Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: pretreatment

218 Development of a Steam or Microwave-Assisted Sequential Salt-Alkali Pretreatment for Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley

Abstract:

This study compares two different pretreatments for sugarcane leaf waste (SLW): steam salt-alkali (SSA) and microwave salt-alkali (MSA). The two pretreatment types were modelled, optimized, and validated with R² > 0.97. Reducing sugar yields of 1.21g/g were obtained with optimized SSA pretreatment using 1.73M ZnCl₂, 1.36M NaOH and 9.69% solid loading, and 1.17g/g with optimized MSA pretreatment using 1.67M ZnCl₂, 1.52M NaOH at 400W for 10min. A lower pretreatment time (10min) was required for the MSA model (83% lower). The structure of pretreated SLW was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The optimized SSA and MSA models showed lignin removal of 80.5 and 73% respectively. The MSA pretreatment was further examined on sorghum leaves and Napier grass and showed yield improvements of 1.9- and 2.8-fold compared to recent reports. The developed pretreatment methods demonstrated high efficiency at enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis on various lignocellulosic substrates.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

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217 Microwave-Assisted Inorganic Salt Pretreatment of Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley, E. B. Gueguim-Kana

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The objective of this study was to develop a method to pretreat sugarcane leaf waste using microwave-assisted (MA) inorganic salt. The effects of process parameters of salt concentration, microwave power intensity and pretreatment time on reducing sugar yield from enzymatically hydrolysed sugarcane leaf waste were investigated. Pretreatment models based on MA-NaCl, MA-ZnCl2 and MA-FeCl3 were developed. Maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.406 g/g was obtained with 2 M FeCl3 at 700W for 3.5 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR) showed major changes in lignocellulosic structure after MA-FeCl3 pretreatment with 71.5 % hemicellulose solubilization. This pretreatment was further assessed on sorghum leaves and Napier grass under optimal MA-FeCl3 conditions. A 2 fold and 3.1-fold increase in sugar yield respectively were observed compared to previous reports. This pretreatment was highly effective for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: acid, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
216 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

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Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
215 Development of Microwave-Assisted Alkalic Salt Pretreatment Regimes for Enhanced Sugar Recovery from Corn Cobs

Authors: Yeshona Sewsynker

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This study presents three microwave-assisted alkalic salt pretreatments to enhance delignification and enzymatic saccharification of corn cobs. The effects of process parameters of salt concentration (0-15%), microwave power intensity (0-800 W) and pretreatment time (2-8 min) on reducing sugar yield from corn cobs were investigated. Pretreatment models were developed with the high coefficient of determination values (R2>0.85). Optimization gave a maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.76 g/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR) showed major changes in the lignocellulosic structure after pretreatment. A 7-fold increase in the sugar yield was observed compared to previous reports on the same substrate. The developed pretreatment strategy was effective for enhancing enzymatic saccharification from lignocellulosic wastes for microbial biofuel production processes and value-added products.

Keywords: pretreatment, lignocellulosic biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis, delignification

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
214 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal

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EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: lignocellulose, ultrasound, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
213 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma

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Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
212 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

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This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
211 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman

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Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
210 Comparison of Acid and Base Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Mustafa Ümi̇t Ünal, Nafi̇z Çeli̇ktaş, Aysun Şener, Sara Betül Dolgun, Duygu Keser

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The aim of this study was to compare acid and base pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production. Switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) at 120, 140, 180 °C for 10, 60 and 90. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass samples were carried out using three different enzyme mixtures (22.5 mg cellulase and 75 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 45 mg cellulase and 150 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase /g biomass). Samples were removed at 24-h interval for fermentable sugar analyses with HPLC. The results showed that use of 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase/g biomass resulted in the highest fermentable sugar formation. Furthermore, the highest fermentable sugar yield was obtained by pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min using 1.0 % sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: switchgrass, acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, base pretreatment, ethanol production

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
209 Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Authors: Achiraya Jiraprasertwong, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

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Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, microorganisms, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
208 Study on Microbial Pretreatment for Enhancing Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corncob

Authors: Kessara Seneesrisakul, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

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The complex structure of lignocellulose leads to great difficulties in converting it to fermentable sugars for the ethanol production. The major hydrolysis impediments are the crystallinity of cellulose and the lignin content. To improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial pretreatment of corncob was investigated using two bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis A 002 and Cellulomonas sp. TISTR 784 (expected to break open the crystalline part of cellulose) and lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete sordida SK7 (expected to remove lignin from lignocellulose). The microbial pretreatment was carried out with each strain under its optimum conditions. The pretreated corncob samples were further hydrolyzed to produce reducing glucose with low amounts of commercial cellulase (25 U•g-1 corncob) from Aspergillus niger. The corncob samples were determined for composition change by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). According to the results, the microbial pretreatment with fungus, P. sordida SK7 was the most effective for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately, 40% improvement.

