Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Endang Wahyuni

19 Yoghurt Kepel Stelechocarpus burahol as an Effort of Functional Food Diversification from Region of Yogyakarta

Authors: Dian Nur Amalia, Rifqi Dhiemas Aji, Tri Septa Wahyuningsih, Endang Wahyuni

Abstract:

Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a scarce fruit that belongs as a logogram of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Kepel fruit can be used as substance of beauty treatment product, such as deodorant and good for skin health, and also contains antioxidant compound. Otherwise, this fruit is scarcely cultivated by people because of its image as a palace fruit and also the flesh percentage just a little, so it has low economic value. The flesh of kepel fruit is about 49% of its whole fruit. This little part as supporting point why kepel fruit has to be extracted and processed with the other product. Yoghurt is milk processing product that also have a role as functional food. Economically, the price of yoghurt is higher than whole milk or other milk processing product. Yoghurt is usually added with flavor of dye from plant or from chemical substance. Kepel fruit has a role as flavor in yoghurt, besides as product that good for digestion, yoghurt with kepel also has function as “beauty” food. Writing method that used is literature study by looking for the potential of kepel fruit as a local fruit of Yogyakarta and yoghurt as milk processing product. The process just like making common yoghurt because kepel fruit just have a role as flavor substance, so it does not affect to the other processing of yoghurt. Food diversification can be done as an effort to increase the value of local resources that proper to compete in Asean Economic Community (AEC), one of the way is producing kepel yoghurt.

Keywords: kepel, yoghurt, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, functional food

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18 Ideal Posture in Regulating Legal Regulations in Indonesia

Authors: M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara

Abstract:

Indonesia is a state of the law in accordance with article 1 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945 Constitution), namely, 'the State of Indonesia is a state of law'. The consequences of the rule of law are making the law as the main commanding officer or making the law as a basis for carrying out an action taken by the state. The types of regulations and procedures for the formation of legislation in Indonesia are contained in Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislation. Various attempts were made to make quality regulations both in the formal hierarchy and material hierarchy such as synchronization and harmonization in the formation of laws and regulations so that there is no conflict between equal and hierarchical laws, but the fact is that there are still many conflicting regulations found between one another. This can be seen clearly in the many laws and regulations that were sued to judicial institutions such as the Constitutional Court (MK) and the Supreme Court (MA). Therefore, it is necessary to have a formulation regarding the governance of the formation of laws and regulations so as to minimize the occurrence of lawsuits to the court so that positive law can be realized which can be used today and for the future (ius constituendum). The research method that will be used in this research is a combination of normative research (library research) supported by empirical data from field research so that it can formulate concepts and answer the challenges being faced. First, the structuring of laws and regulations in Indonesia must start from the inventory of laws and regulations, whether they can be classified based on the type of legislation, what are they set about, the year of manufacture, etc. so that they can be clearly traced to the regulations relating to the formation of laws and regulations. Second, the search and revocation/revocation of laws and regulations that do not exist in the state registration system. Third, the periodic evaluation system is carried out at every level of the hierarchy of laws and regulations. These steps will form an ideal model of laws and regulations in Indonesia both in terms of content and material so that the instructions can be codified and clearly inventoried so that they can be accessed by the wider community as a concrete manifestation of the principle that all people know the law (presumptio iures de iure).

Keywords: legislation, review, evaluation, reconstruction

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17 Exploring Factors Affecting Electricity Production in Malaysia

Authors: Endang Jati Mat Sahid, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Ability to supply reliable and secure electricity has been one of the crucial components of economic development for any country. Forecasting of electricity production is therefore very important for accurate investment planning of generation power plants. In this study, we aim to examine and analyze the factors that affect electricity generation. Multiple regression models were used to find the relationship between various variables and electricity production. The models will simultaneously determine the effects of the variables on electricity generation. Many variables influencing electricity generation, i.e. natural gas (NG), coal (CO), fuel oil (FO), renewable energy (RE), gross domestic product (GDP) and fuel prices (FP), were examined for Malaysia. The results demonstrate that NG, CO, and FO were the main factors influencing electricity generation growth. This study then identified a number of policy implications resulting from the empirical results.

