Search results for: Sanjay Kumar Shukla
1675 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models
Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Abstract:Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.
Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM₂.₅, fugitive, emission inventoryProcedia PDF Downloads 228
1674 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles
Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Abstract:Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.
Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sandProcedia PDF Downloads 216
1673 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam
Authors: Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong
Abstract:This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.
Keywords: numerical modelling, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation, soft soilProcedia PDF Downloads 137
1672 Sustainability in Retaining Wall Construction with Geosynthetics
Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Abstract:This paper seeks to present a research study on sustainability in construction of retaining wall using geosynthetics. Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Geotechnical engineering, being very resource intensive, warrants an environmental sustainability study, but a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of geotechnical practices, particularly at the planning and design stages, does not exist. In geotechnical projects, major economic issues to be addressed are in the design and construction of stable slopes and retaining structures within space constraints. In this paper, quantitative indicators for assessing the environmental sustainability of retaining wall with geosynthetics are compared with conventional concrete retaining wall through life cycle assessment (LCA). Geosynthetics can make a real difference in sustainable construction techniques and contribute to development in developing countries in particular. Their imaginative application can result in considerable cost savings over the use of conventional designs and materials. The acceptance of geosynthetics in reinforced retaining wall construction has been triggered by a number of factors, including aesthetics, reliability, simple construction techniques, good seismic performance, and the ability to tolerate large deformations without structural distress. Reinforced retaining wall with geosynthetics is the best cost-effective and eco-friendly solution as compared with traditional concrete retaining wall construction. This paper presents an analysis of the theme of sustainability applied to the design and construction of traditional concrete retaining wall and presenting a cost-effective and environmental solution using geosynthetics.
Keywords: sustainability, retaining wall, geosynthetics, life cycle assessmentProcedia PDF Downloads 177
1671 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology
Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh
Abstract:Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.
Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMwareProcedia PDF Downloads 392
1670 Performance Analysis of Curved U-Slot Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth and Isolation for Mimo Systems
Authors: Umesh Kumar, Arun Kumar Shukla, B. V. V. Ravindra Babu
Abstract:The paper presents a compact tri band Curved U-Slot patch antenna with improved bandwidth and isolation characteristics. The proposed antenna excited by coaxial feed resonates at tri band of 2.8 GHz, 4.1 GHz and 5.7 GHz for VSWR ≤ 1.5 with an improved bandwidth of 99.7% and also for getting high gain antenna of 11.31 dB. A 2×2 MIMO is developed using the proposed antenna giving an excellent isolation of 28 dB between the two antennas. The simulation results of return loss, Mutual Coupling, Gain, VSWR, Surface Current Distribution and Electrical Distribution are presented. By keeping the substrate thickness constant over various dielectric constants, simulations were carried out using MATLAB® and HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software.
Keywords: performance analysis, curved U-slot patch, antenna with enhanced bandwidth, isolation for mimo systemsProcedia PDF Downloads 516
1669 A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell
Authors: Bharat Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Raj Kumar Rajak
Abstract:The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.
Keywords: substrates, electrodes, membranes, MFCs design, voltageProcedia PDF Downloads 204
1668 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond
Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar
Abstract:Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furanProcedia PDF Downloads 360
1667 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review
Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra
Abstract:Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.
Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1666 Stability of Canola Varieties for Oil Percent in Four Regions of Iran
Authors: Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Amir Mashayekh, Pasha Hejazi, Sanaz Kanani Zadeh Khalkhali
Abstract:To determine the stability of the oil percent canola varieties, an experiment was done in a randomized complete block design with four replications in four research stations of the country Shahrood, Esfahan, Kermanshah, Varamin. Analysis of variance showed that there is cultivars considerable variability in the percentage of oil. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of oil Hyola 401 and Hyola308 stability and flexibility are high. Cultivars Cooper and Likord are minimum variance Shukla that stable for the percentage of oil Based on the chart AMMI 1, cultivars Zarfam and Hyola 401 are of oil percentage than other varieties had higher stability. On the chart AMMI2, cultivars Karun and Hyola 308 are identified as stable, also location Isfahan is stable
Keywords: canola, stability, AMMI, variance ShuklaProcedia PDF Downloads 301
1665 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC
Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar
Abstract:Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.
Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicineProcedia PDF Downloads 497
1664 Optimization of Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Times Using Genetic Algorithm Approach
Authors: Sanjay Kumar Parjapati, Ajai Jain
Abstract:This paper presents optimization of makespan for ‘n’ jobs and ‘m’ machines flexible job shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup time using genetic algorithm (GA) approach. A restart scheme has also been applied to prevent the premature convergence. Two case studies are taken into consideration. Results are obtained by considering crossover probability (pc = 0.85) and mutation probability (pm = 0.15). Five simulation runs for each case study are taken and minimum value among them is taken as optimal makespan. Results indicate that optimal makespan can be achieved with more than one sequence of jobs in a production order.
Keywords: flexible job shop, genetic algorithm, makespan, sequence dependent setup timesProcedia PDF Downloads 269
1663 Pegylated Liposomes of Trans Resveratrol, an Anticancer Agent, for Enhancing Therapeutic Efficacy and Long Circulation
Authors: M. R. Vijayakumar, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Lakshmi, Hithesh Dewangan, Sanjay Singh
Abstract:Trans resveratrol (RES) is a natural molecule proved for cancer preventive and therapeutic activities devoid of any potential side effects. However, the therapeutic application of RES in disease management is limited because of its rapid elimination from blood circulation thereby low biological half life in mammals. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to enhance the circulation as well as therapeutic efficacy using PEGylated liposomes. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) is applied as steric surface decorating agent to prepare RES liposomes by thin film hydration method. The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated by various state of the art techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique for particle size and zeta potential, TEM for shape, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for interaction analysis and XRD for crystalline changes of drug. Encapsulation efficiency and invitro drug release were determined by dialysis bag method. Cancer cell viability studies were performed by MTT assay, respectively. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in sprague dawley rats. The prepared liposomes were found to be spherical in shape. Particle size and zeta potential of prepared formulations varied from 64.5±3.16 to 262.3±7.45 nm and -2.1 to 1.76 mV, respectively. DSC study revealed absence of potential interaction. XRD study revealed presence of amorphous form in liposomes. Entrapment efficiency was found to be 87.45±2.14 % and the drug release was found to be controlled up to 24 hours. Minimized MEC in MTT assay and tremendous enhancement in circulation time of RES PEGylated liposomes than its pristine form revealed that the stearic stabilized PEGylated liposomes can be an alternative tool to commercialize this molecule for chemopreventive and therapeutic applications in cancer.
Keywords: trans resveratrol, cancer nanotechnology, long circulating liposomes, bioavailability enhancement, liposomes for cancer therapy, PEGylated liposomesProcedia PDF Downloads 414
1662 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS
Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra
Abstract:A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.
Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosionProcedia PDF Downloads 367
1661 Novel Uses of Discarded Work Rolls of Cold Rolling Mills in Hot Strip Mill of Tata Steel India
Authors: Uday Shanker Goel, Vinay Vasant Mahashabde, Biswajit Ghosh, Arvind Jha, Amit Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Patel, Uma Shanker Pattanaik, Vinit Kumar Shah, Chaitanya Bhanu
Abstract:Pinch rolls of the Hot Mills must possess resistance to wear, thermal stability, high thermal conductivity and through hardness. Conventionally, pinch rolls have been procured either as new ones or refurbished ones. Discarded Work Rolls from the Cold Mill were taken and machined inhouse at Tata Steel to be used subsequently as the bottom pinch rolls of the Hot Mill. The hardness of the scrapped work rolls from CRM is close to 55HRC and the typical composition is ( C - 0.8% , Mn - 0.40 % , Si - 0.40% , Cr - 3.5% , Mo - 0.5% & V - 0.1% ).The Innovation was the use of a roll which would otherwise have been otherwise discarded as scrap. Also, the innovation helped in using the scrapped roll which had better wear and heat resistance. In a conventional Pinch roil (Hardness 50 HRC and typical chemistry - C - 10% , Mo+Co+V+Nb ~ 5 % ) , Pick-up is a condition whereby foreign material becomes adhered to the surface of the pinch roll during service. The foreign material is usually adhered metal from the actual product being rolled. The main attributes of the weld overlay rolls are wear resistance and crack resistance. However, the weld overlay roll has a strong tendency for strip pick-up particularly in the area of bead overlap. However, the greatest disadvantage is the depth of weld deposit, which is less than half of the usable shell thickness in most mills. Because of this, the stainless rolls require re-welding on a routine basis. By providing a significantly cheaper in house and more robust alternative of the existing bottom pinch rolls , this innovation results in significant lower worries for the roll shop. Pinch rolls now don't have to be sent outside Jamshedpur for refurbishment or for procuring new ones. Scrapped rolls from adjacent Cold Mill are procured and sent for machining to our Machine Shop inside Tata Steel works in Jamshedpur. This is far more convenient than the older methodology. The idea is also being deployed to the other hot mills of Tata Steel. Multiple campaigns have been tried out at both down coilers of Hot Strip with significantly lower wear.