Keywords: corncob, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose, microbial pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
207 Biogas Production Improve From Waste Activated Sludge Using Fenton Oxidation

Authors: A. Hassiba Zemmouri, B. Nabil Mameri, C. Hakim Lounici

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In this study, the effect of Fenton technology pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of excess waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The variation of physicochemical characteristics (TOC, DS, VSS, VS) and biogas volume (as form of value added products) were also evaluated. The preselected operator conditions of Fenton pretreatment were 0.01ml H2O2/g SS, 150 [H2O2]/[Fe2+], 25g/l TS, at 25 °C and 30, 60 and120 min as treatment duration. The main results show a Maximum solubilization and biodegradability (70%) obtained at 120 min of Fenton pretreatment duration. An increasing of TOC in soluble phase related obviously by releasing organic substances of sludge flocs was contested. Improving in biogas volume was also, increased. Fenton oxidation pretreatment may be a promising chemical pre-treatment for a benefic digestion, stabilization and volume reduction.

Keywords: waste activated sludge, fenton pre-treatment, biodegradability, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
206 Optimization of NaOH Thermo-Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Solubilisation of Organic Food Waste by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Hafizan Junoh, Kumaran Palanisamy, Yip Chan Heng, Pua Fei Ling

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This study investigates the influence of low temperature thermo-chemical pretreatment of organic food waste on the performance of COD solubilisation. Both temperature and alkaline agent were reported to have an effect on solubilizing any possible biomass including organic food waste. The three independent variables considered in this pretreatment were temperature (50-90oC), pretreatment time (30-120 minutes) and alkaline concentration, sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.7-15 g/L). The optimal condition obtained were 90oC, 15 g/L NaOH for 2 hours. Solubilisation has potential in enhancing methane production by providing a high amount of soluble components at an early stage during anaerobic digestion.

Keywords: food waste, pretreatments, respond surface methodology, ANOVA, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
205 Bee Colony Optimization Applied to the Bin Packing Problem

Authors: Kenza Aida Amara, Bachir Djebbar

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We treat the two-dimensional bin packing problem which involves packing a given set of rectangles into a minimum number of larger identical rectangles called bins. This combinatorial problem is NP-hard. We propose a pretreatment for the oriented version of the problem that allows the valorization of the lost areas in the bins and the reduction of the size problem. A heuristic method based on the strategy first-fit adapted to this problem is presented. We present an approach of resolution by bee colony optimization. Computational results express a comparison of the number of bins used with and without pretreatment.

Keywords: bee colony optimization, bin packing, heuristic algorithm, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
204 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari

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Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
203 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal

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Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: lignocellulose, microwave, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
202 Screening and Optimization of Pretreatments for Rice Straw and Their Utilization for Bioethanol Production Using Developed Yeast Strain

Authors: Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Min Kyu Oh

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Rice straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste materials and its annual production is about 731 Mt in the world. This study treats the subject of effective utilization of this waste biomass for biofuels production. We have showed a comparative assessment of numerous pretreatment strategies for rice straw, comprising of major physical, chemical and physicochemical methods. Among the different methods employed for pretreatment alkaline pretreatment in combination with sodium chlorite/acetic acid delignification found efficient pretreatment with significant improvement in the enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. A cellulase dose of 20 filter paper units (FPU) released a maximum 63.21 g/L of reducing sugar with 94.45% hydrolysis yield and 64.64% glucose yield from rice straw, respectively. The effects of different pretreatment methods on biomass structure and complexity were investigated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analytical techniques. Finally the enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used for ethanol production using developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8. The developed yeast strain enabled efficient fermentation of xylose and glucose and produced higher ethanol production. Thus development of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic waste biomass is generic, applicable methodology and have great implication for using ‘green raw materials’ and producing ‘green products’ much needed today.

