterials on Fresh and Stored Bitumen
Authors: Ahmed W. Oda, Ahmed El-Desouky, Hassan Mahdy, Osama M. Moussa
Abstract:Nanomaterials have many applications in the field of asphalt paving. Two locally produced nanomaterials were used in the asphalt binder modification. The nanomaterials used are Nanosilica (NS), and Nanoclay (NC). The virgin asphalt binder was characterized by the conventional tests. The bitumen was modified by 3%, 5% and 7% of NS and NC. The penetration index(PI), and the retaining penetration (RP) was calculated based on the results of the penetration and the softening point tests. The results show that the RP becomes 95.35% at 5%NS modified bitumen and reaches 97.56% when bitumen is modified with 3% NC. The results show significant improvement in the bitumen stiffness when modified by the two types of nanomaterials, either fresh or aged (stored).
Keywords: bitumen, modified bitumen, aged, stored, nanomaterialsProcedia PDF Downloads 77
67 Laboratory Evaluation of Gilsonite Modified Bituminous Mixes
Authors: R. Vishnu, K. S. Reddy, Amrendra Kumar
Abstract:The present guideline for the construction of flexible pavement in India, IRC 37: 2012 recommends to use viscous grade VG 40 bitumen in both wearing and binder bituminous layers. However, most of the bitumen production plants in India are unable to produce the air-blown VG40 grade bitumen. This requires plant’s air-blowing technique modification, and often the manufactures finds it as uneconomical. In this context, stiffer grade bitumen can be produced if bitumen is modified. Gilsonite, which is naturally occurring asphalt have been found to be used for increasing the stiffness of binders. The present study evaluates the physical, rheological characteristics of Gilsonite modified binders and the performance characteristics of these binders when used in the mix.
Keywords: bitumen, gilsonite, stiffness, laboratory evaluationProcedia PDF Downloads 404
66 Towards an Understanding of Breaking and Coalescence Process in Bitumen Emulsions
Authors: Abdullah Khan, Per Redelius, Nicole Kringos
Abstract:The breaking and coalescence process in bitumen emulsion strongly influence the performance of the cold mix asphalt (CMA) and this phase separation process is affected by the physio-chemical changes happening at the bitumen/water interface. In this paper, coalescence experiments of two bitumen droplets in an emulsion environment have been carried out by a newly developed test procedure. In this study, different types of emulsifiers were selected to understand the coalescence process with respect to changes in the water phase surface tension due to addition of different surfactants and other additives such as salts. The research showed that the relaxation kinetics of bitumen droplets varied with the type of emulsifier, its concentration as well as with and without presence of salt in the water phase. Moreover, kinetics of the coalescence process was also investigated with the temperature variation.
Keywords: bitumen emulsions, breaking and coalescence, cold mix asphalt, emulsifiers, relaxation, saltsProcedia PDF Downloads 277
65 Assessment the Influence of Bitumen Emulsion PAHs Content in Arid Land
Authors: Jalil Badamfirooz
Abstract:Soil wind erosion has a negative impact on the environment. Mulching is one of the most efficient soil protection techniques. Bitumen emulsion has recently been utilized as a soil cover that is sprayed directly over the soil and forms a thin film. The thin coating of bitumen emulsion prevents soil erosion and keeps moisture in the soil. Besides, some compounds release into the soil and cause environmental problems. In the present study, the effect of bitumen emulsion on the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the soil is studied in an arid land located in the central part of Iran. The soil was Loamy-Sand and saline with a pH of 8.03. Bitumen emulsion was used in this study as mulch at a rate of 4 L m2. The effect of this mulch on soil properties was investigated after 6 months of mulch application. Then PAHs concentrations were determined in samples collected from different depths in bitumen emulsion sprayed and control soils. In general, bitumen emulsion application on soil led to a significant increase in some PAHs, which was higher than soil pollution standards critical level of pollution for commerce, groundwater protection, pasture forest, and park and residence uses.
Keywords: mulch, bitumen emulsion, arid land, PAHProcedia PDF Downloads 13
64 Experimental Squeeze Flow of Bitumen: Rheological Properties
Abstract:The squeeze flow tests were studied by many authors to measure the rheological properties of fluid. Experimental squeezing flow test with constant area between two parallel disks of bitumen is investigated in the present work. The effect of the temperature, the process of preparing the sample and the gap between the discs were discussed. The obtained results were compared with the theoretical models. The behavior of bitumen depends on the viscosity and the yield stress. Thus, the bitumen was presented as a power law for a small power law exponent and as a biviscous fluid when the viscosity ratio was smaller than one. Also, the influence of the ambient temperature is required for the compression test. Therefore, for a high temperature the yield stress decrease.
