Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: acetylene gas

15 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Using Acetylene Gas in CI Engine

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ashwin Bala, S. Prithviraj, K. Panthala Rajakumaran, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar


Studies reveal that acetylene gas derived from hydrolysis of calcium carbide has similar properties to that of diesel. However, the self-ignition temperature of acetylene gas is higher than that of diesel. Early investigations reveal that acetylene gas could be used as alternative fuel mode. In the present work, acetylene gas of 31/min were inducted and diesel was injected into the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled diesel engine. It was observed that the higher calorific value of acetylene gas improves the brake thermal efficiency at full load conditions. The CO and HC emissions were higher at part load conditions as compared to conventional diesel. The Nox emission level was higher and smoke emission was lower during dual fuel mode under all operating conditions. It is concluded that dual fuel mode of acetylene gas and diesel improves the brake thermal efficiency and reduces smoke in diesel engine.

Keywords: acetylene gas, diesel engine, Nox emission, CO emission, HC emission

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14 Shooting Gas Cylinders to Prevent Their Explosion in Fire

Authors: Jerzy Ejsmont, Beata Świeczko-Żurek, Grzegorz Ronowski


Gas cylinders in general and particularly cylinders containing acetylene constitute a great potential danger for fire and rescue services involved in salvage operations. Experiments show that gas cylinders with acetylene, oxygen, hydrogen, CNG, LPG or CO2 may blow after short exposition to heat with very destructive effect as fragments of blown cylinder may fly even several hundred meters. In the case of acetylene, the explosion may occur also several hours after the cylinder is cooled down. One of the possible neutralization procedures that in many cases may be used to prevent explosions is shooting dangerous cylinders by rifle bullets. This technique is used to neutralize acetylene cylinders in a few European countries with great success. In Poland research project 'BLOW' was launched in 2014 with the aim to investigate phenomena related to fire influence on industrial and home used cylinders and to evaluate usefulness of the shooting technique. All together over 100 gas cylinders with different gases were experimentally tested at the military blasting grounds and in shelters. During the experiments cylinder temperature and pressure were recorded. In the case of acetylene that is subjected to thermal decomposition also concentration of hydrogen was monitored. Some of the cylinders were allowed to blow and others were shot by snipers. It was observed that shooting hot cylinders has never created more dangerous situations than letting the cylinders to explode spontaneously. In a great majority of cases cylinders that were punctured by bullets released gas in a more or less violent but relatively safe way. The paper presents detailed information about experiments and presents particularities of behavior of cylinders containing different gases. Extensive research was also done in order to select bullets that may be safely and efficiently used to puncture different cylinders. The paper shows also results of those experiments as well as gives practical information related to techniques that should be used during shooting.

Keywords: fire, gas cylinders, neutralization, shooting

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13 Combustion Characteristic of Propane/Acetylene Fuel Blends Pool Fire

Authors: Yubo Bi, Xiao Chen, Shouxiang Lu


A kind of gas-fueled burner, named Burning Rate Emulator, was proposed for the purpose of the emulation of condensed fuel recently. The gaseous fuel can be pure combustible fuel gas or blends of gaseous fuel or inert gas. However, this concept was recently proposed without detailed study on the combustion characteristic of fuel blends. In this study, two kinds of common gaseous fuels were selected, propane and acetylene, to provide the combustion heat as well as a large amount of smoke, which widely exists in liquid and solid fuel burning process. A set of experiments were carried out using a gas-fueled burner with a diameter of 8 cm. The total volume flow rate of propane and acetylene was kept at 3 liters per minute. The volume fraction of propane varied from 0% to 100% at interval of 10%. It is found that the flame height increases with propane volume fraction, which may be caused by the increase of heat release rate, as the energy density of propane is larger than that of acetylene. The dimensionless flame height is correlated against dimensionless heat release rate, which shows a power function relationship. The radiation fraction of the flame does not show a monotonic relationship with propane volume fraction. With the increase of propane volume fraction from 0% to 100%, the value of radiation fraction increases first and reach a maximum value around 0.46 at a propane volume fraction of 10%, and then decreases continuously to a value of 0.25 at the propane volume fraction of 100%. The flame radiation is related to the soot in the flame. The trend of the radiation fraction reflects that there may be a synergistic effect of soot formation between propane and acetylene which can be guessed from the significantly high radiation fraction at a propane volume fraction of 10%. This work provides data for combustion of gaseous fuel blends pool fire and also give reference on the design of Burning Rate Emulator.

