Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: pistachio

14 The Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Pistachio in Processed Food Products Using Florescence Dye Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün

Abstract:

Pistachio nuts, the fruits of the pistachio tree (Pistacia vera), are edible tree nuts highly valued for their organoleptic properties. Pistachio nuts used in snack foods, chocolates, baklava, meat products, ice-cream industries and other gourmet products as ingredients. Undeclared pistachios may be present in food products as a consequence of fraudulent substitution. Control of food samples is very important for safety and fraud. Mix of pistachio, peanut (Arachis hypogaea), pea (Pisum sativum L.) used instead of pistachio in food products, because pistachio is a considerably expensive nut. To solve this problem, a sensitive polymerase chain reaction PCR has been developed. A real-time PCR assay for the detection of pea, peanut and pistachio in baklava was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescence dye. Primers were selected from powerful regions for identification of pea, peanut and pistachio. DNA from reference samples and industrial products were successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 77°C, 85.5°C and 82.5°C for pea, peanut and pistachio, respectively. Homogenized mixtures of raw pistachio, pea and peanut were prepared with the ratio of 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, 40% and 70% of pistachio. Quantitative detection limit of assay was 0.1% for pistachio. Also, real-time PCR technique used in this study allowed the qualitative detection of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA in the experimental admixtures. This assay represents a potentially valuable diagnostic method for detection of nut species adulterated with pistachio as well as for highly specific and relatively rapid detection of small amounts of pistachio in food samples.

Keywords: pea, peanut, pistachio, real-time PCR

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13 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions

Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.

Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional drying

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12 Biogas Production from Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Processing Waste

Authors: İ. Çelik, Goksel Demirer

Abstract:

Turkey is the third largest producer of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) after Iran and United States. Harvested pistachio nuts are covered with organic hull which is removed by de-hulling process. Most of the pistachio by-products which are produced during de-hulling process are considered as agricultural waste and often mixed with soil, to a lesser extent are used as feedstuff by local livestock farmers and a small portion is used as herbal medicine. Due to its high organic and phenolic content as well as high solids concentration, pistachio processing wastes create significant waste management problems unless they are properly managed. However, there is not a well-established waste management method compensating the waste generated during the processing of pistachios. This study investigated the anaerobic treatability and biogas generation potential of pistachio hull waste. The effect of pre-treatment on biogas generation potential was investigated. For this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Assays were conducted for two Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 22 and 33 g tCOD l-1 at the absence and presence of chemical and thermal pre-treatment methods. The results revealed anaerobic digestion of the pistachio de-hulling wastes and subsequent biogas production as a renewable energy source are possible. The observed percent COD removal and methane yield values of the pre-treated pistachio de-hulling waste samples were significantly higher than the raw pistachio de-hulling waste. The highest methane yield was observed as 213.4 ml CH4/g COD.

Keywords: pistachio de-hulling waste, biogas, renewable energy, pre-treatment

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11 Chemical Composition Pistachio Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nadjiba Mezıou-Cheboutı, Amel Merabet, Yahia Cheboutı, Nassima Behidj, Fatima-Zohra Bıssaad et Salahedine Doumandjı

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila . Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60 ± 0.45%, the water rate is 7.21 ± 0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00 ± 0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02 ± 0.47%, the protein reached 29.88 ± 0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: pistachio, dry matter, fat, sugar, protein

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10 The Chemical Composition of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nadjiba Meziou-Chebouti, Amel Merabet, Yahia Chebouti, Nassima Behidj, Salahedine Doumandji

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila. Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60±0.45%, the water rate is 7.21±0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00±0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02±0.47%, the protein reached 29.88±0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: pistachio, dry matter, fat, sugar, protein

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9 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha

Abstract:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

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8 The Effect of Bunch in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Alireza Sohrabi, Hamid Mohammadi

Abstract:

The pistachio fruit is a strategic product in Iran. One of the problems caused the reduction of pistachio proceeds is related to biennial- bearing or alternative bearing. Biennial- bearing is very important and is happened because of the fallen female bloom buds in vintage year. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results are shown that if the bunch numbers are increased, the possibility of falling is increased in bloom buds. The least possibility of falling of bloom buds is specified in trimming of one bunch and has significant difference with other trimming.

Keywords: alternate bearing, pistachio, cluster, bud

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7 Investigation of Success Rate and Growth Parameters of Five Pistachio Cultivars Transplanted in March and November

Authors: H. Mohammadi Aliabadi, M. S. Mansouri

Abstract:

The effect of two different transplanting date (March and November) in five pistachio cultivars ('Ahmad Aghaei', 'Akbri', Momtaz', 'Ghazvini', and 'Ohadi') were evaluated in Rafsanjan Azad University, Iran. Seeds were planted in plastic bags in March 2012. The seedlings were transplanted to a field in November 2012 and March 2013. Vegetative growing factors such as plant length, stem diameter, number of leaves and fresh and dry weight were measured in date. The results obtained from collected data indicated that no significant differences were found for the traits of interest. Therefore, growers should not be concerned regarding these two transplanting dates.