Keywords: bitumen, biviscous fluid, squeeze flow, viscosity, yield stressProcedia PDF Downloads 84
63 Characterization of Waste Thermocol Modified Bitumen by Spectroscopy, Microscopic Technique, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer
Authors: Supriya Mahida, Sangita, Yogesh U. Shah, Shanta Kumar
Abstract:The global production of thermocol increasing day by day, due to vast applications of the use of thermocole in many sectors. Thermocol being non-biodegradable and more toxic than plastic leads towards a number of problems like its management into value-added products, environmental damage and landfill problems due to weight to volume ratio. Utilization of waste thermocol for modification of bitumen binders resulted in waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) used in road construction and maintenance technology. Modification of bituminous mixes through incorporating thermocol into bituminous mixes through a dry process is one of the new options besides recycling process which consumes lots of waste thermocol. This process leads towards waste management and remedies against thermocol waste disposal. The present challenge is to dispose the thermocol waste under different forms in road infrastructure, either through the dry process or wet process to be developed in future. This paper focuses on the use of thermocol wastes which is mixed with VG 10 bitumen in proportions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by weight of bitumen. The physical properties of neat bitumen are evaluated and compared with modified VG 10 bitumen having thermocol. Empirical characterization like penetration, softening, and viscosity of bitumen has been carried out. Thermocol and waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) were further analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).
Keywords: DSR, FESEM, FT-IR, thermocol wastesProcedia PDF Downloads 114
62 Qualitative Analysis of Bituminous Mix Modified by Polypropylene and Impact Characteristics on Pavement Wearing Course
Authors: Jayisha Das Jaya, Nafis As Sami, Nazia Jahan, Tamanna Jerin, Mohammed Russedul Islam
Abstract:This paper contains continuous research which helps to analyze polypropylene modified bituminous mix and its impact characteristics with respect to original bitumen. Three percentages of polypropylene varying from (1-3) % of the weight of bitumen have been used to alter bitumen’s performance. The temperature of 170°C has been maintained during the blending of polypropylene with bitumen. It was performed by a wet process as it has certain advantages over the dry process. A rough estimate of 210 rpm rotation speed was set to prepare the blend in a mixer for 30 minutes producing homogeneous mixture. The blended mix shows a change in physical properties in comparison with the original bitumen content. Modification shows that for a 1% increment of polypropylene, softening point increases by 1 degree, penetration values decrease gradually to 55.6, 54, 52.5, ductility values decrease gradually to 87,76, 63 and specific gravity remains the same. Then Marshall mix design is performed with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen contents varying from (4-6) % with .5% intervals. Marshall stability and flow test results indicate the increase in stability and decrease in flow.
Keywords: bitumen, marshall, polypropylene, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 129
61 Physical, Morphological, and Rheological Properties of Polypropylene Modified Bitumen
Authors: Nioushasadat Haji Seyed Javadi, Ailar Hajimohammadi, Nasser Khalili
Abstract:The common method to improve the performance of asphalt binders is through modification. The utilization of recycled plastics for asphalt modification has been the subject of research studies due to their environmental and economic benefits over using commercial polymers. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most available recycled plastics in Australia. Unlike other plastics, its contamination with other plastics during the recycling process is negligible. Therefore, the quality of recycled plastic is high, which makes it a good candidate for road construction applications. To assess its effectiveness for bitumen modification, three different grades of PP were selected. The PP grades were compared for blendability with bitumen, and the best suitable grade was chosen for further studies. The PP-modified bitumen and the base bitumen were then compared through physical and rheological properties. The stability of the PP-modified bitumen at elevated temperatures was measured, and the morphology of the samples before and after the storage stability was characterized by fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that PP had a significant influence on reducing the penetration and increasing the viscosity and the rutting resistance of the virgin bitumen. Storage stability test results indicated that the difference between the softening point of the top and bottom section of the tube sample is below the defined limit, which means the PP-modified bitumen is storage stable. However, the fluorescence microscopy results showed that the distribution of the PP particles in the bitumen matrix in the top and bottom sections of the tube are significantly different, which is an indicator of poor storage stability.
