Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 138

Search results for: asphalt

138 Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Content of Asphalt Nanocomposites with Regard to Resistance to Permanent Deformation

Authors: João V. Staub de Melo, Glicério Trichês, Liseane P. Thives


This paper presents the results of the development of asphalt nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high resistance to permanent deformation, aiming to increase the performance of asphalt surfaces in relation to the rutting problem. Asphalt nanocomposites were prepared with the addition of different proportions of CNTs (1%, 2% and 3%) in relation to the weight of asphalt binder. The base binder used was a conventional binder (50-70 penetration) classified as PG 58-22. The optimum percentage of CNT addition in the asphalt binder (base) was determined through the evaluation of the rheological and empirical characteristics of the nanocomposites produced. In order to evaluate the contribution and the effects of the nanocomposite (optimized) in relation to the rutting, the conventional and nanomodified asphalt mixtures were tested in a French traffic simulator (Orniéreur). The results obtained demonstrate the efficient contribution of the asphalt nanocomposite containing CNTs to the resistance to permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt nanocomposites, asphalt mixtures, carbon nanotubes, nanotechnology, permanent deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
137 Effect of Rubber Tyre and Plastic Wastes Use in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: F. Onyango, Salim R. Wanjala, M. Ndege, L. Masu


Asphalt concrete pavements have a short life cycle, failing mainly due to temperature changes, traffic loading and ageing. Modified asphalt mixtures provide the technology to produce a bituminous binder with improved viscoelastic properties which remain in balance over a wider temperature range and loading conditions. In this research, 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder was modified by adding 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 percent by weight of asphalt binder following the wet process and the mineral aggregate was modified by adding 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 percent crumb rubber by volume of the mineral aggregate following the dry process. The LDPE modified asphalt binder Rheological properties were evaluated. The laboratory results showed an increase in viscosity, softening point and stiffness of the binder. The modified asphalt was then used in preparing asphalt mixtures by Marshall Mix design procedure. The Marshall stability values for mixes containing 2% crumb rubber and 4% LDPE were found to be 30% higher than the conventional asphalt concrete mix.

Keywords: crumb rubber, dry process, hot mix asphalt, wet process

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
136 Evaluation of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Estimation of Air Voids in Asphalt Concrete

Authors: Majid Zargar, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


One of the important factors in the design of asphalt concrete mixes is the accurate measurement of air voids and their variable distribution. Both can have significant impact on long and short term fatigue and creep behaviour under traffic. While some simple methods exist for overall evaluation of air voids, measuring air void distribution in asphalt concrete is very complex, involving expensive techniques such as X-ray methodologies. The research reported in the paper investigated the use of non-destructive ultrasonic techniques as an alternative to estimate the amount of air voids and their distribution within asphalt samples. Seventy-four Standard AC–14 asphalt samples made with three types of bitumen; Multigrade, PMB and C320 were analysed using ultrasonic techniques. The results have illustrated that ultrasonic testing has the potential of being a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method of estimating air void distribution in asphalt.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, air voids, ultrasonic, mechanical behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
135 A Study on Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Using AMPT

Authors: Yuan Jie Kelvin Lu, Amin Chegenizadeh


Asphalt pavement itself is a mixture made up of mainly aggregates, binders, and fillers that acts as a composition used for pavement construction. An experimental program was setup to determine the fatigue performance test of Asphalt with three different grades of conventional binders. Asphalt specimen has achieved the maximum optimum bulk density and air voids with a consistent bulk density of 2.3 t/m3, with an air void of 5% ± 0.5, before loading into the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tested (AMPT) for fatigue test. The number of cycles is defined as the point where phase angle drops, which is caused by the formation of cracks due to the increasing micro cracks when asphalt is undergoing repeated cycles of loading. Thus, the data collected are analyzed using the drop of phase angle as failure criteria. Based in the data analyzed, it is evident that the fatigue life of asphalt lies on the grade of binder. The result obtained shows that all specimens do experience a drop in phase angle due to macro cracks in the asphalt specimen.