Keywords: energy policy, energy security, electricity production, Malaysia, the regression model

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16 Analysis of Palm Oil Production and Rubber Production to Gross Domestic Product in Ten Districts of West Kalimantan

Authors: Evy Sulistianingsih, Mariatul Kiftiah, Dedi Rosadi, Heni Wahyuni

Abstract:

This research attempts to analyse palm oil production and rubber production to prosperity of the community of ten districts in West Kalimantan namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang, Bengkayang, Landak, Singkawang, Kapuas Hulu, Melawi and Sekadau by panel regression. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the districts will be used to be a prosperity indicator on this research. Based on the result of analysis, it can be concluded that palm oil and rubber production statistically give contribution to GDP. Adjusted coefficient determination of Fixed Effect Model indicates that 76% of GDP’s variation can be explained by palm oil and rubber production. In another point of view, there should be a district’s government intervention to regulate the plantations. In addition, there is an obligation of the government to monitor regularly the plantations and to conduct researches in order to govern better planning of lands that have been used to the plantations. So that, the environmental effects that have been caused by the plantation can be diminished.

Keywords: gross domestic product (GDP), panel, palm, welfare

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15 The Experimental Study of Cold-Formed Steel Truss Connections Capacity: Screw and Adhesive Connection

Authors: Indra Komara, Kıvanç Taşkin, Endah Wahyuni, Priyo Suprobo

Abstract:

A series of connection tests that were composed of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections were made to investigate the capacity of connections in a roof truss frame. The connection is controlled by using the two-different type of connection i.e. screws connection and adhesive. The variation of screws is also added applying 1 screw, 2 screws, and 3 screws. On the other hand, the percentage of adhesively material is increased by the total area of screws connection which is 50%, 75%, and 100%. Behaviors illustrated by each connection are examined, and the design capacities projected from the current CFS design codes are appealed to the experimental results of the connections. This research analyses the principal factors assisting in the ductile response of the CFS truss frame connection measured to propose recommendations for connection design, and novelty so that the connection respond plastically with a significant capacity for no brittle failure. Furthermore, the comparison connection was considered for the analysis of the connection capacity, which was estimated from the specimen’s maximum load capacity and the load-deformation behavior.

Keywords: adhesive, bolts, capacity, cold-formed steel, connections, truss

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14 The Use of Video in Increasing Speaking Ability of the First Year Students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru in the Academic Year 2011/2012

Authors: Elvira Wahyuni

Abstract:

This study is a classroom action research. The general objective of this study was to find out students’ speaking ability through teaching English by using video and to find out the effectiveness of using video in teaching English to improve students’ speaking ability. The subjects of this study were 34 of the first-year students of SMAN 12 Pekanbaru who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Students were given pre-test before the treatment and post-test after the treatment. Quantitative data was collected by using speaking test requiring the students to respond to the recorded questions. Qualitative data was collected through observation sheets and field notes. The research finding reveals that there is a significant improvement of the students’ speaking ability through the use of video in speaking class. The qualitative data gave a description and additional information about the learning process done by the students. The research findings indicate that the use of video in teaching and learning is good in increasing learning outcome.

Keywords: English teaching, fun learning, speaking ability, video

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13 Legal Study about Flagellation Punishment of Qanun Jinayah in Aceh Province

Authors: Yuyun Sri Wahyuni, Fathih Misbahuddin Islam

Abstract:

Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam is the special district with its long conflict history. The long conflict history started from The Free Aceh Movement’s intentions to implement Islamic principles in Aceh Province, it was actually contradicted with the principles of state. This long conflict was finally ended on 2005. Then, since 2005 Aceh had special authority to administer its local government affairs by applying Islamic principles (syariah), included criminal law matters. To administer it, Aceh Government enacted Law Number 6 of 2014 on the Jinayah. This law consists the criminal act (jarimah) and the punishment (uqubat). Khamr, maisir, khalwat, ikhtilath, zina, sexual harrasment, rape, qadzaf, liwath, and musahaqah are the kinds of the criminal act which are ruled within. Meanwhile, Hudud and Takdzir as the kinds of punishment (uqubat). After 2 years of the issuance of this law inflicting controversy from any sides and being discussed not only locally but also globally. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the fundamental value of the flagellation punishment within this law and Aceh Government review in formulating the law.

Keywords: Aceh province, flagellation punishment, Islamic Principle, Qanun Jinayah

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12 Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.

Keywords: electricity, energy policy, energy security, Malaysia

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11 Renewable Energy and Energy Security in Malaysia: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Endang Jati Mat Sahid, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Robust economic growth, increasing population, and personal consumption are the main drivers for the rapid increase of energy demand in Malaysia. Increasing demand has compounded the issue of national energy security due to over-dependence on fossil fuel, depleting indigenous domestic conventional energy resources which in turns has increased the country’s energy import dependence. In order to improve its energy security, Malaysia has seriously embarked on a renewable energy journey. Many initiatives on renewable energy have been introduced in the past decade. These strategies have resulted in the exploding growth of renewable energy deployment in Malaysia. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of renewable energy deployment on energy security. Secondary data was used to calculate the energy security indicators. The study also compared the results of applying different energy security indicators namely availability, applicability, affordability and acceptability dimension of energy resources. The evaluation shows that Malaysia will experience slight improvement in availability and acceptability dimension of energy security. This study suggests that energy security level could be further enhanced by efficient utilization of energy, reducing carbon content of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries.