Keywords: polypropylene, waste plastic, bitumen, road pavements, storage stability, fluorescent microscopy, morphologyProcedia PDF Downloads 22
60 Studying the Behavior of Asphalt Mix and Their Properties in the Presence of Nano Materials
Authors: Aman Patidar, Dipankar Sarkar, Manish Pal
Abstract:Due to rapid development, increase in the traffic load, higher traffic volume and seasonal variation in temperature, asphalt pavement shows distresses like rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking etc. because of this pavement fails during service life so that bitumen needs to be modified with some additive. In this study VG30 grade bitumen modify with addition of nanosilica with 1% to 5% (increment of 1%) by weight of bitumen. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) have higher mixing, laying and rolling temperatures which leads to higher consumption of fuel. To address this issue, a nano material named ZycoTherm which is chemical warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive is added to bitumen. Nanosilica modification (NSMB) results in the increase in stability compared to unmodified bitumen (UMB). WMA modified mix shows slightly higher stability than UMB and NSMB in a lower bitumen content. The Retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) is more than 75% and 80% respectively for both mixes. Nanosilica with WMA has more resistant to temperature susceptibility, moisture susceptibility and short term aging than NSMB.
Keywords: HMA, nanosilica, NSMB, temperature, TSR, UMB, WMAProcedia PDF Downloads 249
59 Impacts of Low-Density Polyethylene (Plastic Shopping Bags) on Structural Strength and Permeability of Hot-Mix-Asphalt Pavements
Authors: Chayanon Boonyuid
Abstract:This paper experiments the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structural strength and permeability of hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) pavements. Different proportions of bitumen (4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% of total aggregates) and plastic (5%, 10% and 15% of bitumen) contents in HMA mixtures were investigated to estimate the optimum mixture of bitumen and plastic in HMA pavement with long-term performance. Marshall Tests and Falling Head Tests were performed to experiment the structure strength and permeability of HMA mixtures with different percentages of plastic materials and bitumen. The laboratory results show that the optimum binder content was 5.5% by weight of aggregates with higher contents of plastic materials, increase structural stability, reduce permanent deformation, increase ductility, and improve fatigue life of HMA pavements. The use of recycled plastic shopping bags can reduce the use of bitumen content by 0.5% - 1% in HMA mixtures resulting in cheaper material costs with better long-term performance. The plastic materials increase the impermeability of HMA pavements. This study has two-fold contributions: optimum contents of both bitumen and plastic materials in HMA mixtures and the impacts of plastic materials on the permeability of HMA pavements.
Keywords: plastic bags, bitumen, structural strength, permeabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 73
58 Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen
Authors: Ashish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Suman
Abstract:This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.
Keywords: Cloisite-15A, complex shear modulus, phase angle, rutting resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 306
57 Physicochemical Characterization of Asphalt Ridge Froth Bitumen
Authors: Nader Nciri, Suil Song, Namho Kim, Namjun Cho
Abstract:Properties and compositions of bitumen and bitumen-derived liquids have significant influences on the selection of recovery, upgrading and refining processes. Optimal process conditions can often be directly related to these properties. The end uses of bitumen and bitumen products are thus related to their compositions. Because it is not possible to conduct a complete analysis of the molecular structure of bitumen, characterization must be made in other terms. The present paper focuses on physico-chemical analysis of two different types of bitumens. These bitumen samples were chosen based on: the original crude oil (sand oil and crude petroleum), and mode of process. The aim of this study is to determine both the manufacturing effect on chemical species and the chemical organization as a function of the type of bitumen sample. In order to obtain information on bitumen chemistry, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S, and O), heavy metal (Ni, V) concentrations, IATROSCAN chromatography (thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection), FTIR spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy have all been used. The characterization includes information about the major compound types (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) which can be compared with similar data for other bitumens, more importantly, can be correlated with data from petroleum samples for which refining characteristics are known. Examination of Asphalt Ridge froth bitumen showed that it differed significantly from representative petroleum pitches, principally in their nonhydrocarbon content, heavy metal content and aromatic compounds. When possible, properties and composition were related to recovery and refining processes. This information is important because of the effects that composition has on recovery and processing reactions.
Keywords: froth bitumen, oil sand, asphalt ridge, petroleum pitch, thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection, infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopyProcedia PDF Downloads 349
56 Characterization and Design of a Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mix Formulation
Authors: H. Al-Baghli
Abstract:Laboratory trial results of mixing crumb rubber produced from discarded tires with 60/70 pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen are presented on this paper. PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery tests were conducted on Kuwaiti bitumen blended with 15% and 18% crumb rubber at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. The results from elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep presented optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimum rubberized-bitumen mix was next transformed into a pelletized form (PelletPave®), and was used as a partial replacement to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at a number of binder contents. The trialed PelletPave® contents were at 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5% by mass of asphalt mix. In this investigation, it was not possible to utilize the results of standard Marshall method of mix design (i.e. volumetric, stability and flow tests) and subsequently additional assessment of mix compactability was carried out using gyratory compactor in order to determine the optimum PelletPave® and total binder contents.
