Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1455

Search results for: Sanjay Kumar Shukla

1455 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM₂.₅, fugitive, emission inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1454 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1453 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong

Abstract:

This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.

Keywords: numerical modelling, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1452 Sustainability in Retaining Wall Construction with Geosynthetics

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

This paper seeks to present a research study on sustainability in construction of retaining wall using geosynthetics. Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Geotechnical engineering, being very resource intensive, warrants an environmental sustainability study, but a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of geotechnical practices, particularly at the planning and design stages, does not exist. In geotechnical projects, major economic issues to be addressed are in the design and construction of stable slopes and retaining structures within space constraints. In this paper, quantitative indicators for assessing the environmental sustainability of retaining wall with geosynthetics are compared with conventional concrete retaining wall through life cycle assessment (LCA). Geosynthetics can make a real difference in sustainable construction techniques and contribute to development in developing countries in particular. Their imaginative application can result in considerable cost savings over the use of conventional designs and materials. The acceptance of geosynthetics in reinforced retaining wall construction has been triggered by a number of factors, including aesthetics, reliability, simple construction techniques, good seismic performance, and the ability to tolerate large deformations without structural distress. Reinforced retaining wall with geosynthetics is the best cost-effective and eco-friendly solution as compared with traditional concrete retaining wall construction. This paper presents an analysis of the theme of sustainability applied to the design and construction of traditional concrete retaining wall and presenting a cost-effective and environmental solution using geosynthetics.

Keywords: sustainability, retaining wall, geosynthetics, life cycle assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
1451 Implementation of Traffic Engineering Using MPLS Technology

Authors: Vishal H. Shukla, Sanjay B. Deshmukh

Abstract:

Traffic engineering, at its center, is the ability of moving traffic approximately so that traffic from a congested link is moved onto the unused capacity on another link. Traffic Engineering ensures the best possible use of the resources. Now to support traffic engineering in the today’s network, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in an ongoing internet services. Here a topology is been implemented on GNS3 to focus on the analysis of the communication take place from one site to other through the ISP. The comparison is made between the IP network & MPLS network based on Bandwidth & Jitter which are one of the performance parameters using JPERF simulator.

Keywords: GNS3, JPERF, MPLS, traffic engineering, VMware

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1450 Performance Analysis of Curved U-Slot Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth and Isolation for Mimo Systems

Authors: Umesh Kumar, Arun Kumar Shukla, B. V. V. Ravindra Babu

Abstract:

The paper presents a compact tri band Curved U-Slot patch antenna with improved bandwidth and isolation characteristics. The proposed antenna excited by coaxial feed resonates at tri band of 2.8 GHz, 4.1 GHz and 5.7 GHz for VSWR ≤ 1.5 with an improved bandwidth of 99.7% and also for getting high gain antenna of 11.31 dB. A 2×2 MIMO is developed using the proposed antenna giving an excellent isolation of 28 dB between the two antennas. The simulation results of return loss, Mutual Coupling, Gain, VSWR, Surface Current Distribution and Electrical Distribution are presented. By keeping the substrate thickness constant over various dielectric constants, simulations were carried out using MATLAB® and HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) software.

Keywords: performance analysis, curved U-slot patch, antenna with enhanced bandwidth, isolation for mimo systems

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1449 A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bharat Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Raj Kumar Rajak

Abstract:

The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.

Keywords: substrates, electrodes, membranes, MFCs design, voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
1448 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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1447 Stability of Canola Varieties for Oil Percent in Four Regions of Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, Amir Mashayekh, Pasha Hejazi, Sanaz Kanani Zadeh Khalkhali

Abstract:

To determine the stability of the oil percent canola varieties, an experiment was done in a randomized complete block design with four replications in four research stations of the country Shahrood, Esfahan, Kermanshah, Varamin. Analysis of variance showed that there is cultivars considerable variability in the percentage of oil. The results showed that the coefficient of variation of oil Hyola 401 and Hyola308 stability and flexibility are high. Cultivars Cooper and Likord are minimum variance Shukla that stable for the percentage of oil Based on the chart AMMI 1, cultivars Zarfam and Hyola 401 are of oil percentage than other varieties had higher stability. On the chart AMMI2, cultivars Karun and Hyola 308 are identified as stable, also location Isfahan is stable

Keywords: canola, stability, AMMI, variance Shukla

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1446 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1445 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1444 Optimization of Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Times Using Genetic Algorithm Approach

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Parjapati, Ajai Jain

Abstract:

This paper presents optimization of makespan for ‘n’ jobs and ‘m’ machines flexible job shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup time using genetic algorithm (GA) approach. A restart scheme has also been applied to prevent the premature convergence. Two case studies are taken into consideration. Results are obtained by considering crossover probability (pc = 0.85) and mutation probability (pm = 0.15). Five simulation runs for each case study are taken and minimum value among them is taken as optimal makespan. Results indicate that optimal makespan can be achieved with more than one sequence of jobs in a production order.