Keywords: asphalt binder, AMPT, CX test, simplified – viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
134 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani


Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
133 Laboratory Evaluation of Rutting and Fatigue Damage Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Carbon Nano Tubes

Authors: Ali Zain Ul Abadeen, Arshad Hussain


Roads are considered as the national capital, and huge developmental budget is spent on its construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. Due to proliferating traffic volume, heavier loads and challenging environmental factors, the need for high-performance asphalt pavement is increased. In this research, the asphalt mixture was modified with carbon nanotubes ranging from 0.2% to 2% of binder to study the effect of CNT modification on rutting potential and fatigue life of asphalt mixtures. During this study, the conventional and modified asphalt mixture was subjected to a uni-axial dynamic creep test and dry Hamburg wheel tracking test to study rutting resistance. Fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture was studied using a four-point bending test apparatus. The plateau value of asphalt mixture was taken as a measure of fatigue performance according to the ratio of dissipated energy approach. Results of these experiments showed that CNT modified asphalt mixtures had reduced rut depth and increased rutting and fatigue resistance at higher percentages of carbon nanotubes.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fatigue, four point bending test, modified asphalt, rutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
132 Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Warm Mix Additive for Sustainable Road Construction

Authors: Meor Othman Hamzah, Lillian Gungat, Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff, Jan Valentin


The recent hike in raw materials costs and the quest for preservation of the environment has prompted asphalt industries to adopt greener road construction technology. This paper presents a study on such technology by means of asphalt recycling and use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. It evaluates the effects of a WMA named RH-WMA on binder rheological properties and asphalt mixture performance. The recycled asphalt, obtained from local roads, was processed, fractionated, and incorporated with virgin aggregate and binder. For binder testing, the recycled asphalt was extracted and blended with virgin binder. The binder and mixtures specimen containing 30 % and 50 % recycled asphalt contents were mixed with 3 % RH-WMA. The rheological properties of the binder were evaluated based on fundamental, viscosity, and frequency sweep tests. Indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus tests were carried out to assess the mixture’s performances. The rheological properties and strength performance results showed that the addition of RH-WMA slightly reduced the binder and mixtures stiffness. The percentage of recycled asphalt increased the stiffness of binder and mixture, and thus improves the resistance to rutting. Therefore, the integration of recycled asphalt and RH-WMA can be an alternative material for road sustainable construction for countries in the tropics.

Keywords: recycled asphalt, warm mix additive, rheological, mixture performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
131 Development of Recycled-Modified Asphalt Using Basalt Aggregate

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Jeongho Oh


With the strengthened regulation on the mandatory use of recycled aggregate, development of construction materials using recycled aggregate has recently increased. This study aimed to secure the performance of asphalt concrete mixture by developing recycled-modified asphalt using recycled basalt aggregate from the Jeju area. The strength of the basalt aggregate from the Jeju area used in this study was similar to that of general aggregate, while the specific surface area was larger due to the development of pores. Modified asphalt was developed using a general aggregate-recycled aggregate ratio of 7:3, and the results indicated that the Marshall stability increased by 27% compared to that of asphalt concrete mixture using only general aggregate, and the flow values showed similar levels. Also, the indirect tensile strength increased by 79%, and the toughness increased by more than 100%. In addition, the TSR for examining moisture resistance was 0.95 indicating that the reduction in the indirect tensile strength due to moisture was very low (5% level), and the developed recycled-modified asphalt could satisfy all the quality standards of asphalt concrete mixture.

Keywords: asphalt concrete mixture, performance grade, recycled basalt aggregate, recycled-modified asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
130 A Molecular-Level Study of Combining the Waste Polymer and High-Concentration Waste Cooking Oil as an Additive on Reclamation of Aged Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Qiuhao Chang, Liangliang Huang, Xingru Wu