Keywords: pistachio, seedling, success rate, transplanting date

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6 Corresponding Effect of Mycorhizal fungi and Pistachio on Absorption of Nutrition and Resistance on Salinity in Pistacia vera, L.

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, S. H. Eftekhar Afzali

Abstract:

The irregular usage of chemical fertilizer cause different types of water and soil pollution and problems in health of human in past decades and organic fertilizer has been considered more and more. Mycorrhizal fungi have symbiosis with plant families and significantly effect on plant growth. Proper management of these symbiosis causes to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and absorb nutrition especially phosphor. Pistacia vera is endemic in Iran and is one of the most important products for this country. Considering special circumstances of pistachio orchards according to increasing salinity of water and soil and mismanagement of fertilizer reveals the necessity of the usage of Mycorrhizal fungi in these orchards.

Keywords: pistachio, mycorhiza, nutrition, salinity

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5 Triplex Detection of Pistacia vera, Arachis hypogaea and Pisum sativum in Processed Food Products Using Probe Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Emine Altinkaya, Cengiz Ataşoğlu

Abstract:

In recent years, food allergies which cause serious health problems affect to public health around the world. Foodstuffs which contain allergens are either intentionally used as ingredients or are encased as contaminant in food products. The prevalence of clinical allergy to peanuts and nuts is estimated at about 0.4%-1.1% of the adult population, representing the allergy to pistachio the 7% of the cases of tree nut causing allergic reactions. In order to protect public health and enforce the legislation, methods for sensitive analysis of pistachio and peanut contents in food are required. Pea, pistachio and peanut are used together, to reduce the cost in food production such as baklava, snack foods.DNA technology-based methods in food analysis are well-established and well-roundedtools for species differentiation, allergen detection. Especially, the probe-based TaqMan real-time PCR assay can amplify target DNA with efficiency, specificity, and sensitivity.In this study, pistachio, peanut and pea were finely ground and three separate series of triplet mixtures containing 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 mg kg-1 of each sample were prepared for each series, to a final weight of 100 g. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. TaqMan probes were designed for triplex determination of ITS, Ara h 3 and pea lectin genes which are specific regions for identification pistachio, peanut and pea, respectively.The real-time PCR as quantitative detected pistachio, peanut and pea in these mixtures down to the lowest investigated level of 0.1, 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1, respectively. Also, the methods reported here are capable of detecting of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA. We accomplish that the quantitative triplex real-time PCR method developed in this study canbe applied to detect pistachio, peanut and peatraces for three allergens at once in commercial food products.

Keywords: allergens, DNA, real-time PCR, TaqMan probe

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4 The Study of Effect the Number of Cluster in the Branch on Vegetative Characteristics of Pistacia vera

Authors: Seyeh Hassan Eftekhar Afzali, Hamid Mohammadi

Abstract:

Pistachio is like almond but the second cycle of growth (third phase) has rather fast growth. This is caused to add final mass of product. When the germ grows, it and its cover are reached to the final size during six week period. As starting the second phase, the lignifications of pericarp is begun and continued for 4 or 6 weeks. Physiological maturity or easy separation of green from scutum is specified. This test was done according to random blocks of 6 orchards in the type of Ahmad Aghaie with 4 iterations. Vegetative properties of branch are investigated. The results of the bunch numbers on the growth of branch in current year are shown that the most growth of branch is happened by trimming of one and two bunches of the branch and the most diameter of the branch is happened by trimming of one to four bunches of branch. Trimming of a bunch is caused the most number of pistachio products in the bunch.

Keywords: pistachio, cluster, bud, fruit, branch

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3 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan

Abstract:

Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: groundwater quality, irrigation water quality, salinity, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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2 Slow Pyrolysis of Bio-Wastes: Environmental, Exergetic, and Energetic (3E) Assessment

Authors: Daniela Zalazar-Garcia, Erick Torres, German Mazza

Abstract:

Slow pyrolysis of a pellet of pistachio waste was studied using a lab-scale stainless-steel reactor. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 K/min). A 3-E (environmental, exergetic, and energetic) analysis for the processing of 20 kg/h of bio-waste was carried out. Experimental results showed that biochar and gas yields decreased with an increase in the heating rate (43 to 36 % and 28 to 24 %, respectively), while the bio-oil yield increased (29 to 40 %). Finally, from the 3-E analysis and the experimental results, it can be suggested that an increase in the heating rate resulted in a higher pyrolysis exergetic efficiency (70 %) due to an increase of the bio-oil yield with high-energy content.

Keywords: 3E assessment, bio-waste pellet, life cycle assessment, slow pyrolysis

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1 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh

Abstract:

The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: composition, density, frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, structure, tree cover

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