Keywords: energy policy, energy security, Malaysia, renewable energy

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10 Corporate Social Responsibility vs Corporate Social Reactivity: An Exploration of Corporate Social Responsibility Planning in a Multinational Oil and Gas in Indonesia

Authors: Endang Ghani Ashfiya

Abstract:

This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) planning in a downstream business of multinational oil and gas company in Indonesia from managerial perspectives. The institutional logic is employed in this research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the way the MNC manages the socio-cultural aspects in the host countries, especially in the process of translation and adaptation of the company’s CSR global guidelines. The interviews are conducted with fifteen managers in that company, both at the top managerial level and operational level. In the beginning, this research explains the Indonesian society’s conception of CSR from the managerial standpoints. The society’s understanding of the CSR concept becomes the fundamental foundations of the company in developing CSR programs. This study found the company’s approach to its CSR in two ways. First, proactive CSR which reflects the global CSR guidelines. Second, reactive CSR which do not show any explicit relations to the global guidelines, but conform with society’s demands. The findings stimulate discussions regarding the power of an MNC vis-à-vis the socio-cultural implication in society’s demand for CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility planning, Indonesia, institutional logic, multinational company, oil and gas company, socio-cultural aspects

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9 Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) Tissue Culture

Authors: Titin Handayani, Endang Yuniastuti

Abstract:

Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is a potential plant contain mainly oil seeds that can be used as a source of alternative bioenergy and medicine. The main problem of kepuh cultivation is the limited supply of seed plants. Seeds development were very easy, but to produce fruit have to wait for approximately 5 years. The objective of this research was to obtain kepuh plants through direct in vitro regeneration. Hypocotyls and shoot tips explants were excised from sterile germinated seedlings and placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that shoots induction from the apical and axillary buds on MS medium + 1.5 and 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 and 1 mg/L IAA was growth very slowly. Increasing of BAP concentrations was increased shoot formation. The first subcultures were increased the rate of shoots growth on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The second of shoots subculture on MS medium + 1.5 to 2 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L IAA was increased the number of shoots up to 4.8 in average. The best medium of shoots elongation were MS + 1 mgL-1 kinetin + 5 mg/L GA3. The highest percentage of roots (65%) occurred on MS medium with 5 mg/L IBA which average number of roots was 3.1. High percentages of survival and plants of normal appearance were obtained after five weeks of acclimatization.

Keywords: Kepuh, Sterculia foetida L, shoot multiplication, rooting, acclimatization, bioenergy, medicine

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8 Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure and Financial Performance on Islamic Banking in Indonesia

Authors: Yasmin Umar Assegaf, Falikhatun, Salamah Wahyuni

Abstract:

This study aims to provide empirical evidence about the influence of Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosures of the financial performance of Islamic banking with the characteristics of the company, as a control variable in Islamic banking in Indonesia. ICSR disclosures are an independent variable, while the Financial Performance is the dependent variable (proxied by Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Income Expense Ratio (IER), and Non-net Interest Margin (NIM). The control variables used are firm size, firm age and the type of audit. The population of the study was all Islamic Banks (BUS) operate in Indonesia. The research sample is Islamic Commercial Bank which has existed in Indonesia since 2002 and publishes financial statements between the years of 2007-2011. The sample of the study were include 31 Annual Report published. The results of this study concluded that there are significant influences between the ICSR Disclosures and financial performance. The disclosure is partially effect on ROA, IER and NIM, whereas there is no influence on ROE. Further result shows that all control variables (Firm Size, Age, and Type of Audit Companies) does not have any influence on ICSR Disclosures in Indonesia. This research gives a suggestion for further research to compare these ICSR disclosures in Indonesia with ICSR disclosures in other countries that have Islamic banking, by using other measure variables of financial performance, to get more comprehensive model and real picture.