Keywords: rice straw, pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, FPU, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8, ethanol fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
201 Pineapple Waste Valorization through Biogas Production: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Microwave Pretreatment

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Pratikno Hidayat

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Indonesia has produced more than 1.8 million ton pineapple fruit in 2013 of which turned into waste due to industrial processing, deterioration and low qualities. It was estimated that this waste accounted for more than 40 percent of harvested fruits. In addition, pineapple leaves were one of biomass waste from pineapple farming land, which contributed even higher percentages. Most of the waste was only dumped into landfill area without proper pretreatment causing severe environmental problem. This research was meant to valorize the pineapple waste for producing renewable energy source of biogas through mesophilic (30℃) anaerobic digestion process. Especially, it was aimed to investigate effect of substrate concentration of pineapple fruit waste i.e. peel, core as well as effect of microwave pretreatment of pineapple leaves waste. The concentration of substrate was set at value 12, 24 and 36 g VS/liter culture whereas 800-Watt microwave pretreatment conducted at 2 and 5 minutes. It was noticed that optimum biogas production obtained at concentration 24 g VS/l with biogas yield 0.649 liter/g VS (45%v CH4) whereas microwave pretreatment at 2 minutes duration performed better compare to 5 minutes due to shorter exposure of microwave heat. This results suggested that valorization of pineapple waste could be carried out through biogas production at the aforementioned process condition. Application of this method is able to both reduce the environmental problem of the waste and produce renewable energy source of biogas to fulfill local energy demand of pineapple farming areas.

Keywords: pineapple waste, substrate concentration, microwave pretreatment, biogas, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
200 Effect of N2 Pretreatment on the Properties of Tungsten Based Catalysts in Metathesis of Ethylene and 2-Butene

Authors: Kriangkrai Aranyarat

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The effect of N2 pretreatment on the catalytic activity of tungsten-based catalysts was investigated in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The presence of tungsten active species was confirmed by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the WO3-based catalysts treated in air, higher amount of WO42- tetrahedral species and lower amount of WO3 crystalline species were observed on the N2-treated ones. These contribute to the higher conversion of 2-butene and propylene selectivity during 10 h time-on-stream. Moreover, N2 treatment led to lower amount of coke formation as revealed by TPO of the spent catalysts.

Keywords: metathesis, pretreatment, propylene, tungsten

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
199 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh

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Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
198 An Efficient Hybrid Feedstock Pretreatment Technique for the Release of Fermentable Sugar from Cassava Peels for Biofuel Production

Authors: Gabriel Sanjo Aruwajoye, E. B. Gueguim Kana

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Agricultural residues present a low-cost feedstock for bioenergy production around the world. Cassava peels waste are rich in organic molecules that can be readily converted to value added products such as biomaterials and biofuels. However, due to the presence of high proportion of structural carbohydrates and lignin, the hydrolysis of this feedstock is imperative to achieve maximum substrate utilization and energy yield. This study model and optimises the release of Fermentable Sugar (FS) from cassava peels waste using the Response Surface Methodology. The investigated pretreatment input parameters consisted of soaking temperature (oC), soaking time (hours), autoclave duration (minutes), acid concentration (% v/v), substrate solid loading (% w/v) within the range of 30 to 70, 0 to 24, 5 to 20, 0 to 5 and 2 to 10 respectively. The Box-Behnken design was used to generate 46 experimental runs which were investigated for FS release. The obtained data were used to fit a quadratic model. A coefficient of determination of 0.87 and F value of 8.73 was obtained indicating the good fitness of the model. The predicted optimum pretreatment conditions were 69.62 oC soaking temperature, 2.57 hours soaking duration, 5 minutes autoclave duration, 3.68 % v/v HCl and 9.65 % w/v solid loading corresponding to FS yield of 91.83g/l (0.92 g/g cassava peels) thus 58% improvement on the non-optimised pretreatment. Our findings demonstrate an efficient pretreatment model for fermentable sugar release from cassava peels waste for various bioprocesses.

Keywords: feedstock pretreatment, cassava peels, fermentable sugar, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
197 The Comparison and Optimization of the Analytic Method for Canthaxanthin, Food Colorants

Authors: Hee-Jae Suh, Kyung-Su Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Yeon-Seong Jeong, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Shin, Hyang-Sook Chun, Chan Lee

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Canthaxanthin is keto-carotenoid produced from beta-carotene and it has been approved to be used in many countries as a food coloring agent. Canthaxanthin has been analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system with various ways of pretreatment methods. Four official methods for verification of canthaxanthin at FSA (UK), AOAC (US), EFSA (EU) and MHLW (Japan) were compared to improve its analytical and the pretreatment method. The Linearity, the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), the accuracy, the precision and the recovery ratio were determined from each method with modification in pretreatment method. All HPLC methods exhibited correlation coefficients of calibration curves for canthaxanthin as 0.9999. The analysis methods from FSA, AOAC, and MLHW showed the LOD of 0.395 ppm, 0.105 ppm, and 0.084 ppm, and the LOQ of 1.196 ppm, 0.318 ppm, 0.254 ppm, respectively. Among tested methods, HPLC method of MHLW with modification in pretreatments was finally selected for the analysis of canthaxanthin in lab, because it exhibited the resolution factor of 4.0 and the selectivity of 1.30. This analysis method showed a correlation coefficients value of 0.9999 and the lowest LOD and LOQ. Furthermore, the precision ratio was lower than 1 and the accuracy was almost 100%. The method presented the recovery ratio of 90-110% with modification in pretreatment method. The cross-validation of coefficient variation was 5 or less among tested three institutions in Korea.