Keywords: hot rolling flat, cold mill work roll, hot strip pinch roll, strip surfaceProcedia PDF Downloads 7
1660 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W
Authors: Manish Kumar Rajak, Sanjay Gupta
Abstract:Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.
Keywords: mesh networks, MANET, packet count, threshold, throughputProcedia PDF Downloads 302
1659 Simulation Study of the Microwave Heating of the Hematite and Coal Mixture
Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Sunil Yadav, Soumya Ranjan Mohantry, Ajay Kumar Shukla
Abstract:Temperature distribution in the hematite ore mixed with 7.5% coal was predicted by solving a 1-D heat conduction equation using an implicit finite difference approach. In this work, it was considered a square slab of 20 cm x 20 cm, which assumed the coal to be uniformly mixed with hematite ore. It was solved the equations with the use of MATLAB 2018a software. Heat transfer effects in this 1D dimensional slab convective and the radiative boundary conditions are also considered. Temperature distribution obtained inside hematite slab by considering microwave heating time, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, carbon percentage, sample dimensions, and many other factors such as penetration depth, permittivity, and permeability of coal and hematite ore mixtures. The resulting temperature profile can be used as a guiding tool for optimizing the microwave-assisted carbothermal reduction process of hematite slab was extended to other dimensions as well, viz., 1 cm x 1 cm, 5 cm x 5 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.
Keywords: hematite ore, coal, microwave processing, heat transfer, implicit method, temperature distributionProcedia PDF Downloads 64
1658 Numerical Solution of a Mathematical Model of Vortex Using Projection Method: Applications to Tornado Dynamics
Authors: Jagdish Prasad Maurya, Sanjay Kumar Pandey
Abstract:Inadequate understanding of the complex nature of flow features in tornado vortex is a major problem in modelling tornadoes. Tornadoes are violent atmospheric phenomenon that appear all over the world. Modelling tornadoes aim to reduce the loss of the human lives and material damage caused by the tornadoes. Dynamics of tornado is investigated by a numerical technique, the improved version of the projection method. In this paper, authors solve the problem for axisymmetric tornado vortex by the said method that uses a finite difference approach for getting an accurate and stable solution. The conclusions drawn are that large radial inflow velocity occurs near the ground that leads to increase the tangential velocity. The increased velocity phenomenon occurs close to the boundary and absolute maximum wind is obtained near the vortex core. The results validate previous numerical and theoretical models.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, Navier-Stokes equations, tornadoProcedia PDF Downloads 274
1657 Development of a Thermodynamic Model for Ladle Metallurgy Steel Making Processes Using Factsage and Its Macro Facility
Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Ajay Kumar Shukla
Abstract:To produce high-quality steel in larger volumes, dynamic control of composition and temperature throughout the process is essential. In this paper, we developed a mass transfer model based on thermodynamics to simulate the ladle metallurgy steel-making process using FactSage and its macro facility. The overall heat and mass transfer processes consist of one equilibrium chamber, two non-equilibrium chambers, and one adiabatic reactor. The flow of material, as well as heat transfer, occurs across four interconnected unit chambers and a reactor. We used the macro programming facility of FactSage™ software to understand the thermochemical model of the secondary steel making process. In our model, we varied the oxygen content during the process and studied their effect on the composition of the final hot metal and slag. The model has been validated with respect to the plant data for the steel composition, which is similar to the ladle metallurgy steel-making process in the industry. The resulting composition profile serves as a guiding tool to optimize the process of ladle metallurgy in steel-making industries.