Keywords: Burning Rate Emulator, fuel blends pool fire, flame height, radiation fraction

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12 Soot Formation in the Field of Combustion

Authors: Nacira Mecheri, N. Boussid


A new chemical mechanism designed to study the process of forming the first aromatic ring (benzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a flame of acetylene (C2H2) has been developed. The mechanism developed, contains 50 chemical species involved in 268 reversible elementary reactions. The comparison between the results from modelling and experimental measurements allowed us to test the validity of the postulated mechanism in specific experimental conditions. Kinetic analysis of the flame by calculating the maximum rates for each elementary reaction, allowed us to identify key reactions pathways of consumption and formation of main precursors of soot.

Keywords: benzene, PAH, acetylene, modeling, flame, soot

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11 Pt Decorated Functionalized Acetylene Black as Efficient Cathode Material for Li Air Battery and Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: Rajashekar Badam, Vedarajan Raman, Noriyoshi Matsumi


Efficiency of energy converting and storage systems like fuel cells and Li-Air battery principally depended on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which occurs at cathode. As the kinetics of the ORR is very slow, it becomes the rate determining step. Exploring carbon substrates for enhancing the dispersion and activity of the metal catalyst and commercially viable simple preparation method is a very crucial area of research in the field of energy materials. Hence, many researchers made large number of carbon-based ORR materials today. But, there are hardly few studies on the effect of interaction between Pt-carbon and carbon-electrolyte on activity. In this work, we have prepared functionalized carbon-based Pt catalyst (Pt-FAB) with enhanced interfacial properties that lead to efficient ORR catalysis. The present work deals with a single-pot method to exfoliate and functionalized acetylene black with enhanced interaction with Pt as well as electrolyte. Acetylene black was functionalized and exfoliated using a facile single pot acid treatment method. The resulted FAB was further decorated with Pt-nano particles (Pt-np). The TEM images of Pt-FAB with uniformly decorated Pt-np of ~3 nm. Further, XPS studies of Pt 4f peak revealed that Pt0 peak was shifted by 0.4 eV in Pt-FAB compared to binding energy of typical Pt⁰ found in Pt/C. The shift can be ascribed to the modulation of electronic state and strong electronic interaction of Pt with carbon. Modulated electronic structure of Pt and strong electronic interaction of Pt with FAB enhances the catalytic activity and durability respectively. To understand the electrode electrolyte interface, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out. These measurements revealed that the charge transfer resistance of electrode to electrolyte for Pt-FAB is 10 times smaller than that of conventional Pt/C. The interaction with electrolyte helps reduce the interface boundaries, which in turn affects the overall catalytic performance of the electrode. Cyclic voltammetric measurements in 0.1M HClO₄ aq. at a potential scan rate of 50 mVs-1 was employed to evaluate electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of Pt. ECSA of Pt-FAB was found to be as high as 67.2 m²g⁻¹. The three-electrode system showed very high ORR catalytic activity. Mass activity at 0.9 V vs. RHE showed 460 A/g which is much higher than the DOE target values for the year 2020. Further, it showed enhanced performance by showing 723 mW/cm² of highest power density and 1006 mA/cm² of current density at 0.6 V in fuel cell single cell type configuration and 1030 mAhg⁻¹ of rechargeable capacity in Li air battery application. The higher catalytic activity can be ascribed to the improved interaction of FAB with Pt and electrolyte. The aforementioned results evince that Pt-FAB will be a promising cathode material for efficient ORR with significant cyclability for its application in fuel cells and Li-Air batteries. In conclusion, a disordered material was prepared from AB and was systematically characterized. The extremely high ORR activity and ease of preparation make it competent for replacing commercially available ORR materials.

Keywords: functionalized acetylene black, oxygen reduction reaction, fuel cells, Functionalized battery

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10 Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes

Authors: A. Merzouki, N. Haddaoui


Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.

Keywords: electrodeposition, polymer composites, carbon black, acetylene black

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9 Soliton Solutions in (3+1)-Dimensions

Authors: Magdy G. Asaad


Solitons are among the most beneficial solutions for science and technology for their applicability in physical applications including plasma, energy transport along protein molecules, wave transport along poly-acetylene molecules, ocean waves, constructing optical communication systems, transmission of information through optical fibers and Josephson junctions. In this talk, we will apply the bilinear technique to generate a class of soliton solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear soliton equation of Jimbo-Miwa type. Examples of the resulting soliton solutions are computed and a few solutions are plotted.