Keywords: crumb rubber, Marshall mix design, PG grading, rubberized-bitumenProcedia PDF Downloads 89
55 Deformation Behavior of Virgin and Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Mixture
Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzlan Napiah
Abstract:This paper present a part of research conducted to investigate the creep behavior of bituminous concrete mixture prepared with well graded using the dynamic creep test. The samples were prepared from unmodified control mix and Polypropylene modified bituminous mix. Unmodified or control mix was prepared with 80/100 grade bitumen while polypropylene modified mix was prepared using polypropylene PP polymer as modifier, blended with 80/100 Pen bitumen. The concentration of polymer in the blend was kept at 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of bitumen content. For Dynamic Creep Test, Marshall Specimen were prepared at optimum bitumen content and then tested using IPC Global Universal Testing Machine (UTM), in order to investigate the creep stiffness of both modified and control mix. From the results obtained it was found that 1% and 2% PP modified bituminous mix offer better results in comparison to control and 3% PP modified mix samples. The results verify all the findings of empirical and viscosity test results which indicates that polymer modification induces stiffening effect in the binder. Enhanced viscous component of the binder was considered responsible for this change which eventually enhances the mechanical strength of the modified bituminous mixes.
Keywords: polymer modified bitumen, stiffness, creep, viscosityProcedia PDF Downloads 343
54 Design Procedure of Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures
Authors: Hayder Shanbara, Felicite Ruddock, William Atherton, Ali Al-Rifaie
Abstract:In highways construction, Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is used predominantly as a paving material from many years. Around 90 percent of the world road network is laid by flexible pavements. However, there are some restrictions on paving hot mix asphalt such as immoderate greenhouse gas emission, rainy season difficulties, fuel and energy consumption and cost. Therefore, Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is considered an alternative mix to the HMA. CBEM is the popular type of Cold Mix Asphalt (CMA). It is unheated emulsion, aggregate and filler mixtures, which can be prepared and mixed at ambient temperature. This research presents a simple and more practicable design procedure of CBEM and discusses limitations of this design. CBEM is a mixture of bitumen emulsion and aggregates that mixed and produced at ambient temperature. It is relatively easy to produce, but the design procedure that provided by Asphalt Institute (Manual Series 14 (1989)) pose some issues in its practical application.
Keywords: cold bitumen, emulsion mixture, design procedure, pavementProcedia PDF Downloads 173
53 Warm Mix and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: A Greener Road Approach
Authors: Lillian Gungat, Meor Othman Hamzah, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan, Jan Valentin
Abstract:Utilization of a high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) requires higher production temperatures and consumes more energy. High production temperature expedites the aging of bitumen in RAP, which could affect the mixture performance. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive enables reduced production temperatures as a result of viscosity reduction. This paper evaluates the integration of a high percentage of RAP with a WMA additive known as RH-WMA. The optimum dosage of RH-WMA was determined from basic properties tests. A total of 0%, 30% and 50% RAP contents from two roads sources were modified with RH-WMA. The modified RAP bitumen were examined for viscosity, stiffness, rutting resistance and greenhouse gas emissions. The addition of RH-WMA improved the flow of bitumen by reducing the viscosity, and thus, decreased the construction temperature. The stiffness of the RAP modified bitumen reduced with the incorporation of RH-WMA. The positive improvement in rutting resistance was observed on bitumen with the addition of RAP and RH-WMA in comparison with control. It was estimated that the addition of RH-WMA could potentially reduce fuel usage and GHG emissions by 22 %. Hence, the synergy of RAP and WMA technology can be an alternative in green road construction.