Keywords: flexible job shop, genetic algorithm, makespan, sequence dependent setup times

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1443 Pegylated Liposomes of Trans Resveratrol, an Anticancer Agent, for Enhancing Therapeutic Efficacy and Long Circulation

Authors: M. R. Vijayakumar, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Lakshmi, Hithesh Dewangan, Sanjay Singh

Abstract:

Trans resveratrol (RES) is a natural molecule proved for cancer preventive and therapeutic activities devoid of any potential side effects. However, the therapeutic application of RES in disease management is limited because of its rapid elimination from blood circulation thereby low biological half life in mammals. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to enhance the circulation as well as therapeutic efficacy using PEGylated liposomes. D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) is applied as steric surface decorating agent to prepare RES liposomes by thin film hydration method. The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated by various state of the art techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique for particle size and zeta potential, TEM for shape, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for interaction analysis and XRD for crystalline changes of drug. Encapsulation efficiency and invitro drug release were determined by dialysis bag method. Cancer cell viability studies were performed by MTT assay, respectively. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in sprague dawley rats. The prepared liposomes were found to be spherical in shape. Particle size and zeta potential of prepared formulations varied from 64.5±3.16 to 262.3±7.45 nm and -2.1 to 1.76 mV, respectively. DSC study revealed absence of potential interaction. XRD study revealed presence of amorphous form in liposomes. Entrapment efficiency was found to be 87.45±2.14 % and the drug release was found to be controlled up to 24 hours. Minimized MEC in MTT assay and tremendous enhancement in circulation time of RES PEGylated liposomes than its pristine form revealed that the stearic stabilized PEGylated liposomes can be an alternative tool to commercialize this molecule for chemopreventive and therapeutic applications in cancer.

Keywords: trans resveratrol, cancer nanotechnology, long circulating liposomes, bioavailability enhancement, liposomes for cancer therapy, PEGylated liposomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1442 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra

Abstract:

A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

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1441 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W

Authors: Manish Kumar Rajak, Sanjay Gupta

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.

Keywords: mesh networks, MANET, packet count, threshold, throughput

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1440 Numerical Solution of a Mathematical Model of Vortex Using Projection Method: Applications to Tornado Dynamics

Authors: Jagdish Prasad Maurya, Sanjay Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Inadequate understanding of the complex nature of flow features in tornado vortex is a major problem in modelling tornadoes. Tornadoes are violent atmospheric phenomenon that appear all over the world. Modelling tornadoes aim to reduce the loss of the human lives and material damage caused by the tornadoes. Dynamics of tornado is investigated by a numerical technique, the improved version of the projection method. In this paper, authors solve the problem for axisymmetric tornado vortex by the said method that uses a finite difference approach for getting an accurate and stable solution. The conclusions drawn are that large radial inflow velocity occurs near the ground that leads to increase the tangential velocity. The increased velocity phenomenon occurs close to the boundary and absolute maximum wind is obtained near the vortex core. The results validate previous numerical and theoretical models.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, Navier-Stokes equations, tornado

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1439 Development of a Thermodynamic Model for Ladle Metallurgy Steel Making Processes Using Factsage and Its Macro Facility

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Ajay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

To produce high-quality steel in larger volumes, dynamic control of composition and temperature throughout the process is essential. In this paper, we developed a mass transfer model based on thermodynamics to simulate the ladle metallurgy steel-making process using FactSage and its macro facility. The overall heat and mass transfer processes consist of one equilibrium chamber, two non-equilibrium chambers, and one adiabatic reactor. The flow of material, as well as heat transfer, occurs across four interconnected unit chambers and a reactor. We used the macro programming facility of FactSage™ software to understand the thermochemical model of the secondary steel making process. In our model, we varied the oxygen content during the process and studied their effect on the composition of the final hot metal and slag. The model has been validated with respect to the plant data for the steel composition, which is similar to the ladle metallurgy steel-making process in the industry. The resulting composition profile serves as a guiding tool to optimize the process of ladle metallurgy in steel-making industries.

Keywords: desulphurization, degassing, factsage, reactor

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1438 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin

Authors: Sanjay Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.

Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromism

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1437 Supplier Relationship Management and Selection Strategies: A Literature Review

Authors: Priyesh Kumar Singh, S. K. Sharma, Sanjay Verma, C. Samuel

Abstract:

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM), is strategic planning and managing of all interactions with suppliers to maximize its value. Its application varies from construction industries to healthcare system and investment banks to aviation industries. Several buyer-supplier relationship models, as well as supplier selection and evaluation strategies, have been documented by many academicians and researchers. In this paper, through a comprehensive literature review of over 30 published papers, different theoretical models, empirical data and conclusions were analysed relating to SRM to find its role in establishing better supplier relationships. These journal articles were searched by using the keyword “supplier relationship management,” in databases of Mendeley Library, ProQuest, EBSCO and Google Scholar. This paper reviews the academic literature on different relationship models, supplier evaluation, and selection strategies to discuss its implications in different situations. It also describes the dominant factors responsible for buyer-supplier relationships such trust and power. Finally, conclusions have been drawn which can be validated by various researchers and can help practitioners in industries.