In the United States, over 90% of the roads are paved with asphalt. The aging of asphalt is the most serious problem that causes the deterioration of asphalt pavement. Waste cooking oils (WCOs) have been found they can restore the properties of aged asphalt and promote the reuse of aged asphalt pavement. In our previous study, it was found the optimal WCO concentration to restore the aged asphalt sample should be in the range of 10~15 wt% of the aged asphalt sample. After the WCO concentration exceeds 15 wt%, as the WCO concentration increases, some important properties of the asphalt sample can be weakened by the addition of WCO, such as cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc. However, maximizing the utilization of WCO can create environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, in this study, a new idea about using the waste polymer is another additive to restore the WCO modified asphalt that contains a high concentration of WCO (15-25 wt%) is proposed, which has never been reported before. In this way, both waste polymer and WCO can be utilized. The molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the effect of waste polymer on properties of WCO modified asphalt and understand the corresponding mechanism at the molecular level. The radial distribution function, self-diffusion, cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, adhesion energy between asphalt and aggregate are analyzed to validate the feasibility of combining the waste polymer and WCO to restore the aged asphalt. Finally, the optimal concentration of waste polymer and WCO are determined.

Keywords: reclaim aged asphalt pavement, waste cooking oil, waste polymer, molecular dynamics simulation

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129 Thermo-Oxidative Degradation of Asphalt Modified with High Density Polyethylene and Engine Oil

Authors: Helder Shelton Abel Manguene, Giovanna Buonocore, Herminio Francisco Muiambo


Paved roads are designed for 10-15 years of life. However, many asphalted roads suffer degradation before reaching their lifetime due to aging caused by load conditions and climatic factors. Oxidation is the main asphalt aging mechanism, which leads to a reduced bond between aggregate particles, increasing the potential for stripping and moisture damage, decreasing fatigue lifetime and reducing resistance to thermal cracking. To improve the performance of asphalt and mitigate these problems, modifiers such as polymers, oils and certain residues have been used. This work aims to study the influence of the addition of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and engine oil on the thermal stability of asphalt in an oxidizing atmosphere. For the study, compositions containing asphalt, motor oil and HDPE were prepared, varying the concentration of the motor oil by 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% and keeping the HDPE concentration fixed at 5%. The results show that the pure asphalt sample is degraded in a single step that starts at approximately 311 ºC; All samples of modified asphalt except the one that contains 5% of motor oil have three degradation steps that start below the starting temperature of degradation of pure asphalt (about 250-300 ºC); The temperature of onset of degradation of the modified asphalt is shown to decrease as the concentration of the motor oil increases, suggesting a slight loss of thermal stability of the asphalt as the quantity of the motor oil increases.

Keywords: Asphalt, DTG, engine oil, HDPE, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
128 Effect of Nano-Alumina on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Recycled Asphalt

Authors: Shahab Hasani Nasab, Aran Aeini, Navid Kermanshahi


In order to reduce road building costs and reduce environmental damage, recycled materials can be used instead of mineral materials in the production of asphalt mixtures. Today, in most parts of the world, cold recycled asphalt with bitumen emulsion, has acceptable results. However, Cold Recycled Asphalt have some deficiency such as stripping, thermal cracking, and rutting. This requires the addition of additives to reduce this deficiency of recycled pavement with emulsified asphalt. In this research, nano-alumina and emulsified asphalt were used to modify the properties of recycled asphalt mixtures according to the technical specifications and the operation of cold recycling. Marshall test methods, dynamic creep test, and resiliency modulus test has been used to obtain the nano-alumina’s effects on asphalt mixture properties. The results show that the addition of nano-alumina would reduce the Marshall stability in samples but increases the rutting resistance. The resiliency modulus increases significantly with this additive.

Keywords: cold asphalt, cold recycling, nano-alumina, dynamic creep, bitumen emulsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
127 Influence of the Quality Differences in the Same Type of Bitumen and Dosage Rate of Reclaimed Asphalt on Lifetime

