Search results for: fatty acids
951 Human Health and Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Authors: Jinpa Palmo
Abstract:In many research, omega 3 fatty acid which is a polyunsaturated fatty acids is proved to be very important and essential nutrients having many different health benefits but apart from other fatty acids, it cannot be synthesise by our human body. Therefore, we have to get these fatty acids by consuming diets and supplements rich in it. Even though human beings can live by consuming other important nutrients but can live much healthier and longer by consuming omega 3 fatty acids. American heart association AHA recommends for daily intake of omega 3 fatty acids specially by those people with coronary heart disease. Fish considering as nutritional valuable animal is mostly due to its lipid content (fish oil) in which these omega 3 fatty acids are present very significantly. Fish does not actually produce these omega 3 fatty acid in their body, but receive these fatty acids through the food web in which phytoplankton are the chief source of these omega fatty acids.
Keywords: fatty acid, fish, disease, healthProcedia PDF Downloads 34
950 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku
Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama
Abstract:Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.
Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLCProcedia PDF Downloads 179
949 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens
Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz
Abstract:Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.
Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fatsProcedia PDF Downloads 274
948 Antiplatelet Activity of Nitrated Fatty Acids from Tomato Pomace
Authors: Lyanne Rodriguez, Eduardo Fuente, Andrés Trostchansky, Ivan Palomo
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world. The development of platelet-rich thrombi has been considered a trigger for acute cardiovascular events. A healthy diet, rich in fruit and vegetables, has been related to increased protection against cardiovascular events. Previous studies have observed that tomato pomace has a potent antiplatelet activity, due could be attributed to its high content of fatty acids (> 30%). It has been shown that unsaturated fatty acids can undergo endogenous intracellular nitration reactions during digestion after lipid consumption. Additionally, nitrated fatty acids (NO2-FA) can significantly reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation, inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules on dysfunctional endothelium and platelet activation. In this work, we have proposed the nitration of fatty acids present in tomato pomace to improve its antiplatelet action. The gastric digestion of the tomato pomace allowed the nitration of the fatty acids, while by HPLC/MS/MS we were able to identify and quantify the nitrated fatty acids. The nitrated tomase extracts showed antiplatelet potential when platelets were stimulated with TRAP-6 and collagen. This activity was related to the presence of nitrated linoleic acid, which inhibited platelet activation by flow cytometry. The knowledge about the antiplatelet activity of nitrated fatty acids from tomato pomace will further develop new and more effective agents.
Keywords: cardiovascular, tomato extracts, nitrated fatty acids, antiplatelet activityProcedia PDF Downloads 6
947 Study of Coconut and Babassu Oils with High Acid Content and the Fatty Acids (C6 to C16) Obtained from These Oils
Authors: Flávio A. F. da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, José A. S. Ramos Filho, Monica C. G. Albuquerque
Abstract:The vegetable oils have many applications in industrial processes and due to this potential have constantly increased the demand for the use of low-quality oils, mainly in the production of biofuel. This work aims to the physicochemical evaluation of babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) of low quality, as well the obtaining the free fatty acids 6 to 16 carbon atoms, with intention to be used as raw material for the biofuels production. The babassu oil and coconut low quality, as well the fatty acids obtained from these oils were characterized as their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition (using gas chromatography coupled to mass). The NMR technique was used to assess the efficiency of fractional distillation under reduced pressure to obtain the intermediate carbonic chain fatty acids. The results showed that the bad quality in terms of physicochemical evaluation of babassu oils and coconut oils interfere directly in industrial application. However the fatty acids of intermediate carbonic chain (C6 to C16) may be used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and particularly as the biokerosene fuel. The chromatographic analysis showed that the babassu oil and coconut oil have as major fatty acids are lauric acid (57.5 and 38.6%, respectively), whereas the top phase from distillation of coconut oil showed caprylic acid (39.1%) and major fatty acid.
Keywords: babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa), coconut oil (Cocos nucifera), fatty acids, biomassProcedia PDF Downloads 239
946 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa
Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova
Abstract:Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).