Keywords: analytic method, canthaxanthin, food colorants, pretreatment method

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196 Surface Modification of SUS-304 Using Nitriding Treatment for Application of Bipolar Plates of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Wei-Ru Chang, Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Zen-Ting Hsiao, Shu-Feng Lee

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Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are widely used in electrical systems as an economical, low-polluting energy source. This study investigates the effects of PEMFC gas nitriding treatment on metal bipolar plates. The test material was SUS304 stainless steel. The study explored five different pretreatment processes, varying the corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity conditions. The most effective process was industrial acid washing, followed by heating to 500 °C. Under the condition, the corrosion current density was 8.695 μA, significantly lower than that of the untreated pretreatment sample flakes, which was measured as 38.351 μA.

Keywords: nitriding, bipolar, 304, corrosion, resistance, pretreatment

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195 Anaerobic Fermentation Process for Production of Biohydrogen from Pretreated Fruit Wastes

Authors: A. K. R. Gobinath, He Jianzhong, Kun-Lin Yang

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Fruit waste was used as a feedstock to produce biohydrogen in this study. Fruit waste used in this study was collected from several fruit juice stalls in Singapore. Based on our observation, the fruit waste contained 35-40% orange, 10-20% watermelon, 10-15% apple, 10-15% pineapple, 1-5% mango. They were mixed with water (1:1 ratio based on wet biomass) and blended to attain homogenous mixtures. Later, fruit waste was subjected to one of the following pretreatments: autoclave (121 °C for 20min), microwave (20min) or both. After pretreatment, the total sugar concentration in the hydrolysate was high (>12g/l) when both autoclave and microwave were applied. In contrast, samples without pretreatment measured only less than 2g/l of sugar. While using these hydrolysates as carbon sources, Clostridium strain BOH3 produces 2526-3126 ml/l of hydrogen after 72h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen yield was 295-300 ml/g of sugar which is close to the hydrogen yields from glucose (338 ml/gm) and xylose (330 ml/gm). Our HPLC analysis showed that fruit waste hydrolysate contained oligosugars (25-27%), sucrose (18-23%), fructose (25-30%), glucose (10-15%) and mannose (2-5%). Additionally, pretreatment led to the release of free amino acids (160-512 mg/l), calcium (7.8-12.9 ppm), magnesium (4.32-6.55 ppm), potassium (5.4-65.1 ppm) and sodium (0.4-0.5 ppm) into the hydrolysate. These nutrients were able to support strain-BOH3 to grow and produce high level of hydrogen. Notably, unlike other pretreatment methods (with strong acids and bases), these pretreatment techniques did not generate any inhibitors (e.g. furfural and phenolic acids) to suppress the hydrogen production. Interestingly, strain BOH3 can also ferment pretreated fruit waste slurry and produce hydrogen with a high yield (156-343 ml/gm fruit waste). While fermenting pretreated fruit waste slurry, strain-BOH3 excreted several saccharolytic enzymes majorly xylanase (1.84U/ml), amylase (1.10U/ml), pectinase (0.36U/ml) and cellulase (0.43U/ml). Due to expressions of these enzymes, strain BOH3 was able to directly utilize pretreated fruit waste hydrolysate and produces high-level of hydrogen.

Keywords: autoclave pretreatment, biohydrogen production, clostridial fermentation, fruit waste, and microwave pretreatment

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194 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty

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In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
193 Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure Application (HHP) and Osmotic Dehydration (DO) as a Pretreatment to Hot –Air Drying of Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) Cubes

Authors: Teresa Roco, Mario Perez Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Sebastian Pizarro