Authors: Pahirangan Sivapatham, , Esser Barbara


The impacts of the asphalt mix design, the properties of aggregates and quality differences in the same type of bitumen, as well as the dosage rate of reclaimed asphalt on the relevant material parameter of the analytical pavement design method are not known. Due to that, in this study, the influence of the above mentioned characteristics on relevant material parameters has been determined and analyzed by means of the analytical pavement calculations method. Therefore, material parameters for several asphalt mixes for asphalt wearing course, asphalt binder course and asphalt base course have been determined. Thereby several bitumens of the same type from different producer’s have been used. In addition, asphalt base course materials with three different dosages of reclaimed asphalt have been produced and tested. As material parameter according to the German analytical pavement design guide(RDO Asphalt), the stiffness’s at different temperatures and fatigue behavior have been determined. The findings of asphalt base course materials produced with several pen graded bitumen from different producers and different dosages of reclaimed asphalt indicate the distinct impact on fatigue behaviors and mechanical properties. The calculated test results of the analytical pavement design method show significant differences in the lifetimes. The pavement design calculation is to carry out by means of the actual material parameter. The calculated lifetime of the asphalt base course materials differentiates by the factor 3.2. The determining test results of bitumen characteristics meet the requirement according to the German Standards. But, further investigations of bitumen in different aging conditions show significant differences in their quality. The fatigue behavior and stiffness of asphalt pavement improves with increasing dosage of reclaimed asphalt. Furthermore, the type of aggregates used shows no significant influences.

Keywords: reclaimed asphalt pavement, quality differences in the bitumen, life time calculation, Asphalt mix with RAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
126 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer


The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
125 Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek


The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.

Keywords: asphalt, concrete, satellite thermal images, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
124 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev


The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
123 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements, permanent deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
122 Measurement of Asphalt Pavement Temperature to Find out the Proper Asphalt Binder Performance Grade to the Asphalt Mixtures in Southern Desert of Libya

Authors: Khlifa El Atrash, Gabriel Assaf


Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.

Keywords: volumetric analysis, pavement performances, hot climate, asphalt mixture, traffic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
121 The Effect of Nanoclay on Long Term Performance of Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: A. Khodadadi, Hasani, Salehi


The advantages of using modified asphalt binders are widely recognized—primarily, improved rutting resistance, reduced fatigue cracking and less cold-temperature cracking. Nanoclays are known to enhance the properties of many polymers. Nanoclays are used to improve modulus and tensile strength, flame resistance and thermal and structural properties of many materials. This paper intends to investigate the application and development of nano-technological concepts for bituminous materials and asphalt pavements. The application of nano clay on the fatigue life of asphalt pavement have not been yet thoroughly understood. In this research, two type of highway asphalt materials, dense Marshall specimens, with 2% nano clay and without nano clay, were employed for the fatigue behavior of the asphalt pavement.The effect of nano additive on the performance of flexible pavements has been investigated through the indirect tensile test for the samples prepared with 2% nano clay and without nano clay in four stress levels from 200–500 kPa. The primary results indicated samples with 2% nano clay have almost double or even more fatigue life in most of stress levels.

Keywords: Nano clay, Asphalt, fatigue life, pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
120 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
119 Response of Pavement under Temperature and Vehicle Coupled Loading

Authors: Yang Zhong, Mei-Jie Xu


To study the dynamic mechanics response of asphalt pavement under the temperature load and vehicle loading, asphalt pavement was regarded as multilayered elastic half-space system, and theory analysis was conducted by regarding dynamic modulus of asphalt mixture as the parameter. Firstly, based on the dynamic modulus test of asphalt mixture, function relationship between the dynamic modulus of representative asphalt mixture and temperature was obtained. In addition, the analytical solution for thermal stress in the single layer was derived by using Laplace integral transformation and Hankel integral transformation respectively by using thermal equations of equilibrium. The analytical solution of calculation model of thermal stress in asphalt pavement was derived by transfer matrix of thermal stress in multilayer elastic system. Finally, the variation of thermal stress in pavement structure was analyzed. The result shows that there is an obvious difference between the thermal stress based on dynamic modulus and the solution based on static modulus. Therefore, the dynamic change of parameter in asphalt mixture should be taken into consideration when the theoretical analysis is taken out.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, dynamic modulus, integral transformation, transfer matrix, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
118 Analyzing the Performance Properties of Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer Modified with Recycled Crumb Rubber

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Moein Biglari


Asphalt overlay is the most commonly used technique of pavement rehabilitation. However, the reflective cracks which occur on the overlay surface after a short period of time are the most important distresses threatening the durability of new overlays. Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMIs) are used to postpone the reflective cracking in the overlays. Sand asphalt mixtures, in unmodified or crumb rubber modified (CRM) conditions, can be used as an SAMI material. In this research, the performance properties of different SAMI applications were evaluated in the laboratory using an Indirect Tensile (IDT) fracture energy. The IDT fracture energy of sand asphalt samples was also evaluated and then compared to that of the regular dense graded asphalt used as an overlay. Texas boiling water and modified Lottman tests were also conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of sand asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that sand asphalt mixtures can stand higher levels of energy before cracking, and this is even more pronounced for the CRM sand mix. Sand asphalt mixture using CRM binder was also shown to be more resistance to moisture induced distresses.