Keywords: microalgae, lipids, fatty acids, culture conditionsProcedia PDF Downloads 386
945 Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Spelt and Flaxseed Pasta
Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic
Abstract:The dynamic way of life has the tendency to simplify and decrease preparing healthy, quick, cheap and safe meals. Spelt pasta is meeting most of these goals. Contrary to bread, pasta can be stored a long time without deterioration in flavour, odour and usability without losing quality. This paper deals with the chemical composition and content of fatty acids in flaxseed and spelt flour. Ratio of essential fatty acids ω-6/ω-3 is also analysed in spelt pasta and pasta with 0%, 10% and 20% flaxseed flour. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is used for carrying out a quantitative analysis of flaxseed flour, spelt flour and pasta liposoluble extracts. Flaxseed flour has a better fatty acid profile than spelt flour, with low levels of saturated fat (approximately 9g/100g), high concentration of linolenic acid (57g/100g) and lower content of linoleic acid (16g/100g), as well as superior ω-6/ω-3 ratio that is 1:4. Flaxseed flour in the share of 10% and 20% in spelt pasta positively contributes to the essential fatty acids daily intake recommended by nutritionists and the improvement of ω-6/ω-3 ratio (6,7:1 and 1:1.2). This paper points out that investigated pasta with flaxseed is a new product with improved functional properties due to high level of ω-3 fatty acids and it is acceptable for consumers in regard to sensory properties.
Keywords: flaxseed, spelt, fatty acids, ω-3/ω-6 ratio, pastaProcedia PDF Downloads 531
944 Fatty Acid Profile of Meat from Lambs Fed on Diets Containing Mulberry Hay
Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, L. G. A. Cirne, V. T. Santana
Abstract:The aim of this trial was to evaluate fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed on diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty-four feedlot Ile de France lambs (average weight of 15kg and average age of 60 days) were randomized to receive the different diets and slaughtered at 32kg body weight. Increases were observed in the concentrations of the saturated pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and arachidic fatty acids; of the monounsaturated nervonic fatty acid and of the polyunsaturated α-linolenic, ɣ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. Increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also found in the meat of lambs fed on 12.5% mulberry hay. In addition, the omega-3 composition was augmented, while the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was decreased in mulberry hay-fed animals. In conclusion, a more desirable fatty acid profile was observed in lamb meat following the substitution of mulberry hay in the concentrate of fed, resulting in improved nutritional characteristics of the meat.
Keywords: alternative food, fatty acids, feedlot, sheep meatProcedia PDF Downloads 399
943 The Role of Bone Marrow Fatty Acids in the Early Stage of Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis
Authors: Sizhu Wang, Cuisong Tang, Lin Zhang, Guangyu Tang
Abstract:Objective: We aimed to detect the composition of bone marrow fatty acids early after ovariectomized (OVX) surgery and explore the potential mechanism. Methods: Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (12 weeks) were randomly divided into OVX group and Sham group (N=16/group), and received ovariectomy or sham surgery respectively. After 3 and 28 days, eight rats in each group were sacrificed to detect the composition of bone marrow fatty acids by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluate the trabecular bone microarchitecture by micro-CT. Significant different fatty acids in the early stage of post-menopausal osteoporosis were selected by OPLS-DA and t test. Then selected fatty acids were further studied in the process of osteogenic differentiation through RT-PCR and Alizarin Red S staining. Results: An apparent sample clustering and group separation were observed between OVX group and sham group three days after surgery, which suggested the role of bone marrow fatty acids in the early stage of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Specifically, myristate, palmitoleate and arachidonate were found to play an important role in classification between OVX group and sham group. We further investigated the effect of palmitoleate and arachidonate on osteogenic differentiation and found that palmitoleate promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells while arachidonate inhibited this process. Conclusion: Profound bone marrow fatty acids changes have taken place in the early stage of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Bone marrow fatty acids may begin to affect osteogenic differentiation shortly after deficiency of estrogen.
Keywords: bone marrow fatty acids, GC-MS, osteoblast, osteoporosis, post-menopausalProcedia PDF Downloads 30
942 Determination of Hydrolisis Condition in the Extraction of Fatty Acids from Pinchagua's (Opisthonema libertate) Heads, a By-Product of Sardine Industry
Authors: Belen Carrillo, Mauricio Mosquera
Abstract:Fatty acids are bioactive compounds widely used as nutritional supplements in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Bluefish such as sardines have a large variety of these fatty acids in their composition. The objective of this project is to extract these compounds from fishing wastes, to do this, heads of known species as Pinchagua (Opistonema libertate) were used. The conducted study represents a simplified alternative for obtaining and simultaneous saponification of oil through basic hydrolysis, which separates lipids from protein and saponifies sample all the same time to isolate the fatty acid accurately through salts formation. To do these different concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used, it was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 M the highest yield of saponified oil recovery corresponding a value of 3,64% was obtained. Subsequently, the saponified oil was subjected to an acid hydrolysis in which fatty acids were isolated. Different sulfuric acid concentrations and temperatures for the process were tested. Thus, it was shown that the great fatty acids variety were obtained at a 60 °C temperature and sulfuric acid concentration of 50% v/v. Among the obtained compounds the presence of acids such as palmitic, lauric, caproic and myristic are highlighted. Applications of this type of elements are varied and widely used in the nutritional supplements development. Thus, the described methodology proposes a simple mechanism in the revaluation of fishing industry wastes that allow directly generate high added value elements.