Keywords: Pfaffian solutions, N-soliton solutions, soliton equations, Jimbo-Miwa

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8 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova


The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: electrolyze, gascondensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis

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7 Nanoparticle Exposure Levels in Indoor and Outdoor Demolition Sites

Authors: Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Shane Lewis, Jefferson Doehling, Alexis Pawlak, Jacob Schwartz, Imaobong Ekpo, Atin Adhikari


Working or living close to demolition sites can increase risks of dust-related health problems. Demolition of concrete buildings may produce crystalline silica dust, which can be associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases including silicosis and lung cancers. Previous studies demonstrated significant associations between demolition dust exposure and increase in the incidence of mesothelioma or asbestos cancer. Dust is a generic term used for minute solid particles of typically <500 µm in diameter. Dust particles in demolition sites vary in a wide range of sizes. Larger particles tend to settle down from the air. On the other hand, the smaller and lighter solid particles remain dispersed in the air for a long period and pose sustained exposure risks. Submicron ultrafine particles and nanoparticles are respirable deeper into our alveoli beyond our body’s natural respiratory cleaning mechanisms such as cilia and mucous membranes and are likely to be retained in the lower airways. To our knowledge, how various demolition tasks release nanoparticles are largely unknown and previous studies mostly focused on course dust, PM2.5, and PM10. General belief is that the dust generated during demolition tasks are mostly large particles formed through crushing, grinding, or sawing of various concrete and wooden structures. Therefore, little consideration has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor, which was used for nanoparticle monitoring at two adjacent indoor and outdoor building demolition sites in southern Georgia. Nanoparticle levels were measured (n = 10) by TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910 at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location as well as in control sites. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Indoor demolition works included acetylene torch, masonry drilling, ceiling panel removal, and other miscellaneous tasks. Whereas, outdoor demolition works included acetylene torch and skid-steer loader use to remove a HVAC system. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes at the indoor demolition site were: 11.5 nm: 63 – 1054/cm³; 15.4 nm: 170 – 1690/cm³; 20.5 nm: 321 – 730/cm³; 27.4 nm: 740 – 3255/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1,220 – 17,828/cm³; 48.7 nm: 1,993 – 40,465/cm³; 64.9 nm: 2,848 – 58,910/cm³; 86.6 nm: 3,722 – 62,040/cm³; 115.5 nm: 3,732 – 46,786/cm³; 154 nm: 3,022 – 21,506/cm³; 205.4 nm: 12 – 15,482/cm³; 273.8 nm: Keywords: demolition dust, industrial hygiene, aerosol, occupational exposure

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6 Effect of Different Contaminants on Mineral Insulating Oil Characteristics

Authors: H. M. Wilhelm, P. O. Fernandes, L. P. Dill, C. Steffens, K. G. Moscon, S. M. Peres, V. Bender, T. Marchesan, J. B. Ferreira Neto


Deterioration of insulating oil is a natural process that occurs during transformers operation. However, this process can be accelerated by some factors, such as oxygen, high temperatures, metals and, moisture, which rapidly reduce oil insulating capacity and favor transformer faults. Parts of building materials of a transformer can be degraded and yield soluble compounds and insoluble particles that shorten the equipment life. Physicochemical tests, dissolved gas analysis (including propane, propylene and, butane), volatile and furanic compounds determination, besides quantitative and morphological analyses of particulate are proposed in this study in order to correlate transformers building materials degradation with insulating oil characteristics. The present investigation involves tests of medium temperature overheating simulation by means of an electric resistance wrapped with the following materials immersed in mineral insulating oil: test I) copper, tin, lead and, paper (heated at 350-400 °C for 8 h); test II) only copper (at 250 °C for 11 h); and test III) only paper (at 250 °C for 8 h and at 350 °C for 8 h). A different experiment is the simulation of electric arc involving copper, using an electric welding machine at two distinct energy sets (low and high). Analysis results showed that dielectric loss was higher in the sample of test I, higher neutralization index and higher values of hydrogen and hydrocarbons, including propane and butane, were also observed. Test III oil presented higher particle count, in addition, ferrographic analysis revealed contamination with fibers and carbonized paper. However, these particles had little influence on the oil physicochemical parameters (dielectric loss and neutralization index) and on the gas production, which was very low. Test II oil showed high levels of methane, ethane, and propylene, indicating the effect of metal on oil degradation. CO2 and CO gases were formed in the highest concentration in test III, as expected. Regarding volatile compounds, in test I acetone, benzene and toluene were detected, which are oil oxidation products. Regarding test III, methanol was identified due to cellulose degradation, as expected. Electric arc simulation test showed the highest oil oxidation in presence of copper and at high temperature, since these samples had huge concentration of hydrogen, ethylene, and acetylene. Particle count was also very high, showing the highest release of copper in such conditions. When comparing high and low energy, the first presented more hydrogen, ethylene, and acetylene. This sample had more similar results to test I, pointing out that the generation of different particles can be the cause for faults such as electric arc. Ferrography showed more evident copper and exfoliation particles than in other samples. Therefore, in this study, by using different combined analytical techniques, it was possible to correlate insulating oil characteristics with possible contaminants, which can lead to transformers failure.