Keywords: SAMI, sand asphalt, crumb rubber, indirect tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
117 Temperature Susceptibility of Multigrade Bitumen Asphalt and an Approach to Account for Temperature Variation through Deep Pavements

Authors: Brody R. Clark, Chaminda Gallage, John Yeaman


Multigrade bitumen asphalt is a quality asphalt product that is not utilised in many places globally. Multigrade bitumen is believed to be less sensitive to temperature, which gives it an advantage over conventional binders. Previous testing has shown that asphalt temperature changes greatly with depth, but currently the industry standard is to nominate a single temperature for design. For detailed design of asphalt roads, perhaps asphalt layers should be divided into nominal layer depths and different modulus and fatigue equations/values should be used to reflect the temperatures of each respective layer. A collaboration of previous laboratory testing conducted on multigrade bitumen asphalt beams under a range of temperatures and loading conditions was analysed. The samples tested included 0% or 15% recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) to determine what impact the recycled material has on the fatigue life and stiffness of the pavement. This paper investigated the temperature susceptibility of multigrade bitumen asphalt pavements compared to conventional binders by combining previous testing that included conducting a sweep of fatigue tests, developing complex modulus master curves for each mix and a study on how pavement temperature changes through pavement depth. This investigation found that the final design of the pavement is greatly affected by the nominated pavement temperature and respective material properties. This paper has outlined a potential revision to the current design approach for asphalt pavements and proposes that further investigation is needed into pavement temperature and its incorporation into design.

Keywords: asphalt, complex modulus, fatigue life, flexural stiffness, four point bending, multigrade bitumen, recycled asphalt pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
116 Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Modified with Crushed Waste Glass

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Ali


The successive increase of generated waste materials like glass has led to many environmental problems. Using crushed waste glass in hot mix asphalt paving has been though as an alternative to landfill disposal and recycling. This paper discusses the possibility of utilizing crushed waste glass, as a part of fine aggregate in hot mix asphalt in Egypt. This is done through evaluation of the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures mixed with waste glass and determining the appropriate glass content that can be adapted in asphalt pavement. Four asphalt concrete mixtures with various glass contents, namely; 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% by weight of total mixture were studied. Evaluation of the mechanical properties includes performing Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, fracture energy and unconfined compressive strength tests. Laboratory testing had revealed the enhancement in both compressive strength and Marshall stability test parameters when the crushed glass was added to asphalt concrete mixtures. This enhancement was accompanied with a very slight reduction in both indirect tensile strength and fracture energy when glass content up to 8% was used. Adding more than 8% of glass causes a sharp reduction in both indirect tensile strength and fracture energy. Testing results had also shown a reduction in the optimum asphalt content when the waste glass was used. Measurements of the heat loss rate of asphalt concrete mixtures mixed with glass revealed their ability to hold heat longer than conventional mixtures. This can have useful application in asphalt paving during cold whether or when a long period of post-mix transportation is needed.

Keywords: waste glass, hot mix asphalt, mechanical performance, indirect tensile strength, fracture energy, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
115 Impact of Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier on Wearing Course of Flexible Pavement

Authors: Samiya Siddique, Taslima Akter Elma, Shahrina Mahzabin, Tamanna Jerin, Mohammed Russedul Islam