Keywords: desulphurization, degassing, factsage, reactorProcedia PDF Downloads 128
1656 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin
Authors: Sanjay Kumar
Abstract:This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.
Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromismProcedia PDF Downloads 442
1655 Supplier Relationship Management and Selection Strategies: A Literature Review
Authors: Priyesh Kumar Singh, S. K. Sharma, Sanjay Verma, C. Samuel
Abstract:Supplier Relationship Management (SRM), is strategic planning and managing of all interactions with suppliers to maximize its value. Its application varies from construction industries to healthcare system and investment banks to aviation industries. Several buyer-supplier relationship models, as well as supplier selection and evaluation strategies, have been documented by many academicians and researchers. In this paper, through a comprehensive literature review of over 30 published papers, different theoretical models, empirical data and conclusions were analysed relating to SRM to find its role in establishing better supplier relationships. These journal articles were searched by using the keyword “supplier relationship management,” in databases of Mendeley Library, ProQuest, EBSCO and Google Scholar. This paper reviews the academic literature on different relationship models, supplier evaluation, and selection strategies to discuss its implications in different situations. It also describes the dominant factors responsible for buyer-supplier relationships such trust and power. Finally, conclusions have been drawn which can be validated by various researchers and can help practitioners in industries.
Keywords: supplier relationship management, supplier performance, supplier evaluation, supplier selection strategiesProcedia PDF Downloads 147
1654 Caregiver’s Perception Regarding Diagnosis Disclosure to Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resource-Limited Settings: Observational Study from India
Authors: Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar
Abstract:Background: With a better understanding of HIV pathogenesis and availability of antiretroviral therapy more children are growing and entering in teenage group; informing children of their own HIV status has become an important aspect of long-term disease management. There is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in a resource-limited setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 among a dyads of 156 HIV-infected children and their caregivers, those were visiting pediatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. The study protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee. After taking written informed consent; pretested structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers during routine clinic visits. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV infection status among children and their perception regarding disclosure was collected. Mean and frequencies were calculated and chi-square and logistic regression test were applied. Results: The mean age of children was 8.4 ±3.45 years. Among them 73.7% were male and 39.1% were orphans. Among 156 enrolled children, 74.4% (n=116) were of ≥ 6 years and were assessed for disclosure. Only 18.1% (n=21) children had been informed of their HIV status. Of those under 9 years, 6.4% knew their status, whereas 18.4% of 9-11 years and 35.5% of 12-14 years children knew they had HIV. Awareness among males (23.3%) was higher than females (3.3%). Both age and sex of child were significantly (p<0.01) associated with disclosure status. Other factors favoring disclosure were orphan-hood, non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.01-7.12), ART initiation (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 1.03-6.98), and caregiver educated beyond primary level (OR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.26). Repeated enquiry regarding the visit to clinic was the most common reason (66.6%) for disclosure. In 52.4% children disclosure was done with the involvement of other family members. 82.5% caregivers felt the age of > 10 years is appropriate for disclosing the HIV infection status to the child. Conclusion: Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.
Keywords: HIV, children, India, disclosureProcedia PDF Downloads 529
1653 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials
Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey
Abstract:A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.
Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiatorProcedia PDF Downloads 532
1652 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India
Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva
Abstract:The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.
