Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8312

Search results for: urban health

8312 Transport Emission Inventories and Medical Exposure Modeling: A Missing Link for Urban Health

Authors: Frederik Schulte, Stefan Voß

Abstract:

The adverse effects of air pollution on public health are an increasingly vital problem in planning for urban regions in many parts of the world. The issue is addressed from various angles and by distinct disciplines in research. Epidemiological studies model the relative increase of numerous diseases in response to an increment of different forms of air pollution. A significant share of air pollution in urban regions is related to transport emissions that are often measured and stored in emission inventories. Though, most approaches in transport planning, engineering, and operational design of transport activities are restricted to general emission limits for specific air pollutants and do not consider more nuanced exposure models. We conduct an extensive literature review on exposure models and emission inventories used to study the health impact of transport emissions. Furthermore, we review methods applied in both domains and use emission inventory data of transportation hubs such as ports, airports, and urban traffic for an in-depth analysis of public health impacts deploying medical exposure models. The results reveal specific urban health risks related to transport emissions that may improve urban planning for environmental health by providing insights in actual health effects instead of only referring to general emission limits.

Keywords: emission inventories, exposure models, transport emissions, urban health

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8311 Rural to Urban Migration and Mental Health Consequences in Urbanizing China

Authors: Jie Li, Nick Manning

Abstract:

The mass rural-urban migrants in China associated with the urbanization processes bear significant implications on public health, which is an important yet under-researched area. Urban social and built environment, such as noise, air pollution, high population density, and social segregation, has the potential to contribute to mental illness. In China, rural-urban migrants are also faced with institutional discrimination tied to the hukou (household registration) system, through which they are denied of full citizenship to basic social welfare and services, which may elevate the stress of urban living and exacerbate the risks to mental illness. This paper aims to link the sociospatial exclusion, everyday life experiences and its mental health consequences on rural to urban migrants living in the mega-city of Shanghai. More specifically, it asks what the daily experience of being a migrant in Shanghai is actually like, particularly regarding sources of stress from housing, displacement, service accessibility, and cultural conflict, and whether these stresses affect mental health? Secondary data from literature review on migration, urban studies, and epidemiology research, as well as primary data from preliminary field trip observations and interviews are used in the analysis.

Keywords: migration, urbanisation, mental health, China

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8310 Urban Metis Women’s Identity and Experiences with Health Services in Toronto, Ontario

Authors: Renee Monchalin

Abstract:

Métis peoples, while comprising over a third of the total Indigenous population in Canada, experience major gaps in health services that accommodate their cultural identities. This is problematic given Métis peoples experience severe disparities in health determinants and outcomes compared to the non-Indigenous Canadian population. At the same time, Métis are unlikely to engage in health services that do not value their cultural identities, often utilizing mainstream options. Given these contexts, this research aims to fill the culturally-safe health care gap for Métis peoples in Canada. It does this by engaging 56 urban Métis women who participated in a longitudinal cohort study, Our Health Counts (OHC) Toronto. Traditionally, Métis women were central to the health and well-being of their communities. However, due to decades of colonial legislation and forced land displacement, female narratives have been silenced, and Métis identities have been fractured. This has resulted in having direct implications on Métis people’s current health and access to health services. Solutions to filling the Métis health service gap may lie in the all too often unacknowledged or missing voices of Métis women. Through a conversational method, this research will explore urban Métis women’s perspectives on identity and their experiences with health services in Toronto. The goal of this research is to learn from urban Métis women on steps towards filling the health service gap. This research is currently in the data collection stage. Preliminary findings from the conversations will be disseminated. Policy recommendations for health service providers will be provided to better accommodate Métis people.

Keywords: indigenous health, Metis health, urban, health service access, identity

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8309 The Effects of Information Technology in Urban Health

Authors: Safdari Reza, Zahmatkeshan Maryam, Goli Arji

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Urban health is one of the challenges of the 21st century. Rapid growth and expanding urbanization have implications for health. In this regard, information technology can remove a large number of modern cities’ problems. Therefore, the present article aims to study modern information technologies in the development of urban health. Materials and Methods:. This is a review article based on library research and Internet searches on valid websites such as Science Direct, Magiran, Springer and advanced searches in Google. Some 164 domestic and foreign texts were studied on such topics as the application of ICT tools including cell phones and wireless tools, GIS, and RFID in the field of urban health in 2011. Finally, 30 sources were used. Conclusion: Information and communication technologies play an important role in improving people's health and enhancing the quality of their lives. Effective utilization of information and communication technologies requires the identification of opportunities and constraints, and the formulation of appropriate planning principles with regard to social and economic factors together with preparing the technological, communication and telecommunications, legal and administrative infrastructures.