Keywords: Ferrography, gas analysis, insulating mineral oil, particle contamination, transformer failures

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5 Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure and Transport of Graphyne and Graphdiyne

Authors: Zeljko Crljen, Predrag Lazic


Graphene has attracted a tremendous interest in the field of nanoelectronics and spintronics due to its exceptional electronic properties. However, pristine graphene has no band gap, a feature needed in building some of the electronic elements. Recently, a growing attention has been given to a class of carbon allotropes of graphene with honeycomb structures, in particular to graphyne and graphdiyne. They are characterized with a single and double acetylene bonding chains respectively, connecting the nearest-neighbor hexagonal rings. With an electron density comparable to that of graphene and a prominent gap in electronic band structures they appear as promising materials for nanoelectronic components. We studied the electronic structure and transport of infinite sheets of graphyne and graphdiyne and compared them with graphene. The method based on the non-equilibrium Green functions and density functional theory has been used in order to obtain a full ab initio self-consistent description of the transport current with different electrochemical bias potentials. The current/voltage (I/V) characteristics show a semi-conducting behavior with prominent nonlinearities at higher voltages. The calculated band gaps are 0.52V and 0.59V, respectively, and the effective masses are considerably smaller compared to typical semiconductors. We analyzed the results in terms of transmission eigenchannels and showed that the difference in conductance is directly related to the difference of the internal structure of the allotropes.

Keywords: electronic transport, graphene-like structures, nanoelectronics, two-dimensional materials

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4 Studying the Evolution of Soot and Precursors in Turbulent Flames Using Laser Diagnostics

Authors: Muhammad A. Ashraf, Scott Steinmetz, Matthew J. Dunn, Assaad R. Masri


This study focuses on the evolution of soot and soot precursors in three different piloted diffusion turbulent flames. The fuel composition is as follow flame A (ethylene/nitrogen, 2:3 by volume), flame B (ethylene/air, 2:3 by volume), and flame C (pure methane). These flames are stabilized using a 4mm diameter jet surrounded by a pilot annulus with an outer diameter of 15 mm. The pilot issues combustion products from stoichiometric premixed flames of hydrogen, acetylene, and air. In all cases, the jet Reynolds number is 10,000, and air flows in the coflow stream at a velocity of 5 m/s. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is collected at two wavelength bands in the visible (445 nm) and UV regions (266 nm) along with laser-induced incandescence (LII). The combined results are employed to study concentration, size, and growth of soot and precursors. A set of four fast photo-multiplier tubes are used to record emission data in temporal domain. A 266nm laser pulse preferentially excites smaller nanoparticles which emit a fluorescence spectrum which is analysed to track the presence, evolution, and destruction of nanoparticles. A 1064nm laser pulse excites sufficiently large soot particles, and the resulting incandescence is collected at 1064nm. At downstream and outer radial locations, intermittency becomes a relevant factor. Therefore, data collected in turbulent flames is conditioned to account for intermittency so that the resulting mean profiles for scattering, fluorescence, and incandescence are shown for the events that contain traces of soot. It is found that in the upstream regions of the ethylene-air and ethylene-nitrogen flames, the presence of soot precursors is rather similar. However, further downstream, soot concentration grows larger in the ethylene-air flames.