Keywords: fog, climatology, spatial variability, temporal variabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 207
1651 Enhancing Dents through Lean Six Sigma
Authors: Prateek Guleria, Shubham Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Shukla, Harshit Sharma
Abstract:Performance measurement of small and medium-sized businesses is the primary need for all companies to survive and thrive in a dynamic global company. A structured and systematic, integrated organization increases employee reliability, sustainability, and loyalty. This paper is a case study of a gear manufacturing industry that was facing the problem of rejection due to dents and damages in gear. The DMAIC cycle, along with different tools used in the research work includes SIPOC (Supply, Input, Process, Output, Control) Pareto analysis, Root & Cause analysis, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). The six-sigma level was improved from 4.06 to 3.46, and the rejection rate was reduced from 7.44% to 1.56%. These findings highlighted the influence of a Lean Six Sigma module in the gear manufacturing unit, which has already increased operational quality and continuity to increase market success and meet customer expectations. According to the findings, applying lean six sigma tools will result in increased productivity. The results could assist businesses in deciding the quality tools that were likely to improve efficiency, competitiveness, and expense.
Keywords: six sigma, DMAIC, SIPOC, failure mode, effect analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 53
1650 Quantum Entangled States and Image Processing
Authors: Sanjay Singh, Sushil Kumar, Rashmi Jain
Abstract:Quantum registering is another pattern in computational hypothesis and a quantum mechanical framework has a few helpful properties like Entanglement. We plan to store data concerning the structure and substance of a basic picture in a quantum framework. Consider a variety of n qubits which we propose to use as our memory stockpiling. In recent years classical processing is switched to quantum image processing. Quantum image processing is an elegant approach to overcome the problems of its classical counter parts. Image storage, retrieval and its processing on quantum machines is an emerging area. Although quantum machines do not exist in physical reality but theoretical algorithms developed based on quantum entangled states gives new insights to process the classical images in quantum domain. Here in the present work, we give the brief overview, such that how entangled states can be useful for quantum image storage and retrieval. We discuss the properties of tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states and their usefulness to store the shapes which may consist three vertices. We also propose the techniques to store shapes having more than three vertices.
Keywords: Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, image storage and retrieval, quantum entanglement, W statesProcedia PDF Downloads 233
1649 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector
Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh
Abstract:Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.
Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal managementProcedia PDF Downloads 160
1648 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant
Abstract:Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.
Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRPProcedia PDF Downloads 485
1647 Developing Human Resources through Inclusive Education: A Study of Effectiveness of Government Policies in India
Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Rajesh Srivastava
Abstract:Human resource is the key point of success of any economy. From the past few decades, policies started to move in the route of expanding inclusive education with effective involvement of government.Governments of developing nations are generating policies for educational upliftment. Applying educational policies, the motive of the government is to maintain and develop the effective human resource within a society. The attention of the government includes primary education to higher education. It also involves professional training programmes related to every discipline. The aim of this paper is to find out the government policies in terms of expenditure and achievements for inclusive education to develop human resources in developing countries. A case of Indian experience has been taken into consideration. This approach generates a picture as to how India is enriching its educational system for human resource development and this research study will be useful for the policy makers to determine the appropriate level of overall spending of government and achievements in the education system for human resource development. Analytical research methodology has been adopted.
Keywords: government policies, inclusive education, National Educational Policy, NCERTProcedia PDF Downloads 262
1646 Reclaiming Properties of Bituminous Concrete Using Cold Mix Design Technology
Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shalinee Shukla
Abstract:Pavement plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of a country. Bituminous roads construction with conventional paving grade bitumen obtained from hot mix plant creates pollution and involves emission of greenhouse gases, also the construction of pavements at very high temperature is not feasible or desirable for high rainfall and snowfall areas. This problem of overheating can be eliminated by the construction of pavements with the usage of emulsified cold mixes which will eliminate emissions and help in the reduction of fuel requirement at mixing plant, which leads to energy conservation. Cold mix is a mixture of unheated aggregate and emulsion or cutback and filler. The primary objective of this research is to assess the volumetric mix design parameters of recycled aggregates with cold mixing technology and also to assess the impact of additives on volumetric mix characteristics. In this present study, bituminous pavement materials are reclaimed using cold mix technology, and Marshall specimens are prepared with the help of slow setting type 2 (SS-2) cationic bitumen emulsion as a binder for recycled aggregates. This technique of road construction is more environmentally friendly and can be done in adverse weather conditions.
Keywords: cold mixes, bitumen emulsion, recycled aggregates, volumetric propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 71