Keywords: Urban Health, Information Technology, Information & Communication, Technology

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8308 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

Abstract:

The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront

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8307 The Aspect of Urban Inequality after Urban Redevelopment Projects

Authors: Sungik Kang, Ja-Hoon Koo

Abstract:

Globally, urban environments have become unequal, and cities have been segmented by income class. It is predicted that urban inequality has arisen by urban redevelopment and reconstruction projects that improve the urban environment and innovate cities. This study aims to analyze the occurrence and characteristics of urban inequality by using the housing price and sale price and demonstrating the correlation with the urban redevelopment project. This study measures 14 years of urban inequality index for 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and analyzes the correlation between urban inequality with urban redevelopment projects. As a conclusion of this study, first, the urban inequality index of Seoul has been continuously rising since 2015. Trends from 2006 to 2019 have been in U-curved shape in between 2015. In 2019, Seoul's urban inequality index was 0.420, a level similar to that of the 2007 financial crisis. Second, the correlation between urban redevelopment and urban inequality was not statistically significant. Therefore, we judged that urban redevelopment's scale or project structure has nothing with urban inequality. Third, while district designation of urban reconstruction temporarily alleviates urban inequality, the completion of the project increases urban inequality. When designating a district, urban inequality is likely to decrease due to decreased outdated housing transactions. However, the correlation with urban inequality increases as expensive houses has been placed after project completion.

Keywords: urban inequality, urban redevelopment projects, urban reconstruction projects, housing price inequality, panel analysis

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8306 Rural-Urban Drift: Labour Migration, Health-Seeking Behaviour Disparity in the Urban Slum of Madina, Ghana

Authors: Ransford Kwaku Afeadie

Abstract:

Purpose – The health challenges that characterises most of the migrants’ urban slums raise a lot of concern for their well-being. Health-seeking behaviour becomes an important step towards maintaining a healthy life. The importance of contextual issues is necessary to help meet specific community health needs and programmes. Therefore, this study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating health-seeking behaviour disparity among rural-urban labour migrant slum dwellers before and after migration to the urban slums of Madina in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Design/methodology/approach – The author used explanatory sequential approach of research investigation. Questionnaire and interview guides were used to collect data from the respondents; however, in the absence of an existing reliable sampling frame, the various communities were selected by the use of cluster sampling proportional to size. At the second stage, a simple random sampling was used to select the various household heads. A total of 241 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondents representing a response rate of 100%. The author used the purposive sampling technique to conduct eight in-depth interviews and six key informants’ interviews. Findings – The author found various discrepancies in many of the activities that could fulfill substantial health-seeking behaviour in the slum as compared to migrant’s places of origin. The reason for coming to the slum amidst many settlements needs and low education background are the factors that accounted for this. This study, therefore, contradicts the proposition held by the health belief model. It is, therefore, important to note that contextual issues are key, in this case, rural-urban migrant slums present a different dynamic that must be taken into account when designing health programmes for such settings. Originality/value – Many, if not all the, studies on health-seeking behaviour have focused on urban slums without taking into account urban migrants’ slums. Such a failure to take into account the variations of the health needs of migrants’ urban slum settings can eventually lead to a mismatch of health programmes meant to address their challenges. Therefore, this study brings to the fore such variations that must be taken into account when designing health programmes. The study also indicates that even with the same people, there were disparities in terms of health-seeking behaviour in the slum and at places of origin.

Keywords: health-seeking behaviour, rural–urban migration, urban slums, health belief model

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8305 "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Mouhoubi Nedjima, Sassi Boudemagh Souad

Abstract:

In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management

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8304 The Return of Daily Life — Improvement Experiments on Urban Village in the Post-Urban Village Era

Authors: Gan Lu, Xu Lei

Abstract:

This is an era when urban village is disappearing in China. A series of social phenomenon presented in post-urban village era is forcing rethinking of the future of urban village. Existing monotonous urban renewal mode based on gentrification is questioned, and the social values of urban village has been gaining increasing attention while the daily life and spatial power of underclass is being focused on. Based on the consensus on the positive meaning of urban village phenomenon, social sectors have taken amount of improvement experiments to explore the possibility of modern transition of urban village on the premise of existence. These experiments revealed that urban tremendous changes impact a lot on social daily life, and pointed out that it is necessary to bring up the responsibility of architects and the definition of urban for discussion again.