Keywords: fatty acids, hydrolysis, Pinchagua, saponificationProcedia PDF Downloads 114
941 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea
Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić
Abstract:Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.
Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea breamProcedia PDF Downloads 309
940 Study of the Composition of Lipids in Different Kinds of Packaged Food Products
Authors: Zineb Taidirt, Fathia Sebahi, Mohamed Karim Guarchani, Anissa Berkane, Noureddine Smail, Ouahiba Hadjoudj
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of death in Algeria. Several risk factors are responsible for this, including the consumption of foods containing saturated fat and trans fatty acids TFAs. This brief presents the results of a descriptive study of the lipid composition of 251 food products marketed in Algeria. The objective of the study is to describe the nature and composition of lipids and to verify the compliance of saturated and trans fatty acids intakes with the regulations. The study is based on data from the nutrition labelling of marketed food products. The results showed that the lipids in foodstuffs are diverse in nature and of varying amounts, but their nature is not specified on all products. In addition, the required content of saturated fatty acids is mentioned only in 29.48% of the products; 21.62% of them do not comply with the standard. Hydrogenation of fats, which produced Trans fatty acids, is common: 19.92% of products contain hydrogenated fats, and 74.89% may contain them according to the aspect of the lipid (solid fat). However, the trans fatty acid content is only mentioned in 5.18% of the products. The latter is above the limits set by Algerian regulations in 50% of the butter samples studied. The composition of lipids in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for the body is insufficient: only 13.94% of the products inform their contents on their labels. It is necessary to adopt mandatory restriction of trans fatty acids, to ban the use of partially-hydrogenated oils, and to require required mandatory labeling of the TFAs and the other fatty acids on packaged foods, and to conduct more studies in order to appreciate the intake of TFAs and saturated fat and appreciate their effects on the Algerian population and to get more informed about the composition of the lipid in packaged foods.
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, lipids, nutrition labelling, lipids, trans fatty acidsProcedia PDF Downloads 68
939 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey
Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz
Abstract:In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.
Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid, composition, gas chromatographyProcedia PDF Downloads 496
938 Effect of Peppermint Essential Oil versus a Mixture of Formic and Propionic Acids on Corn Silage Volatile Fatty Acid Score
Authors: Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Hodjatpanah Montazeri, Alireza Vakili, Mansoor Tahmasbei
Abstract:To compare peppermint essential oil versus a mixture of formic and propionic acids a study was conducted to their effects on volatile fatty acid proportion and VFA score of corn silage. Chopped whole crop corn (control) was treated with peppermint essential oil (240 mg kg-1 DM) or a mixture of formic and propionic acids (2:1) at 0.4% of fresh forage weight, and ensiled for 30 days. Then, silage extract was provided and the concentration of each VFA was determined using gas chromatography. The VFA score was calculated according to the patented formula proposed by Dairy One Scientific Committee. The score is calculated based on the positive impact of lactic and acetic acids versus the negative effect of butyric acid to achieve a single value for evaluating silage quality. The essential oil declined pH and increased the concentration of lactic and acetic acids in the silage extract. All corn silages evaluated in this study had a VFA score between 6 through 8. However, silage with peppermint essential oils had lower volatile fatty acids score than those of the other treatments. Both of applied additives caused a significant improvement in silage aerobic stability.
Keywords: peppermint, essential oil, corn silage, VFA (volatile fatty acids)Procedia PDF Downloads 317
937 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and Its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile (10364 EJSR)
Authors: Merzougui Imene, Gherib Asma, Henchiri Cherifa
Abstract:This study has allowed to confirm the physico chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physico chemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84 %), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01 % of total fatty acids and PUFA's represented by linoleic acid (19,26 %). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats. We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).
Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus, oil, lipid profile, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acidsProcedia PDF Downloads 295
936 The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation
Authors: S. A. Kondratyev, O. I. Ibragimova
Abstract:The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable species (DS) of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The values of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.
Keywords: criterion of action of physically adsorbed reagent, flotation, saturated fatty acids, surface pressureProcedia PDF Downloads 149
935 Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Authors: Ying Liang, Na Li
Abstract:Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).
Keywords: Aconitum carmichaelii, fatty acids, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipo-alkaloidsProcedia PDF Downloads 228
934 Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Properties of Fatty Acids Against Streptococcus Mutans
Authors: A. Mulry, C. Kealey, D. B. Brady
Abstract:Planktonic bacteria can form biofilms which are microbial aggregates embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). They can be found attached to abiotic or biotic surfaces. Biofilms are responsible for oral diseases such as dental caries, gingivitis and the progression of periodontal disease. Biofilms can resist 500 to 1000 times the concentration of biocides and antibiotics used to kill planktonic bacteria. Biofilm development on oral surfaces involves four stages, initial attachment, early development, maturation and dispersal of planktonic cells. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined using a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids using the resazurin assay, followed by serial dilution and spot plating on BHI agar plates to establish the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). Log reduction of bacteria was also evaluated for each fatty acid. The Minimum Biofilm Inhibition Concentration (MBIC) was determined using crystal violet assay in 96 well plates on forming and pre-formed S. mutans biofilms using BHI supplemented with 1% sucrose. Saturated medium-chain fatty acids Octanoic (C8.0), Decanoic (C10.0) and Undecanoic acid (C11.0) do not display strong antibiofilm properties; however, Lauric (C12.0) and Myristic (C14.0) display moderate antibiofilm properties with 97.83% and 97.5% biofilm inhibition with 1000 µM respectively. Monounsaturated, Oleic acid (C18.1) and polyunsaturated large chain fatty acids, Linoleic acid (C18.2) display potent antibiofilm properties with biofilm inhibition of 99.73% at 125 µM and 100% at 65.5 µM, respectively. Long-chain polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acids α-Linoleic (C18.3), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) (C20.5), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (C22.6) have displayed strong antibiofilm efficacy from concentrations ranging from 31.25-250µg/ml. DHA is the most promising antibiofilm agent with an MBIC of 99.73% with 15.625µg/ml. This may be due to the presence of six double bonds and the structural orientation of the fatty acid. To conclude, fatty acids displaying the most antimicrobial activity appear to be medium or long-chain unsaturated fatty acids containing one or more double bonds. Most promising agents include Omega-3-fatty acids Linoleic, α-Linoleic, EPA and DHA, as well as Omega-9 fatty acid Oleic acid. These results indicate that fatty acids have the potential to be used as antimicrobials and antibiofilm agents against S. mutans. Future work involves further screening of the most potent fatty acids against a range of bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative oral pathogens. Future work will involve incorporating the most effective fatty acids onto dental implant devices to prevent biofilm formation.
Keywords: antibiofilm, biofilm, fatty acids, S. mutansProcedia PDF Downloads 75
933 Changes in Chromatographically Assessed Fatty Acid Profile during Technology of Dairy Products
Authors: Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Mindaugas Malakauskas, Loreta Serniene
Abstract:Dairy product manufacturers constantly are looking for new markets for their production. And in most cases, the problem of product compliance with the composition requirements of foreign products is highlighted. This is especially true of the composition of milk fat in dairy products. It is well known that there are many factors such as feeding ratio, season, cow breed, stage of lactation that affect the fatty acid composition in milk. However, there is less evidence on the impact of the technological process on the composition of fatty acids in raw milk and products made from it. In this study the influence of the technological process on fat composition in 82% fat butter, 15% fat curd, 3.6% fat yogurt and 2.5% fat UHT milk was determined. The samples were collected at each stage of production, starting with raw milk and ending with the final product in the Lithuanian milk-processing company. Fatty acids methyl esters were quantified using a GC (Clarus 680, Perkin Elmer) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and a capillary column SP-2560, 100 m x 0.25 mm id x 0.20 µm. Fatty acids peaks were identified using Supelco® 37 Component FAME Mix. The concentration of each fatty acid was expressed in percent of the total fatty acid amount. In the case of UHT milk production, it was compared raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and UHT milk but significant differences were not estimated between these stages. Analyzing stages of the yogurt production (raw milk, pasteurized milk, and milk with a starter culture and yogurt), no significant changes were detected between stages as well. A slight difference was observed with C4:0 - a percentage of this fatty acid was less (p=0.053) in the final stage than in milk with the starter culture. During butter production, the composition of fatty acids in raw cream, buttermilk, and butter did not change significantly. Only C14:0 decreased in the butter then compared to buttermilk. The curd fatty acid analysis showed the increase of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 C14:0 and C17:0 at the final stage when compared to raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and whey. Meantime the increase of C18:1n9c (in comparison with milk mixture and curd) and C18:2n6c (in comparison with raw milk, milk mixture, and curd) was estimated in cream. The results of this study suggest that the technological process did not affect the composition of fatty acids in UHT milk, yogurt, butter, and curd but had the impact on the concentration of individual fatty acids. In general, all of the fatty acids from the raw milk were converted into the final product, only some of them slightly changed the concentration. Therefore, in order to ensure an appropriate composition of certain fatty acids in the final product, producers must carefully choose the raw milk. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture (No. MT-17-13).