Keywords: reclaimed asphalt pavement, WMA additive, viscosity, stiffness, emissionsProcedia PDF Downloads 297
52 The Effect of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Cross-Contamination by Other Plastic Types on Bitumen Modification
Authors: Nioushasadat Haji Seyed Javadi, Ailar Hajimohammadi, Nasser Khalili
Abstract:Currently, the recycling of plastic wastes has been the subject of much research attention, especially in pavement constructions, where virgin polymers can be replaced by recycled plastics for asphalt binder modification. Among the plastic types, recycled linear low-density polyethylene (RLLDPE) has been one of the common and largely available plastics for bitumen modification. However, it is important to note that during the recycling process, LLDPE can easily be contaminated with other plastic types, especially with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP). The cross-contamination of LLDPE with other plastics lowers its quality and, consequently, can affect the asphalt modification process. This study aims to assess the effect of LLDPE cross-contamination on bitumen modification. To do so, samples of bitumen modified with LLDPE and blends of LLDPE with LDPE, HDPE, and PP were prepared and compared through physical and rheological evaluations. The experimental tests, including softening point, penetration, viscosity at 135 °C, and dynamic shear rheometer, were conducted. The results indicated that the effect of cross-contamination on softening point and rutting resistance was negligible. On the other side, penetration and viscosity were highly impacted. The results also showed that among contamination of LLDPE with the other plastic types, PP had the highest influence in comparison with HDPE and LDPE on changing the properties of the LLDPE- modified bitumen.
Keywords: recycled polyethylene, polymer cross-contamination, waste plastic, bitumen, rutting resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 40
51 Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method
Authors: Muhammed Ertuğrul Çeloğlu, Mehmet Yılmaz
Abstract:In this study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50 and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at 400 °C, resulting in three different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10% and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 400 °C temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.
Keywords: rheology, biomass, pyrolysis, biocharProcedia PDF Downloads 103
50 Effects of Preparation Conditions on the Properties of Crumb Rubber Modified Binder
Authors: Baha Vural Kök, Mehmet Yilmaz, Mustafa Akpolat, Cihat Sav
Abstract:Various types of additives are used frequently in order to improve the rheological and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures. Small devices instead of full scale machines are used for bitumen modification in the laboratory. These laboratory scale devices vary in terms of their properties such as mixing rate, mixing blade and the amount of binder. In this study, the effect of mixing rate and time during the bitumen modification processes on conventional and rheological properties of pure and crumb rubber modified binder were investigated. Penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity (RV) and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were applied to pure and CR modified bitumen. It was concluded that the penetration and softening point test did not show the efficiency of CR obtained by different mixing conditions. Besides, oxidation that occurred during the preparation processes plays a great part in the improvement effects of the modified binder.
Keywords: bitumen, crumb rubber, modification, rheological propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 253
49 Temperature Susceptibility of Multigrade Bitumen Asphalt and an Approach to Account for Temperature Variation through Deep Pavements
Authors: Brody R. Clark, Chaminda Gallage, John Yeaman
Abstract:Multigrade bitumen asphalt is a quality asphalt product that is not utilised in many places globally. Multigrade bitumen is believed to be less sensitive to temperature, which gives it an advantage over conventional binders. Previous testing has shown that asphalt temperature changes greatly with depth, but currently the industry standard is to nominate a single temperature for design. For detailed design of asphalt roads, perhaps asphalt layers should be divided into nominal layer depths and different modulus and fatigue equations/values should be used to reflect the temperatures of each respective layer. A collaboration of previous laboratory testing conducted on multigrade bitumen asphalt beams under a range of temperatures and loading conditions was analysed. The samples tested included 0% or 15% recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) to determine what impact the recycled material has on the fatigue life and stiffness of the pavement. This paper investigated the temperature susceptibility of multigrade bitumen asphalt pavements compared to conventional binders by combining previous testing that included conducting a sweep of fatigue tests, developing complex modulus master curves for each mix and a study on how pavement temperature changes through pavement depth. This investigation found that the final design of the pavement is greatly affected by the nominated pavement temperature and respective material properties. This paper has outlined a potential revision to the current design approach for asphalt pavements and proposes that further investigation is needed into pavement temperature and its incorporation into design.
Keywords: asphalt, complex modulus, fatigue life, flexural stiffness, four point bending, multigrade bitumen, recycled asphalt pavementProcedia PDF Downloads 278
48 Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen
Authors: A. Chegenizadeh, M. Keramatikerman, H. Nikraz
Abstract:Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.