Keywords: post-urban village era, gentrification, social value, daily life, improvement experiment.

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8303 Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Health Sector in India

Authors: Madhvi Bhayani

Abstract:

Introduction: Due to the rapid pace of urbanization, the urban health issues have become one of the significant threats to future development in India. It also poses serious repercussions on the citizen’s health. As urbanization in India is increasing at an unprecedented rate and it has generated the urban health crisis among the city dwellers especially the urban poor. The increasing proportion of the urban poor and vulnerable to the health indicators worse than the rural counterparts, they face social and financial barriers in accessing healthcare services and these conditions make human health at risk. The Local as well as the State and National governments are alike tackling with the challenges of urbanization as it has become very essential for the government to provide the basic necessities and better infrastructure that make life in cities safe and healthy. Thus, the paper argues that if no major realistic steps are taken with immediate effect, the citizens will face a huge burden of health hazards. Aim: This paper attempts to analyze the current infrastructure, government planning, and its future policy, it also discusses the challenges and outcomes of urbanization on health and its impact on it and it will also predict the future trend with regard to disease burden in the urban areas. Methods: The paper analyzes on the basis of the secondary data by taking into consideration the connection between the Rapid Urbanization and Public Health Challenges, health and health care system and its services delivery to the citizens especially to the urban poor. Extensive analyses of government census reports, health information and policy, the government health-related schemes, urban development and based on the past trends, the future status of urban infrastructure and health outcomes are predicted. The social-economic and political dimensions are also taken into consideration from regional, national and global perspectives, which are incorporated in the paper to make realistic predictions for the future. Findings and Conclusion: The findings of the paper show that India suffers a lot due to the double burden of rapidly increasing in diseases and also growing health inequalities and disparities in health outcomes. Existing tools of governance of urban health are falling short to provide the better health care services. They need to strengthen the collaboration and communication among the state, national and local governments and also with the non-governmental partners. Based on the findings the policy implications are then described and areas for future research are defined.

Keywords: health care, urbanization, urban health, service delivery

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8302 Linkages of Environment with the Health Condition of Poor Women and Children in the Urban Areas of India

Authors: Barsharani Maharana

Abstract:

India is the country that shelters the largest number of poor. One of the major areas of concern in India is the unsatisfactory situation of the poor in social developmental and health parameters, not only in rural areas which are partly devoid of the facilities but also in the urban areas where the facilities are insufficient to provide services of a satisfactory quality. Objectives: 1) to examine the association between the environmental condition and health condition among poor women in urban areas. 2) to find out the significance of the effect of environment on the child health among the poor children. 3) to present the scenario of poor among highly urbanized and less urbanized states with respect to the health and environment. Data: data from National Family Health survey-3 and census are used to fulfill the objectives. Methodology: In this study, the standard of living condition of people living in urban areas is computed by taking some household characteristics and assets. People possessing low standard of living are considered as poor. Bivariate and multivariate analysis are employed to examine the effect of environment on poor women and children. A geographical information system is used to present the health and environmental condition of poor in highly and less urbanized states. Results: The findings reveal that the poor women who are not accessed to improved source of water, and sanitation facility are facing more health problems. Children who are living in a dirty environment and are not accessed to improved source of drinking water, among them prevalence of diarrhea and fever is found to be high. As well, the health condition of poor in highly urbanized states is dreadful. Policy implications: Government should emphasize on the implementation of programs regarding the improvement in the infrastructural facilities and health care treatment of urban poor.