Keywords: dairy products, fat composition, fatty acids, technological processProcedia PDF Downloads 112
932 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai
Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira
Abstract:Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.
Keywords: extraction, characterization, kernel oil, acrocomia totaiProcedia PDF Downloads 253
931 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey
Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas
Abstract:In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.
Keywords: fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fruit tree leaves, TurkeyProcedia PDF Downloads 415
930 Effect of Feeding Broilers on Diets Enriching With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Sources
Authors: Khalid Mahmoud Gaafar
Abstract:In human diets , ω-6 and ω-3 are important essential fatty acids for immunity and health. However, considerable alteration in dietary patterns and contents has resulted in change of the consumption of such fatty acids ,with subsequent increase in the consumption of ω-6 fatty acids and a marked decrease in the consumption of ω-3 fatty acids. This dietary alteration has led to an imbalance in the ratio for ω-6/ω-3, which at 20:1 now differs considerably from the original ratio (1:1). Therefore, dietary supplements such as eggs and meat enriched with omega 3 are necessary to increase the consumption of ω-3 to meet the recommended need for ω-3. Foods that supply ω-6 fatty acids include soybean, palm , sunflower, and rapeseed oils, whereas foods that supply ω-3 fatty acids such as linseed and fish oils. Lin seed oils contain Alpha – linolenic acid (ALA), which can be converted to DHA and EPA in the birds body, with linseed oil containing more than 50% ALA. On the other hand, high doses of omega 6 sources in the diet may have deleterious eﬀects on humans. Maintaining an optimum ratio of ω-3 and ω-6fatty acids not only improves performance but also prevents these health risks. The ratio of n-6:ω-3 fatty acids also plays an important role in the immune response, production performance of broilers and designing meat enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Birds of three experimental groups fed on basal starter (0-2nd weeks), grower (3rd -4th weeks) and finisher (5th week) rations. The first is control group fed during the grower-finisher periods on basic diet with two replicate (one fed on basic diet contain vegetable oil and the other don’t) without any additives. The three experimental groups (T1 – T2 –T3) fed during the grower- finisher periods on diets free from vegetable oils and contain of 5% of extruded mixture of soybean and linseed (60%:40%). The second (T2) and third (T3) experimental groups supplemented with vitamin B12 and enzyme mixture. The first experimental groups don’t receive vitamins or enzymes. The obtained results showed a significant increased growth performance, immune response, highest antioxidant activity and serum HDL with lowest serum LDL and triglycerides levels in all experimental groups compared with control group, which was highly significant in group fed on vitamin B6.
Keywords: omega fatty acids, broiler, feeding, human health, growth performance, immunityProcedia PDF Downloads 46
929 Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle
Authors: Myagmarsuren Soronzonjav, N. Togtokhbayar, L. Davaahuu, B. Minjigdorj, Seong Gu Hwang
Abstract:The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.
Keywords: chromatogram, gas chromatography, organic resolving, saturated and unsaturated fatty acidsProcedia PDF Downloads 199
928 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi
Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova
Abstract:In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.
Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipidsProcedia PDF Downloads 386
927 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia
Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić
Abstract:The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.