Keywords: rheological properties, DSR test, polymer mixed with bitumen (PMB), complex modulus, limeProcedia PDF Downloads 130
47 The Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Organo-Clay-Modified Bitumen, Calcareous Aggregate, and Organo-Clay Blends
Authors: A. Gürses, T. B. Barın, Ç. Doğar
Abstract:Bitumen has been widely used as the binder of aggregate in road pavement due to its good viscoelastic properties, as a viscous organic mixture with various chemical compositions. Bitumen is a liquid at high temperature and it becomes brittle at low temperatures, and this temperature-sensitivity can cause the rutting and cracking of the pavement and limit its application. Therefore, the properties of existing asphalt materials need to be enhanced. The pavement with polymer modified bitumen exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking, decreased fatigue damage, as well as stripping and temperature susceptibility; however, they are expensive and their applications have disadvantages. Bituminous mixtures are composed of very irregular aggregates bound together with hydrocarbon-based asphalt, with a low volume fraction of voids dispersed within the matrix. Montmorillonite (MMT) is a layered silicate with low cost and abundance, which consists of layers of tetrahedral silicate and octahedral hydroxide sheets. Recently, the layered silicates have been widely used for the modification of polymers, as well as in many different fields. However, there are not too much studies related with the preparation of the modified asphalt with MMT, currently. In this study, organo-clay-modified bitumen, and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends were prepared by hot blending method with OMMT, which has been synthesized using a cationic surfactant (Cetyltrymethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and long chain hydrocarbon, and MMT. When the exchangeable cations in the interlayer region of pristine MMT were exchanged with hydrocarbon attached surfactant ions, the MMT becomes organophilic and more compatible with bitumen. The effects of the super hydrophobic OMMT onto the micro structural and mechanic properties (Marshall Stability and volumetric parameters) of the prepared blends were investigated. Stability and volumetric parameters of the blends prepared were measured using Marshall Test. Also, in order to investigate the morphological and micro structural properties of the organo-clay-modified bitumen and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends, their SEM and HRTEM images were taken. It was observed that the stability and volumetric parameters of the prepared mixtures improved significantly compared to the conventional hot mixes and even the stone matrix mixture. A micro structural analysis based on SEM images indicates that the organo-clay platelets dispersed in the bitumen have a dominant role in the increase of effectiveness of bitumen - aggregate interactions.
Keywords: hot mix asphalt, stone matrix asphalt, organo clay, Marshall test, calcareous aggregate, modified bitumenProcedia PDF Downloads 174
46 Impact of Fischer-Tropsch Wax on Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Waste Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen: An Energy-Sustainability Nexus
Authors: Keith D. Nare, Mohau J. Phiri, James Carson, Chris D. Woolard, Shanganyane P. Hlangothi
Abstract:In an energy-intensive world, minimizing energy consumption is paramount to cost saving and reducing the carbon footprint. Improving mixture procedures utilizing warm mix additive Fischer-Tropsch (FT) wax in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and modified bitumen highlights a greener and sustainable approach to modified bitumen. In this study, the impact of FT wax on optimized EVA/waste crumb rubber modified bitumen is assayed with a maximum loading of 2.5%. The rationale of the FT wax loading is to maintain the original maximum loading of EVA in the optimized mixture. The phase change abilities of FT wax enable EVA co-crystallization with the support of the elastomeric backbone of crumb rubber. Less than 1% loading of FT wax worked in the EVA/crumb rubber modified bitumen energy-sustainability nexus. Response surface methodology approach to the mixture design is implemented amongst the different loadings of FT wax, EVA for a consistent amount of crumb rubber and bitumen. Rheological parameters (complex shear modulus, phase angle and rutting parameter) were the factors used as performance indicators of the different optimized mixtures. The low temperature chemistry of the optimized mixtures is analyzed using elementary beam theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. Master curves and black space diagrams are developed and used to predict age-induced cracking of the different long term aged mixtures. Modified binder rheology reveals that the strain response is not linear and that there is substantial re-arrangement of polymer chains as stress is increased, this is based on the age state of the mixture and the FT wax and EVA loadings. Dominance of individual effects is evident over effects of synergy in co-interaction of EVA and FT wax. All-inclusive FT wax and EVA formulations were best optimized in mixture 4 with mixture 7 reflecting increase in ease of workability. Findings show that interaction chemistry of bitumen, crumb rubber EVA, and FT wax is first and second order in all cases involving individual contributions and co-interaction amongst the components of the mixture.