Keywords: environment, urban poor, health, sanitation

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8301 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape

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8300 The Influences of Green Infrastructure Develop on Urban Renewals for Real Essence and Non-Real Essence Economic Value

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Hsu Kuo-Wei

Abstract:

Climate change and natural disasters take effect on urban development. It has been discussed urban renewals can prevent natural disasters. Integrating green infrastructure and urban renewals may have great effect on adapting the impact of climate change. To highlight the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals, some strategies need to be carry on to reduce environmental impact. A number of urban renewals studies has been conducted on right transfer, financial risk, urban renewal policy, and public participation. Little research has been devoted on the subject of the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affecting factors on the economic value of green infrastructure development on urban renewals. This study will present the benefits of green infrastructure development and summarize the critical factors of green infrastructure develop on urban renewals for real essence and non-real essence on economic value from literature. Our results indicate that factors of housing price, land value, floor area incentive, and facilitation of the construction industry affect the outcome of real essence economic value. Factors of enhancement of urban disaster prevention, improvement of urban environment and landscape, crime reduction, climate control, pollution reduction, biological diversity, health impacts, and leisure space affects the outcome of non-real essence economic value.

Keywords: economic value, green infrastructure, urban renewals, urban development

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8299 Comparative Ethnography and Urban Health: A Multisite Study on Obesogenic Cities

Authors: Carlos Rios Llamas

Abstract:

Urban health challenges, like the obesity epidemic, need to be studied from a dialogue between different disciplines and geographical conditions. Public health uses quantitative analysis and local samples, but qualitative data and multisite analysis would help to better understand how obesity has become a health problem. In the last decades, obesity rates have increased in most of the countries, especially in the Western World. Concerned about the problem, the American Medical Association has recently voted obesity as a disease. Suddenly, a ‘war on obesity’ attracted scientists from different disciplines to explore various ways to control and even reverse the trends. Medical sciences have taken the advance with quantitative methodologies focused on individual behaviors. Only a few scientist have extended their studies to the environment where obesity is produced as social risk, and less of them have taken into consideration the political and cultural aspects. This paper presents a multisite ethnography in South Bronx, USA, La Courneuve, France, and Lomas del Sur, Mexico, where obesity rates are as relevant as urban degradation. The comparative ethnography offers a possibility to unveil the mechanisms producing health risks from the urban tissue. The analysis considers three main categories: 1) built environment and access to food and physical activity, 2) biocultural construction of the healthy body, 3) urban inequalities related to health and body size. Major findings from a comparative ethnography on obesogenic environments, refer to the anthropological values related to food and body image, as well as the multidimensional oppression expressed in fat people who live in stigmatized urban zones. At the end, obesity, like many other diseases, is the result of political and cultural constructions structured in urbanization processes.

Keywords: comparative ethnography, urban health, obesogenic cities, biopolitics

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8298 A Framework and Case Study for Sustainable Development of Urban Areas

Authors: Yasaman Zeinali, Farid Khosravikia

Abstract:

This paper presents a multi-objective framework for sustainable urban development. The proposed framework aims to address different aspects of sustainability in urban development planning. These aspects include, but are not limited to education, health, job opportunities, architecture, culture, environment, mobility, energy, water, waste, and so on. Then, the proposed framework is applied to the Brackenridge Tract (an area in downtown Austin, Texas), to redevelop that area in a sustainable way. The detail of the implementation process is presented in this paper. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a sustainable area in downtown Austin with ensuring that it locally meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental, health as well as cultural aspects. Moreover, it helps the city with the population growth problem by accommodating more people in that area.

Keywords: urban planning, sustainability, sustainable urban development, environmental impacts of human activities

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8297 An Overview of Smart Growth Concept from Ecological Planning Perspective

Authors: Ozge Celik, Elvan Ender

Abstract:

With rapidly increasing population growth and industrial revolution in the 1950s, in Turkey migration began to the cities from the countryside. Along the rapid growth of urban population has started to bring many problems. Depending on the uncontrolled urban development, concerns about the protection of natural values has increased day by day. As a result of disturbance on the natural environment, human health has started to be under threat. After all, much urban planning approaches outspread that protecting natural resources by respect to human health and troubleshooting problems emerging with anthropogenic effects. Smart growth concept is one of the chosen methods to resolve the problems in Turkey. In this paper, smart growth concept idea and its criteria will be explained while ecological planning and urban planning problems will be mentioned in Turkey according to the need of concept. Studies, consisting of practical and theoretical smart growth ideas, shows that ecological landscape planning is not included in the urban development process in Turkey. The main idea is to initiate urban development plans considering social and cultural structures of cultural assets and also natural values.