Keywords: laser induced incandescence, laser induced fluorescence, soot, nanoparticles

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3 Nitrogen Fixation in Hare Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Tatiana A. Kuznetsova, Maxim V. Vechersky, Natalia V. Kostina, Marat M. Umarov, Elena I. Naumova


One of the main problems of nutrition of phytophagous animals is the insufficiency of protein in their forage. Usually, symbiotic microorganisms highly contribute both to carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds of the food. But it is not easy to utilize microbial biomass in the large intestine and caecum for the animals with hindgut fermentation. So that, some animals, as well hares, developed special mechanism of contribution of such biomass - obligate autocoprophagy, or reingestion. Hares have two types of feces - the hard and the soft. Hard feces are excreted at night, while hares are vigilance ("foraging period"), and the soft ones (caecotrophs) are produced and reingested in the day-time during hares "resting-period". We examine the role of microbial digestion in providing nitrogen nutrition of hare (Lepus europaeus). We determine the ability of nitrogen fixation in fornix and stomach body, small intestine, caecum and colon of hares' gastro-intestinal tract in two main period of hares activity - "resting-period" (day time) and "foraging period" (late-evening and very-early-morning). We use gas chromatography to measure levels of nitrogen fixing activity (acetylene reduction). Nitrogen fixing activity was detected in the contents of all analyzed parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum values were recorded in the large intestine. Also daily dynamics of the process was detected. Thus, during hare “resting-period” (caecotrophs formation) N2-fixing activity was significantly higher than during “foraging period”, reaching 0,3 nmol C2H4/g*h. N2-fixing activity in the gastrointestinal tract can allocate to significant contribution of nitrogen fixers to microbial digestion in hare and confirms the importance of coprophagy as a nitrogen source in lagomorphs.

Keywords: coprophagy, gastrointestinal tract, lagomorphs, nitrogen fixation

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2 Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis

Authors: Kanti Sapkota, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han


Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.

Keywords: nanoparticles, catalysis, multicomponent, quinoline

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1 Synergy Surface Modification for High Performance Li-Rich Cathode

Authors: Aipeng Zhu, Yun Zhang


The growing grievous environment problems together with the exhaustion of energy resources put urgent demands for developing high energy density. Considering the factors including capacity, resource and environment, Manganese-based lithium-rich layer-structured cathode materials xLi₂MnO₃⋅(1-x)LiMO₂ (M = Ni, Co, Mn, and other metals) are drawing increasing attention due to their high reversible capacities, high discharge potentials, and low cost. They are expected to be one type of the most promising cathode materials for the next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with higher energy densities. Unfortunately, their commercial applications are hindered with crucial drawbacks such as poor rate performance, limited cycle life and continuous falling of the discharge potential. With decades of extensive studies, significant achievements have been obtained in improving their cyclability and rate performances, but they cannot meet the requirement of commercial utilization till now. One major problem for lithium-rich layer-structured cathode materials (LLOs) is the side reaction during cycling, which leads to severe surface degradation. In this process, the metal ions can dissolve in the electrolyte, and the surface phase change can hinder the intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions and resulting in low capacity retention and low working voltage. To optimize the LLOs cathode material, the surface coating is an efficient method. Considering the price and stability, Al₂O₃ was used as a coating material in the research. Meanwhile, due to the low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE), the pristine LLOs was pretreated by KMnO₄ to increase the ICE. The precursor was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The as-prepared precursor was then thoroughly mixed with Li₂CO₃ and calcined in air at 500℃ for 5h and 900℃ for 12h to produce Li₁.₂[Ni₀.₂Mn₀.₆]O₂ (LNMO). The LNMO was then put into 0.1ml/g KMnO₄ solution stirring for 3h. The resultant was filtered and washed with water, and dried in an oven. The LLOs obtained was dispersed in Al(NO₃)₃ solution. The mixture was lyophilized to confer the Al(NO₃)₃ was uniformly coated on LLOs. After lyophilization, the LLOs was calcined at 500℃ for 3h to obtain [email protected]@ALO. The working electrodes were prepared by casting the mixture of active material, acetylene black, and binder (polyvinglidene fluoride) dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 80: 15: 5 onto an aluminum foil. The electrochemical performance tests showed that the multiple surface modified materials had a higher initial Coulombic efficiency (84%) and better capacity retention (91% after 100 cycles) compared with that of pristine LNMO (76% and 80%, respectively). The modified material suggests that the KMnO₄ pretreat and Al₂O₃ coating can increase the ICE and cycling stability.

Keywords: Li-rich materials, surface coating, lithium ion batteries, Al₂O₃

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