Keywords: bitumen, crumb rubber, ethylene vinyl acetate, FT waxProcedia PDF Downloads 115
45 Influence of the Quality Differences in the Same Type of Bitumen and Dosage Rate of Reclaimed Asphalt on Lifetime
Authors: Pahirangan Sivapatham, , Esser Barbara
Abstract:The impacts of the asphalt mix design, the properties of aggregates and quality differences in the same type of bitumen, as well as the dosage rate of reclaimed asphalt on the relevant material parameter of the analytical pavement design method are not known. Due to that, in this study, the influence of the above mentioned characteristics on relevant material parameters has been determined and analyzed by means of the analytical pavement calculations method. Therefore, material parameters for several asphalt mixes for asphalt wearing course, asphalt binder course and asphalt base course have been determined. Thereby several bitumens of the same type from different producer’s have been used. In addition, asphalt base course materials with three different dosages of reclaimed asphalt have been produced and tested. As material parameter according to the German analytical pavement design guide(RDO Asphalt), the stiffness’s at different temperatures and fatigue behavior have been determined. The findings of asphalt base course materials produced with several pen graded bitumen from different producers and different dosages of reclaimed asphalt indicate the distinct impact on fatigue behaviors and mechanical properties. The calculated test results of the analytical pavement design method show significant differences in the lifetimes. The pavement design calculation is to carry out by means of the actual material parameter. The calculated lifetime of the asphalt base course materials differentiates by the factor 3.2. The determining test results of bitumen characteristics meet the requirement according to the German Standards. But, further investigations of bitumen in different aging conditions show significant differences in their quality. The fatigue behavior and stiffness of asphalt pavement improves with increasing dosage of reclaimed asphalt. Furthermore, the type of aggregates used shows no significant influences.
Keywords: reclaimed asphalt pavement, quality differences in the bitumen, life time calculation, Asphalt mix with RAPProcedia PDF Downloads 127
44 Crumbed Rubber Modified Asphalt
Authors: Maanav M. Patel, Aarsh S. Mistry, Yash A. Dhaduk
Abstract:Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyres Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in molded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The technology with much different evidence of success demonstrated by roads built in the last 40 years is the rubberised asphalt mixture obtained through the so-called ‘‘wet process’’ which involves the utilisation of the Recycled Tyre Rubber Modified Bitumen (RTR-MBs). Since 1960s, asphalt mixtures produced with RTRMBs have been used in different parts of the world as solutions for different quality problems and, despite some downsides, in the majority of the cases they have demonstrated to enhance performance of road’s pavement. The present study aims in investigating the experimental performance of the bitumen modified with 15% by weight of crumb rubber varying its sizes. Four different categories of size of crumb rubber will be used, which are coarse (1 mm - 600 μm); medium size (600 μm - 300 μm); fine (300 μm150 μm); and superfine (150 μm - 75 μm). Common laboratory tests will be performed on the modified bitumen using various sizes of crumb rubber and thus analyzed. Marshall Stability method is adopted for mix design.
Keywords: Bitumen, CRMB, Marshall Stability Test, PavementProcedia PDF Downloads 78
43 The Utilization of Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste Aggregate in Asphaltic Concrete
Authors: Inas Kamel, Noor Z. Habib
Abstract:Utilizing construction and demolition wastes in hotmix asphalt (HMA) pavement construction can reduce the adverse environmental effect of its inadequate disposal and reduce the pressure of extracting and processing mineral aggregates (MA). This study aims to examine the viability of replacing MA by recycled construction and demolition waste aggregates (RCDWA) in the wearing course of asphaltic concrete (AC) pavements without compromising its loadbearing capacity. The Marshall Method was used to evaluate the performance of AC wearing course specimens by replacing MA by 10%, 20% and 30% RCDWA. Grade 60/70 bitumen was used in the range 3.0-5.5%, with 05% increments, to generate the optimum bitumen content (OBC). From the volumetric analysis and test property curves, the mixture containing 20% RCDWA was chosen as the preferred mix at 5.1% OBC. It possessed a 10% increase in Marshall Stability compared to the reference specimen, containing 100% MA, and a 6% increase in Marshall flow.