Keywords: ecological landscape planning, smart growth, Turkey, urban development

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8296 Urban Growth Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks in Athens, Greece

Authors: Dimitrios Triantakonstantis, Demetris Stathakis

Abstract:

Urban areas have been expanded throughout the globe. Monitoring and modeling urban growth have become a necessity for a sustainable urban planning and decision making. Urban prediction models are important tools for analyzing the causes and consequences of urban land use dynamics. The objective of this research paper is to analyze and model the urban change, which has been occurred from 1990 to 2000 using CORINE land cover maps. The model was developed using drivers of urban changes (such as road distance, slope, etc.) under an Artificial Neural Network modeling approach. Validation was achieved using a prediction map for 2006 which was compared with a real map of Urban Atlas of 2006. The accuracy produced a Kappa index of agreement of 0,639 and a value of Cramer's V of 0,648. These encouraging results indicate the importance of the developed urban growth prediction model which using a set of available common biophysical drivers could serve as a management tool for the assessment of urban change.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, CORINE, urban atlas, urban growth prediction

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8295 Nuances of Urban Ecology in the Present Global Scenario: Scope, Issues, Challenges and Implications

Authors: Meenakshi Pappu

Abstract:

The term, 'urban ecology' has often been misconstrued by the educational practitioners as well as the researchers as a study under a single discipline i.e., the environmental sciences. One who has done research extensively in this study would always argue that urban ecology is not a study under a single discipline, but it is a study across disciplines such as social sciences and other sciences like architecture, engineering, planning, ecology, geography, biology, economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology and health sciences. The aim of this paper is to discuss at length the scope of Urban Ecology as an interdisciplinary study. The paper highlights the nuances of urban ecology as a study across disciplines and the challenges and the implications it holds for future research by conducting a qualitative survey in the particular areas.

Keywords: educational practitioners, interdisciplinary, researchers, urban ecology

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8294 Research on the Mode and Strategy of Urban Renewal in the Old Urban Area of China: A Case Study of Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, old urban renewal is an important task in China's urban construction. This study, using status survey and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, taking Chongqing of China as an example, puts forward the problems faced by the old urban area from the aspects of function, facilities and environment. Further, this study summarizes the types of the old urban area and proposes space renewal strategies for three typical old urban areas, such as old residential area, old factory and old market. These old urban areas are confronted with the problems of functional layout confounding, lack of infrastructure and poor living environment. At last, this paper proposes spatial strategies for urban renewal, which are hoped to be useful for urban renewal management in China.

Keywords: old urban renewal, renewal mode, renewal strategy, Chongqing, China

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8293 Differences in Nutritional Awareness Among Urban Semi Urban and Rural Girls of South India

Authors: N. R. Ramkumar

Abstract:

The foremost aim of physical education has been to inculcate a healthy mind in a healthy body. The aim of this study was to find out the differences in nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls of South India. The investigator administered a nutritional awareness questionnaire consisting of 25 statements among 100 rural; 100 semi urban and 100 urban girls studying in different schools in South India. The filled up questionnaire were scored and the total scores for all the twenty five statements were considered as the nutritional awareness level of the subjects. The differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls were tested for statistical significance using ANOVA. In all cases 0.05 level was fixed to test the significance. The results proved that there were significant differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls (P<0.05). The paired mean comparisons proved that urban girls were having highest nutritional awareness (M: 86.86), followed by semi urban girls (M: 81.86) and then by rural girls (M: 79.48). The differences between urban and semi urban girls and urban and rural girls were significant and there was no significant differences between semi urban and rural girls. The findings of this study proved that rural girls were significantly having lesser nutritional awareness and hence the study recommends the strong need of nutritional education for rural girls in South India.

Keywords: nutrition, awareness, urban, semi urban, rural girls

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8292 A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Nükhet Konuk, N. Gamze Turan, Yüksel Ardalı

Abstract:

Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.