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This research presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure application (HHP) and osmotic dehydration (DO) as a pretreatment to hot –air drying of abalone cubes. The drying time was reduced to 6 hours at 60ºC as compared to the abalone drying by only a 15% NaCl osmotic pretreatment and at an atmospheric pressure that took 10 hours to dry at the same temperature. This was due to the salt and HHP saturation since osmotic pressure increases as water loss increases, thus needing a more reduced time in a convective drying, so water effective diffusion in drying plays an important role in this research. Different working conditions as pressure (350-550 MPa), pressure time ( 5-10 min), salt concentration, NaCl 15% and drying temperature (40-60ºC) will be optimized according to kinetic parameters of each mathematical model (Table 1). The models used for drying experimental curves were those corresponding to Weibull, Logarithmic and Midilli-Kucuk, but the latest one was the best fitted to the experimental data (Figure 1). The values for water effective diffusivity varied from 4.54 – to 9.95x10-9 m2/s for the 8 curves (DO+HHP) whereas the control samples (neither DO nor HHP) varied among 4.35 and 5.60x10-9 m2/s, for 40 and 60°C, respectively and as to drying by osmotic pretreatment at 15% NaCl from 3.804 to 4.36x10-9 m2/s at the same temperatures. Finally as to energy and efficiency consumption values for drying process (control and pretreated samples) it was found that they would be within a range of 777-1815 KJ/Kg and 8.22–19.20% respectively. Therefore, a knowledge concerning the drying kinetic as well as the consumption energy, in addition to knowledge about the quality of abalones subjected to an osmotic pretreatment (DO) and a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are extremely important to an industrial level so that the drying process can be successful at different pretreatment conditions and/or variable processes.

Keywords: abalone, convective drying, high pressure hydrostatic, pretreatments, diffusion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
192 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. Sharma, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey

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The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation, biodegradability index

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
191 Optimization of Alkali Assisted Microwave Pretreatments of Sorghum Straw for Efficient Bioethanol Production

Authors: Bahiru Tsegaye, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Partha Roy

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The limited supply and related negative environmental consequence of fossil fuels are driving researcher for finding sustainable sources of energy. Lignocellulose biomass like sorghum straw is considered as among cheap, renewable and abundantly available sources of energy. However, lignocellulose biomass conversion to bioenergy like bioethanol is hindered due to the reluctant nature of lignin in the biomass. Therefore, removal of lignin is a vital step for lignocellulose conversion to renewable energy. The aim of this study is to optimize microwave pretreatment conditions using design expert software to remove lignin and to release maximum possible polysaccharides from sorghum straw for efficient hydrolysis and fermentation process. Sodium hydroxide concentration between 0.5-1.5%, v/v, pretreatment time from 5-25 minutes and pretreatment temperature from 120-2000C were considered to depolymerize sorghum straw. The effect of pretreatment was studied by analyzing the compositional changes before and after pretreatments following renewable energy laboratory procedure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model used for optimization. About 32.8%-48.27% of hemicellulose solubilization, 53% -82.62% of cellulose release, and 49.25% to 78.29% lignin solubilization were observed during microwave pretreatment. Pretreatment for 10 minutes with alkali concentration of 1.5% and temperature of 1400C released maximum cellulose and lignin. At this optimal condition, maximum of 82.62% of cellulose release and 78.29% of lignin removal was achieved. Sorghum straw at optimal pretreatment condition was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency of hydrolysis was measured by analyzing reducing sugars by 3, 5 dinitrisylicylic acid method. Reducing sugars of about 619 mg/g of sorghum straw were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed a significant amount of lignin removal and cellulose release at optimal condition. This enhances the yield of reducing sugars as well as ethanol yield. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave pretreatments for enhancing bioethanol yield from sorghum straw.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolysis, lignocellulose, optimization

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190 Enhance Biogas Production by Enzymatic Pre-Treatment from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: M. S. Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam

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To enhance biogas production through anaerobic digestion, the application of various type of pre-treatment method has some limitations in terms of sustainable environmental management. Many studies on pretreatments especially chemical and physical processes are carried out to evaluate the anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production. Among the pretreatment methods acid and alkali pre-treatments gained the highest importance. Previous studies have showed that although acid and alkali pretreatment has significant effect on degradation of biomass, these methods have some negative impact on environment due to their hazard in nature while enzymatic pre-treatment is environmentally friendly. One of the constrains to use of enzyme in pretreatment process for biogas production is high cost which is currently focused to reduce cost through fermentation of waste-based media. As such palm oil mill effluent (POME) as an abundant resource generated during palm oil processing at mill is being used a potential fermentation media for enzyme production. This low cost of enzyme could be an alternative to biogas pretreatment process. This review is to focus direct application of enzyme as enzymatic pre-treatment on POME to enhanced production of biogas.

Keywords: POME, enzymatic pre-treatment, biogas, lignocellulosic biomass, anaerobic digestion

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
189 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina

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Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 358