In the maneuver and designing of highway engineering, pavement performance is a principal concern. Quality of construction and materials, traffic volume, climate, etc. are the factors that affect the performance of asphalt concrete. Modified asphalt requires to attain greater strength and stability even at inimical circumstances. In this point of view, pyrolytic carbon black (PCB), which is a by-product of waste tire pyrolysis, holds incomparable properties that individualizes it from other conventional fillers by making it an imminent modifier of bitumen. Optimum asphalt content of 60/70 penetration grade asphalt is determined 5% through the Marshall Stability and Flow test for the wearing course of flexible pavement. 5, 10, and 15 percentages of PCB are then used with neat asphalt for modification. Deviations of physical and rheological properties are investigated on both PCB modified and neat asphalt by going through several laboratory tests such as penetration, softening point, and ductility tests. The obtained results reveal that the performance of paving asphalt can be upgraded by modifying it with PCB. With the increasing percentage of PCB, ductility is gradually decreased, and also penetration grade is gradually reduced from 60/70 to 30/40. Furthermore, asphalt mixtures modified with PCB demonstrate higher stability and lower flow values. The research discloses that the apposite percentage of PCB used in asphalt concrete plays a significant role in the advancement of pavement performances and reutilizing of waste tires.

Keywords: asphalt modification, pavement performances, pyrolytic carbon black, marshall stability, wearing course

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114 Permanent Deformation Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures with Red Mud as a Filler

Authors: Liseane Padilha Thives, Mayara S. S. Lima, João Victor Staub De Melo, Glicério Trichês


Red mud is a waste resulting from the processing of bauxite to alumina, the raw material of the production of aluminum. The large quantity of red mud generated and inadequately disposed in the environment has motivated researchers to develop methods for reinsertion of this waste into the productive cycle. This work aims to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of dense asphalt mixtures with red mud filler. The red mud was characterized by tests of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, specific mass, laser granulometry, pH and scanning electron microscopy. For the analysis of the influence of the quantity of red mud in the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures, a total filler content of 7% was established. Asphalt mixtures with 3%, 5% and 7% red mud were produced. A conventional mixture with 7% stone powder filler was used as reference. The asphalt mixtures were evaluated for performance to permanent deformation in the French Rutting Tester (FRT) traffic simulator. The mixture with 5% red mud presented greater resistance to permanent deformation with rutting depth at 30,000 cycles of 3.50%. The asphalt mixtures with red mud presented better performance, with reduction of the rutting of 12.63 to 42.62% in relation to the reference mixture. This study confirmed the viability of reinserting the red mud in the production chain and possible usage in the construction industry. The red mud as filler in asphalt mixtures is a reuse option of this waste and mitigation of the disposal problems, as well as being an environmentally friendly alternative.

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, permanent deformation, red mud, pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
113 Green Materials for Hot Mixed Asphalt Production

Authors: Salisu Dahiru, Jibrin M. Kaura, Abubakar I. Jumare, Sulaiman M. Mahmood


Reclaimed asphalt, used automobile tires and rice husk, were regarded as waste. These materials could be used in construction of new roads and for roads rehabilitation. Investigation into the production of a Green Hot Mixed Asphalt (GHMA) pavement using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) as partial replacement for coarse aggregate, Crumb Rubber (CR) from waste automobile tires as modifier for bitumen binder and Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as partial replacement of ordinary portland cement (OPC) filler, for roads construction and rehabilitation was presented. 30% Reclaimed asphalt of total aggregate, 15% Crumb Rubber of total binder content, 5% Rice Husk Ash of total mix, and 5.2% Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen content were recommended for optimum performance. Loss of marshal stability was investigated on mix with the recommended optimum CRMB. The mix revealed good performance with only about 13% loss of stability after 24 hours of immersion in hot water bath, as against about 24% marshal stability lost reported in previous studies for conventional Hot Mixed Asphalt (HMA).