Keywords: environmental pollution, developing countries, environmental degradation, urban environmental problems

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8291 A Short Survey of Integrating Urban Agriculture and Environmental Planning

Authors: Rayeheh Khatami, Toktam Hanaei, Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar

Abstract:

The growth of the agricultural sector is known as an essential way to achieve development goals in developing countries. Urban agriculture is a way to reduce the vulnerability of urban populations of the world toward global environmental change. It is a sustainable and efficient system to respond to the environmental, social and economic needs of the city, which leads to urban sustainability. Today, many local and national governments are developing urban agriculture as an effective tool in responding to challenges such as poverty, food security, and environmental problems. In this study, we follow a perspective based on urban agriculture literature in order to indicate the urban agriculture’s benefits in environmental planning strategies in non-western countries like Iran. The methodological approach adopted is based on qualitative approach and documentary studies. A total of 35 articles (mixed quantitative and qualitative methods studies) were studied in final analysis, which are published in relevant journals that focus on this subject. Studies show the wide range of positive benefits of urban agriculture on food security, nutrition outcomes, health outcomes, environmental outcomes, and social capital. However, there was no definitive conclusion about the negative effects of urban agriculture. This paper provides a conceptual and theoretical basis to know about urban agriculture and its roles in environmental planning, and also conclude the benefits of urban agriculture for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who seek to create spaces in cities for implementation urban agriculture in future.

Keywords: urban agriculture, environmental planning, urban planning, literature

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8290 Urban Furniture: Relationship between Metropolises Environment and Humans

Authors: Najmehossadat Enjoo

Abstract:

Beautification means all mindfully measurements to improve quality of urban environment which makes the city more suitable for its inhabitants' life. Purpose of beautification is to provide an environment in which all citizens take pleasure. Beautification aims at urban environment's quality improvement. In space among buildings and constructions some supplementary elements are required to furnish urban life; equipment like house furniture makes life possible in a space surrounded with stones, concrete, and glass. Such elements regulate the flow of movement, rest, recreation and stress in a city and exhilarate it. Urban furniture is the common term used for such facilities and capabilities. Nowadays, experience and application of urban elements have proved that to what extent using proper equipment and furniture can positively affect the citizens and users of urban environments.

Keywords: urban servitudes, urban design, urban furniture, visage of city

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8289 A Comprehensive Approach to Create ‘Livable Streets’ in the Mixed Land Use of Urban Neighborhoods Applying Urban Design Principles Which Will Achieve Quality of Life for Pedestrians

Authors: K. C. Tanuja, Mamatha P. Raj

Abstract:

Urbanisation is happening rapidly all over the world. As population increasing in the urban settlements, its required to provide quality of life to all the inhabitants who live in. Urban design is a place making strategic planning. Urban design principles promote visualising any place environmentally, socially and economically viable. Urban design strategies include building mass, transit development, economic viability and sustenance and social aspects.

Keywords: livable streets, social interaction, pedestrian use, urban design

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8288 Between Riots and Protests: A Structural Approach to Urban Environmental Uprisings in China

Authors: Zi Zhu

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed increasing urban environmental uprisings in China, as thousands of citizens swarmed into streets to express their deep concerns about the environmental threat and public health through various collective actions. The prevalent western approaches to collective actions, which usually treat urban riots and social movements as distinct phenomenon, have plagued an adequate analysis of the urban environmental uprisings in China. The increasing urban environmental contention can neither be categorized into riots nor social movements, as they carry the features of both: at first sight, they are spontaneous, disorganized and disruptive with an absence of observable mobilization process; however, unlike riots in the west, these collective actions conveyed explicit demand in a mostly non-destructive way rather than a pure expression of frustration. This article proposes a different approach to urban environmental uprisings in China which concerns the diminishing boundaries between riots and social movements and points to the underlying structural causes to the unique forms of urban environmental contention. Taking the urban anti-PX protests as examples, this article analyzes the societal and political structural environment faced by the Chinese environmental protesters and its influence on the origin and development of their contention.

Keywords: urban environmental uprisings, China, anti-PX protests, opportunity structure

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8287 Strengthening Urban Governance and Planning Practices for Urban Sustainability Transformations in Cambodia

Authors: Fiona Lord

Abstract:

This paper presents research on strengthening urban governance and planning practices for sustainable and regenerative city transformations looking at urban governance in Cambodia as a case study. Transformations to urban sustainability and regeneration require systemic and long-term transformation processes, across multiple levels of society and inclusive of multiple urban actors. This paper presents the emerging findings of a qualitative case study comparing the urban governance and planning practices in two of Cambodia's secondary cities - Battambang and Sihanoukville. The lessons learned have broader implications for how governance and planning can be strengthened to initiate and sustain urban sustainability transformations in other developing country cities of Cambodia and the Southeast Asia region.