Keywords: hemometrics, milk, organic farming, quality controlProcedia PDF Downloads 170
926 Measurement of Fatty Acid Changes in Post-Mortem Belowground Carcass (Sus-scrofa) Decomposition: A Semi-Quantitative Methodology for Determining the Post-Mortem Interval
Authors: Nada R. Abuknesha, John P. Morgan, Andrew J. Searle
Abstract:Information regarding post-mortem interval (PMI) in criminal investigations is vital to establish a time frame when reconstructing events. PMI is defined as the time period that has elapsed between the occurrence of death and the discovery of the corpse. Adipocere, commonly referred to as ‘grave-wax’, is formed when post-mortem adipose tissue is converted into a solid material that is heavily comprised of fatty acids. Adipocere is of interest to forensic anthropologists, as its formation is able to slow down the decomposition process. Therefore, analysing the changes in the patterns of fatty acids during the early decomposition process may be able to estimate the period of burial, and hence the PMI. The current study concerned the investigation of the fatty acid composition and patterns in buried pig fat tissue. This was in an attempt to determine whether particular patterns of fatty acid composition can be shown to be associated with the duration of the burial, and hence may be used to estimate PMI. The use of adipose tissue from the abdominal region of domestic pigs (Sus-scrofa), was used to model the human decomposition process. 17 x 20cm piece of pork belly was buried in a shallow artificial grave, and weekly samples (n=3) from the buried pig fat tissue were collected over an 11-week period. Marker fatty acids: palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1n-9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acid were extracted from the buried pig fat tissue and analysed as fatty acid methyl esters using the gas chromatography system. Levels of the marker fatty acids were quantified from their respective standards. The concentrations of C16:0 (69.2 mg/mL) and C18:1n-9 (44.3 mg/mL) from time zero exhibited significant fluctuations during the burial period. Levels rose (116 and 60.2 mg/mL, respectively) and fell starting from the second week to reach 19.3 and 18.3 mg/mL, respectively at week 6. Levels showed another increase at week 9 (66.3 and 44.1 mg/mL, respectively) followed by gradual decrease at week 10 (20.4 and 18.5 mg/mL, respectively). A sharp increase was observed in the final week (131.2 and 61.1 mg/mL, respectively). Conversely, the levels of C18:2n-6 remained more or less constant throughout the study. In addition to fluctuations in the concentrations, several new fatty acids appeared in the latter weeks. Other fatty acids which were detectable in the time zero sample, were lost in the latter weeks. There are several probable opportunities to utilise fatty acid analysis as a basic technique for approximating PMI: the quantification of marker fatty acids and the detection of selected fatty acids that either disappear or appear during the burial period. This pilot study indicates that this may be a potential semi-quantitative methodology for determining the PMI. Ideally, the analysis of particular fatty acid patterns in the early stages of decomposition could be an additional tool to the already available techniques or methods in improving the overall processes in estimating PMI of a corpse.
Keywords: adipocere, fatty acids, gas chromatography, post-mortem intervalProcedia PDF Downloads 66
925 Synergistic Effect of Cold Plasma on Antioxidant Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Rice Bran
Authors: Rohit Thirumdas, Annapure U. S.
Abstract:Low-pressure air plasma is used to investigate the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of rice bran at different power levels (40 W and 60 W). We observed partial hydrogenation of rice bran oil after the treatment. The fatty acid composition analysis by gas chromatography showed an increase of 28.2% in palmitic acid and a 29.4% decrease in linoleic acid. FTIR spectrum shows no new peak formation, which confirms negligible amounts of trans-fatty acids. There is a decrease in peroxide value and iodine value, which can be correlated to an increase in saturated fatty acids. The total polyphenolic content was observed to be increased by 20.1% after the treatment. There is an increase in reducing power and DPPH % inhibition of rice bran due to plasma treatment. This study shows cold plasma treatment can be considered an alternative technology for the hydrogenation of oils, replacing traditional toxic processes.
Keywords: cold plasma, rice bran, fatty acid composition, hydrogenation of oils, antioxidant propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 32
924 Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets
Authors: Tiago N. P. Valente, Erico S. Lima, Roberto O. Roça
Abstract:Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).
Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, unsaturated fatty acidsProcedia PDF Downloads 208
923 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread
Authors: Sibel Silici
Abstract:Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.
Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 187
922 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil
Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın
Abstract:Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.
Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residueProcedia PDF Downloads 326