Keywords: rice husk, reclaimed asphalt, filler, crumb rubber, bitumen content green hot mix asphalt

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112 Thermomechanical Behavior of Asphalt Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer and Nanoclay Dellite 43B

Authors: L. F. Tamele Jr., G. Buonocore, H. F. Muiambo


Asphalt binders play an essential role in the performance and properties of asphalt mixtures. The increase in heavy loads, greater traffic volume, and high tire pressure, combined with a substantial variation in daily and seasonal pavement temperatures, are the main responsible for the failure of asphalt pavements. To avoid or mitigate these failures, the present research proposes the use of thermoplastic polymers, HDPE and LLDPE, and nanoclay Dellite 43B for modification of asphalt in order to improve its thermomechanical and rheological properties. The nanocomposites were prepared by the solution intercalation method in a high shear mixer for a mixing time of 2 h, at 180℃ and 5000 rpm. The addition of Dellite 43B improved the physical, rheological, and thermal properties of asphalt, either separated or in the form of polymer/bitumen blends. The results of the physical characterization showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in softening point, thermal susceptibility, viscosity, and stiffness. On the other hand, thermal characterization showed that the nanocomposites have greater stability at higher temperatures by exhibiting greater amounts of residues and improved initial and final decomposition temperatures. Thus, the modification of asphalt by polymers and nanoclays seems to be a suitable solution for road pavement in countries which experiment with high temperatures combined with long heavy rain seasons.

Keywords: asphalt, nanoclay dellite 43B, polymer modified asphalt, thermal and rheological properties

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111 Research on the Feasibility of Evaluating Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixture Using Fracture Energy

Authors: Tao Yang, Yongli Zhao


Low-temperature cracking is one of the major challenges for asphalt pavement in the cold region. Fracture energy could determine from various test methods, which is a commonly used parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixture. However, the feasibility of evaluating the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture using fracture energy is not investigated comprehensively. This paper aims to verify whether fracture energy is an appropriate parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance. To achieve this goal, this paper compared the test results of thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) and semi-circular bending test (SCB) of asphalt mixture with different types of aggregate, TSRST and indirect tensile test (IDT) of asphalt mixture with different additives, and single-edge notched beam test (SENB) and TSRST of asphalt mixture with different asphalt. Finally, the correlation between in-suit cracking performance and fracture energy was surveyed. The experimental results showed the evaluation result of critical cracking temperature and fracture energy are not always consistent; the in-suit cracking performance is also not correlated well with fracture energy. These results indicated that it is not feasible to evaluate low-temperature performance by fracture energy. Then, the composition of fracture energy of TSRST, SCB, disk-shaped compact tension test (DCT), three-point bending test (3PB) and IDT was analyzed. The result showed: the area of thermal stress versus temperature curve is the multiple of fracture energy and could be used to represent fracture energy of TSRST, as the multiple is nearly equal among different asphalt mixtures for a specific specimen; the fracture energy, determined from TSRST, SCB, DCT, 3PB, SENB and IDT, is mainly the surface energy that forms the fracture face; fracture energy is inappropriate to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture, as the relaxation/viscous performance is not considered; if the fracture energy was used, it is recommended to combine this parameter with an index characterizing the relaxation or creep performance of asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, cold region, critical cracking temperature, fracture energy, low-temperature cracking

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110 Optimizing Pavement Construction Procedures in the Southern Desert of Libya

Authors: Khlifa El Atrash, Gabriel Assaf


Libya uses a volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot, arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. However, the quality of some roads was below a satisfactory level. This paper examines the factors that contribute to low quality of road performance in Libya. To evaluate these factors, a questionnaire survey and a laboratory comparative study were performed for a few mixes under-represented of temperature and traffic load. In laboratory, rutting test conducted on two different asphalt mixture, these mixes included, an asphalt concrete mix using local aggregate and asphalt binder B(60/70) at the optimum Marshall asphalt content, another mixes designed using Superpave design procedure with the same materials and performance asphalt binder grade PG (70-10). In the survey, the questionnaire was distributed to 55 engineers and specialists in this field. The interview was conducted to a few others, and the factors that were leading to poor performance of asphalt roads were listed as; 1) Owner Experience and technical staff 2) Asphalt characteristics 3) Updating and development of Asphalt Mix Design methods 4) Lack of data collection by authorization Agency 5) Construction and compaction process 6) Mentoring and controlling mixing procedure. Considering and improving these factors will play an important role to improve the pavement performances, longer service life, and lower maintenance costs. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot, dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids, and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance.

Keywords: volumetric analysis, pavement performances, hot climate, traffic load, pavement temperature, asphalt mixture, environment, design and construction

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109 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho


The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modeling

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