Keywords: ROA, ROE, IER, NIM, company size, age of the company, audit type, Islamic banking

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7 Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Indonesia

Authors: Bela Sulistyaguna, Yuli Chomsatu Samrotun, Endang Masitoh Wahyuningsih

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. The grand theories of this research are agency theory, stakeholders theory, and legitimacy theory. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression method with SPSS 22.0 for mac. The sample consists of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and disclosed the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reports from 2013 to 2018. The final sample of this research was 19 companies that obtained by purposive sampling. The results of the research showed that, simultaneously, company size, liquidity, profitability, leverage, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Partially, the results showed that liquidity and leverage has an influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure. Meanwhile, company size, profitability, company age, industry type, board of director, board of commissioner, audit committee and public ownership has no influence on corporate social responsibility disclosure.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR disclosure, Indonesia

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6 Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education

Authors: Endina P. Purwandari, Yolanda Hervianti, Feri Noperman, Endang W. Winarni

Abstract:

The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.

Keywords: android, edugame, mitigation, earthquakes

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5 Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)

Authors: Endang Purwati, Ely Vebriyanti, R. Puji Hartini, Hendri Purwanto

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.

Keywords: antioxidant, cholesterol, cinnamon, Pediococcus pentosaceus, yoghurt

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4 Development and Validation Method for Quantitative Determination of Rifampicin in Human Plasma and Its Application in Bioequivalence Test

Authors: Endang Lukitaningsih, Fathul Jannah, Arief R. Hakim, Ratna D. Puspita, Zullies Ikawati

Abstract:

Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin B produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. RIF has been used worldwide as first line drug-prescribed throughout tuberculosis therapy. This study aims to develop and to validate an HPLC method couple with a UV detection for determination of rifampicin in spiked human plasma and its application for bioequivalence study. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an RP-C18 column (LachromHitachi, 250 x 4.6 mm., 5μm), utilizing a mobile phase of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (55:45, v/v, pH 6.8 ± 0.1) at a flow of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 337 nm by using spectrophotometer. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specifity. The specifity of the method was ascertained by comparing chromatograms of blank plasma and plasma containing rifampicin; the matrix and rifampicin were well separated. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.7 µg/mL and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively. The regression curve of standard was linear (r > 0.999) over a range concentration of 20.0 – 100.0 µg/mL. The mean recovery of the method was 96.68 ± 8.06 %. Both intraday and interday precision data showed reproducibility (R.S.D. 2.98% and 1.13 %, respectively). Therefore, the method can be used for routine analysis of rifampicin in human plasma and in bioequivalence study. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of rifampicin tablet in a limited number of subjects (under an Ethical Clearance No. KE/FK/6201/EC/2015). The mean values of Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-24) and AUC(o-∞) for the test formulation of rifampicin were 5.81 ± 0.88 µg/mL, 1.25 hour, 29.16 ± 4.05 µg/mL. h. and 29.41 ± 4.07 µg/mL. h., respectively. Meanwhile for the reference formulation, the values were 5.04 ± 0.54 µg/mL, 1.31 hour, 27.20 ± 3.98 µg/mL.h. and 27.49 ± 4.01 µg/mL.h. From bioequivalence study, the 90% CIs for the test formulation/reference formulation ratio for the logarithmic transformations of Cmax and AUC(0-24) were 97.96-129.48% and 99.13-120.02%, respectively. According to the bioequivamence test guidelines of the European Commission-European Medicines Agency, it can be concluded that the test formulation of rifampicin is bioequivalence with the reference formulation.

Keywords: validation, HPLC, plasma, bioequivalence

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3 Characteristics of Pyroclastic and Igenous Rocks Mineralogy of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

Authors: Ridho Widyantama Putra, Endang Wiwik Dyah Hastuti

Abstract:

The study area is located in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra and is part of a 500 m – 2000 m elevated perbukitan barisan zone controlled by the main fault of Sumatra (Semangko Fault), administratively located on S4.08197 - E103.01403 and S4.16786 - E103.07700, the product of Semangko Fault in the form of normal fault flight trending north-southeast, composed of lithologic is a pyroclastic rock, volcanic rock and plutonic rock intrusion. On the Manna and Enggano sheets of volcanic quartenary products are located along perbukitan barisan zone. Petrology types of pyroclastic rocks encountered in the form of welded tuff, tuff lapilli, agglomerate, pyroclastic sandstone, pyroclastic claystone, and lava. Some pyroclastic material containing sulfide minerals (pyrite), the type of sedimentation flow with different grain size from ash to lapilli. The present of tuff lapilli covers almost 50% of the total research area, through observation petrography encountered minerals in the form of glass, quartz, palgioklas, and biotite. Lava in this area has been altered characterized by the presence of minerals such as chlorite and secondary biotite, this change is caused by the structure that develops in the hilly zone and is proved by the presence of secondary structures in the form of stocky and normal faults as well as the primary structure of columnar joint, From medial facies to distal facies, the division of facies is divided based on geomorphological observations and dominant types of lithology.