Keywords: aggregate, asphaltic concrete, Marshall method, optimum bitumen content, recycled construction and demolition wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 66
42 Microstructural Characterization of Bitumen/Montmorillonite/Isocyanate Composites by Atomic Force Microscopy
Authors: Francisco J. Ortega, Claudia Roman, Moisés García-Morales, Francisco J. Navarro
Abstract:Asphaltic bitumen has been largely used in both industrial and civil engineering, mostly in pavement construction and roofing membrane manufacture. However, bitumen as such is greatly susceptible to temperature variations, and dramatically changes its in-service behavior from a viscoelastic liquid, at medium-high temperatures, to a brittle solid at low temperatures. Bitumen modification prevents these problems and imparts improved performance. Isocyanates like polymeric MDI (mixture of 4,4′-diphenylmethane di-isocyanate, 2,4’ and 2,2’ isomers, and higher homologues) have shown to remarkably enhance bitumen properties at the highest in-service temperatures expected. This comes from the reaction between the –NCO pendant groups of the oligomer and the most polar groups of asphaltenes and resins in bitumen. In addition, oxygen diffusion and/or UV radiation may provoke bitumen hardening and ageing. With the purpose of minimizing these effects, nano-layered-silicates (nanoclays) are increasingly being added to bitumen formulations. Montmorillonites, a type of naturally occurring mineral, may produce a nanometer scale dispersion which improves bitumen thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. In order to increase their lipophilicity, these nanoclays are normally treated so that organic cations substitute the inorganic cations located in their intergallery spacing. In the present work, the combined effect of polymeric MDI and the commercial montmorillonite Cloisite® 20A was evaluated. A selected bitumen with penetration within the range 160/220 was modified with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and 2 wt.% polymeric MDI, and the resulting ternary composites were characterized by linear rheology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The rheological tests evidenced a notable solid-like behavior at the highest temperatures studied when bitumen was just loaded with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and high-shear blended for 20 minutes. However, if polymeric MDI was involved, the sequence of addition exerted a decisive control on the linear rheology of the final ternary composites. Hence, in bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the previous solid-like behavior disappeared. By contrast, an inversion in the order of addition (bitumen/polymeric MDI/ Cloisite® 20A) enhanced further the solid-like behavior imparted by the nanoclay. In order to gain a better understanding of the factors that govern the linear rheology of these ternary composites, a morphological and microstructural characterization based on XRD and AFM was conducted. XRD demonstrated the existence of clay stacks intercalated by bitumen molecules to some degree. However, the XRD technique cannot provide detailed information on the extent of nanoclay delamination, unless the entire fraction has effectively been fully delaminated (situation in which no peak is observed). Furthermore, XRD was unable to provide precise knowledge neither about the spatial distribution of the intercalated/exfoliated platelets nor about the presence of other structures at larger length scales. In contrast, AFM proved its power at providing conclusive information on the morphology of the composites at the nanometer scale and at revealing the structural modification that yielded the rheological properties observed. It was concluded that high-shear blending brought about a nanoclay-reinforced network. As for the bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the solid-like behavior was destroyed as a result of the agglomeration of the nanoclay platelets promoted by chemical reactions.
Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, bitumen, composite, isocyanate, montmorillonite.Procedia PDF Downloads 201
41 Optimizing PelletPAVE Rubberized Asphalt MIX Design Using Gyratory Compaction and Volumetrics
Authors: Hussain Al-Baghli
Abstract:In comparison to hot mix asphalt (HMAs) composed of non-modified bitumens, the superior performance of rubberized HMAs is very well documented, and numerous trials in the USA and elsewhere have demonstrated excellent performance in terms of creep, fatigue, and durability. In this investigation, rubberized HMA technology was examined to address the most critical forms of pavement distresses in the State of Kuwait, namely, high-temperature rutting and moisture-induced raveling. Pelletpave additive was selected as the preferred technology since it offered a convenient method of directly modifying the exiting local HMA recipe without having to polymer modify the bitumen. Experimental work using various Pelletpave contents was carried out at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to design an optimum rubberized HMA formulation prior to conducting a pilot-scale road trial. With the aid of a gyratory compactor, the compaction and volumetric properties of HMAs containing 2.5% and 3.0% Pelletpave additive were investigated at a range of bitumen contents, all by mass of total mix.
Keywords: modified bitumen, rubberized hot mix asphalt, gyratory compaction, volumetric propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 96
40 Experimental Assessment of Polypropylene Plastic Aggregates(PPA) for Pavement Construction: Their Mechanical Properties via Marshall Test
Authors: Samiullah Bhatti, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Syed Murtaza Ali Jafri
Abstract:This research paper presents the results of using plastic aggregate in flexible pavement. Plastic aggregates have been prepared with polypropylene (PP) recycled products and have been tested with Marshall apparatus. Grade 60/70 bitumen has been chosen for this research with a total content of 2.5 %, 3 % and 3.5 %. Plastic aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates with different proportions and it ranges from 10 % to 100 % with an increment of 10 %. Therefore, a total of 10 Marshall cakes were prepared with plastic aggregates in addition to a standard pavement sample. In total 33 samples have been tested for Marshall stability, flow and voids in mineral aggregates. The results show an increase in the value when it changes from 2.5 % bitumen to 3 % and after then it goes again toward declination. Thus, 3 % bitumen content has been found as the most optimum value for flexible pavements. Among all the samples, 20 % PP aggregates sample has been found satisfactory with respect to all the standards provided by ASTM. Therefore, it is suggested to use 20 plastic aggregates in flexible pavement construction. A comparison of bearing capacity and skid resistance is also observed.
Keywords: marshall test, polypropylene plastic, plastic aggregates, flexible pavement alternative, recycling of plastic wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 58