Keywords: Cambodia, planning practices, urban governance, urban sustainability transformations

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8286 Split Health System for Diabetes Care in Urban Area: Experience from an Action Research Project in an Urban Poor Neighborhood in Bengaluru

Authors: T. S. Beerenahally, S. Amruthavalli, C. M. Munegowda, Leelavathi, Nagarathna

Abstract:

Introduction: In majority of urban India, the health system is split between different authorities being responsible for the health care of urban population. We believe that, apart from poor awareness and financial barriers to care, there are other health system barriers which affect quality and access to care for people with diabetes. In this paper, we attempted to identify health system complexity that determines access to public health system for diabetes care in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in Bengaluru. The KG Halli has been a locus of a health systems research from 2009 to 2015. Methodology: The source of data is from the observational field-notes written by research team as part of urban health action research project (UHARP). Field notes included data from the community and the public primary care center. The data was generated by the community health assistants and the other research team members during regular home visits and interaction with individuals who self-reported to be diabetic over four years as part of UHARP. Results: It emerged during data analysis that the patients were not keen on utilizing primary public health center for many reasons. Patient has felt that the service provided at the center was not integrated. There was lack of availability of medicines, with a regular stock out of medicines in a year and laboratory service for investigation was limited. Many of them said that the time given by the providers was not sufficient and there was also a feeling of providers not listening to them attentively. The power dynamics played a huge role in communication. Only the consultation was available for free of cost at the public primary care center. The patient had to spend for the investigations and the major portion for medicine. Conclusion: Diabetes is a chronic disease that poses an important emerging public health concern. Most of the financial burden is borne by the family as the public facilities have failed to provide free care in India. Our study indicated various factors including individual beliefs, stigma and financial constraints affecting compliance to diabetes care.

Keywords: diabetes care, disintegrated health system, quality of care, urban health

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8285 Insights and Inferences Associated with Subscription of Health Insurance in the Informal Sector of India

Authors: Harinder Singh

Abstract:

The paper sheds light on the perceptions of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India, towards the health insurance. In addition to this, it also explores the association of the identified perceptions with household decisions to enroll for health insurance schemes in India. Firstly the data taken from the primary survey of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the perceptions. Thereafter, logistic regression was employed to determine the association of the identified perceptions regarding the enrollment. Our study identifies twelve perceptions related to the health insurance enrollment of the uninsured workers employed in the urban informal sector of India. The study demonstrates that perceptions have the strongest association with the voluntary enrollment. These specifically relate to the lack of awareness about the need to buy health insurance; comprehensive coverage; income constraint; future contingencies and social obligations; lack of information; availability of subsidized government health care; linkage with government hospitals and preference for government schemes. Conclusions: Along with the food security, health security has become a crying need of the workers employed in the informal sector and the time has come to scale up the health insurance schemes for them in the country. Policy makers or marketers of health insurance policies should recognize the household perceptions as a potential barrier and try to develop a health insurance package as per the actual needs of the informal sector (low income) in India.

Keywords: association, enrollment, health insurance, informal sector, perceptions, uninsured

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8284 Assessment of Sustainable Sanitation Systems: Urban Slums

Authors: Ali Hamza, Bertug Akintug

Abstract:

Having an appropriate plan of sanitation systems is one of the critical issues for global urban slums. Poor sanitation systems in urban slums outcomes an enhanced vulnerability of severe diseases, low hygiene and environmental risks within our environment. Mentioning human excreta being one of the most highly risked pollutants among all the other major contributors of sanitation pollutants is increasing public health risks and amounts of pollution loads within the slum environment. Higher population growth, urge of urbanization and illegal status of urban slums makes it impossible to increase the level of performance of sanitation systems in urban slums. According to Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, design parameters for sanitation systems were set up to ensure sustainable environment. This paper reviews the characteristics of human excreta at present, treatment technologies, and procedures of processes that can be adopted feasibly in the urban slums. Keeping these factors as our significant concern of study, assessment of sustainable sanitation systems is done using sanitation chain concept in accordance to the pre-determined sustainability indicators and criteria which reflect the potential and feasible application of waterless sanitation systems bringing sustainable sanitation systems in urban slums.

Keywords: human excreta, sanitation chain, sustainable sanitation systems, urban slums

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8283 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk

Abstract:

In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: road traffic, noise pollution, sound intensity, public health

Procedia PDF Downloads 148