Keywords: tuff lapili, pyroclastic, mineral, petrography, volcanic, lava

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2 Influence of Pediococcus Pentasaceus Isolate “Dadih” (Buffalo Milk Fermended in Bamboo) the Bowel Frequence, Secretory Immunoglobulin a Level and Height of Ileum Villi of the Mice EPEC Induced Diarrhea

Authors: Endang Purwati Rahayuningsih

Abstract:

The aim of this study is Enteropathogenic Eschericia coli O157 (EPEC) is one of the pathogen that can cause inflamation and damage intestinal mucosa, which is leading diarrhea. Inflamation in the intestinal mucosa proved by the presence of secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) on the feces. Isolate dadih is Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) as a probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is very usefull to improve sIgA and intestinal mucosa. The objective, to determine the dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus for bowel frequence, sIgA level and height of illeum villi in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Method, using Complete Randomized design studies in mice EPEC-induced diarrhea. Mice was classified into 2 factors. A factor (dose of probiotic) and B factor (duration of probiotic observation) consisted of 0 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours. A factor consisted of negative control, positive control (mice induced by EPEC) and 3 different dose experimental mice. The results were a very significant interaction between dose and duration administration of P. pentosaceus. Mean of the most frequent defecation of mice EPEC-induced was 55 graetly reduced into 12 ,after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010 cfu/g, Mean of sIgA level of mice induced EPEC was 1,60 μg/ml, very significant different (p<0,01). Mean of sIgA level after 24 administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g was 2,65 μg/ml. Mean of height of illeum villi after induced EPEC 53,04 μm with very significant different after 24 hours administration P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g (142,881μm). This study concluded that P. pentosaceus dose 2 x 1010cfu/g after 24 hours is very beneficial to reduced bowel frequence, increase sIgA level and improve the height illeum villi of mice EPEC-induced diarrhea.

Keywords: Pediococcus pentosaceus, sIgA, enteropathogenic Eschericia coli O157, diarrhea, illeum villi

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1 The Antioxidant Gel Mask Supplies Of Bitter Melon's Extract ( Momordica charantia Linn.)

Authors: N. S. Risqina, G. Edijanti, P. S. Nurita, L. Endang, R. A. Siti, R. Tri

Abstract:

Skin is an important and vital organs and also as a mirror of health and life. Facial skin care is one of the main emphasis to get the beautiful, healthy, and fresh skin. Potentially antioxidant phenolic compounds shows, antimutagen, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds that have the nature of free radicals, inhibiting the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes as well as anti-inflammatory. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) is a plant that contains flavonoids, and phenolic antioxidant activity. Bitter melon has strong antioxidant activity that can counteract the free radicals.These compounds can prevent free radicals that cause premature aging. Gel masks including depth cleansing is the cosmetics which work in depth and could raise the dead skin cells. Measurement of antioxidant activity of the extract and gel mask is done by using the immersion method of DPPH. IC50 value of ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit of 287.932 ppm. The preparation of gel mask bitter melon fruit extract, necessary to test the effectiveness of antioxidants using DPPH method is done by measuring the inhibition of DPPH and using UV spectrophotometer at the wavelength of maximum DPPH solution. Tests conducted at the beginning and end of the evaluation (day 0 and day 28). The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the bitter melon's extract and to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract gel mask pare in varying concentrations, ie 1xIC100 (0.295%), 2xIC100 (0.590%) and 4xIC100 (1.180%). Evaluation of physical properties of the preparation on (Day-0,7,14,21, and 28) and evaluation of antioxidant activity (day 0 and 28). Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA to determine differences in the physical properties of each formula. The statistical results showed that differences in the formula and storage time affects the adhesion, dispersive power, dry time and pH it is shown on a significant value of p <0.05, but longer storage does not affect the pH because the significance value p> 0,05. The antioxidant test showed that there are differences in antioxidant activity in all formulas. Measurement of antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas day 28 consecutive 130 411, 495 ppm, and 53239.806 95561.645 ppm ppm. The Conclusions drawn that there are antioxidant activity in preparation gel mask of bitter melon fruit extract. The antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on the day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas on day 28 of antioxidant activity gel mask bitter melon fruit extract with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180% in succession, namely: 130,411.495 ppm, ppm 95561.645 and 53239.806 ppm.

Keywords: antioxdant, bitter melon, gel mask, IC50

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