Keywords: supplier relationship management, supplier performance, supplier evaluation, supplier selection strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1436 Caregiver’s Perception Regarding Diagnosis Disclosure to Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resource-Limited Settings: Observational Study from India

Authors: Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar

Abstract:

Background: With a better understanding of HIV pathogenesis and availability of antiretroviral therapy more children are growing and entering in teenage group; informing children of their own HIV status has become an important aspect of long-term disease management. There is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in a resource-limited setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 among a dyads of 156 HIV-infected children and their caregivers, those were visiting pediatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. The study protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee. After taking written informed consent; pretested structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers during routine clinic visits. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV infection status among children and their perception regarding disclosure was collected. Mean and frequencies were calculated and chi-square and logistic regression test were applied. Results: The mean age of children was 8.4 ±3.45 years. Among them 73.7% were male and 39.1% were orphans. Among 156 enrolled children, 74.4% (n=116) were of ≥ 6 years and were assessed for disclosure. Only 18.1% (n=21) children had been informed of their HIV status. Of those under 9 years, 6.4% knew their status, whereas 18.4% of 9-11 years and 35.5% of 12-14 years children knew they had HIV. Awareness among males (23.3%) was higher than females (3.3%). Both age and sex of child were significantly (p<0.01) associated with disclosure status. Other factors favoring disclosure were orphan-hood, non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.01-7.12), ART initiation (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 1.03-6.98), and caregiver educated beyond primary level (OR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.26). Repeated enquiry regarding the visit to clinic was the most common reason (66.6%) for disclosure. In 52.4% children disclosure was done with the involvement of other family members. 82.5% caregivers felt the age of > 10 years is appropriate for disclosing the HIV infection status to the child. Conclusion: Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.

Keywords: HIV, children, India, disclosure

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1435 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.

Keywords: fog, climatology, spatial variability, temporal variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1434 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1433 Quantum Entangled States and Image Processing

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Sushil Kumar, Rashmi Jain

Abstract:

Quantum registering is another pattern in computational hypothesis and a quantum mechanical framework has a few helpful properties like Entanglement. We plan to store data concerning the structure and substance of a basic picture in a quantum framework. Consider a variety of n qubits which we propose to use as our memory stockpiling. In recent years classical processing is switched to quantum image processing. Quantum image processing is an elegant approach to overcome the problems of its classical counter parts. Image storage, retrieval and its processing on quantum machines is an emerging area. Although quantum machines do not exist in physical reality but theoretical algorithms developed based on quantum entangled states gives new insights to process the classical images in quantum domain. Here in the present work, we give the brief overview, such that how entangled states can be useful for quantum image storage and retrieval. We discuss the properties of tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states and their usefulness to store the shapes which may consist three vertices. We also propose the techniques to store shapes having more than three vertices.

Keywords: Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, image storage and retrieval, quantum entanglement, W states

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1432 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

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1431 Reclaiming Properties of Bituminous Concrete Using Cold Mix Design Technology

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shalinee Shukla

Abstract:

Pavement plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of a country. Bituminous roads construction with conventional paving grade bitumen obtained from hot mix plant creates pollution and involves emission of greenhouse gases, also the construction of pavements at very high temperature is not feasible or desirable for high rainfall and snowfall areas. This problem of overheating can be eliminated by the construction of pavements with the usage of emulsified cold mixes which will eliminate emissions and help in the reduction of fuel requirement at mixing plant, which leads to energy conservation. Cold mix is a mixture of unheated aggregate and emulsion or cutback and filler. The primary objective of this research is to assess the volumetric mix design parameters of recycled aggregates with cold mixing technology and also to assess the impact of additives on volumetric mix characteristics. In this present study, bituminous pavement materials are reclaimed using cold mix technology, and Marshall specimens are prepared with the help of slow setting type 2 (SS-2) cationic bitumen emulsion as a binder for recycled aggregates. This technique of road construction is more environmentally friendly and can be done in adverse weather conditions.

Keywords: cold mixes, bitumen emulsion, recycled aggregates, volumetric properties

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1430 Developing Human Resources through Inclusive Education: A Study of Effectiveness of Government Policies in India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Rajesh Srivastava

Abstract:

Human resource is the key point of success of any economy. From the past few decades, policies started to move in the route of expanding inclusive education with effective involvement of government.Governments of developing nations are generating policies for educational upliftment. Applying educational policies, the motive of the government is to maintain and develop the effective human resource within a society. The attention of the government includes primary education to higher education. It also involves professional training programmes related to every discipline. The aim of this paper is to find out the government policies in terms of expenditure and achievements for inclusive education to develop human resources in developing countries. A case of Indian experience has been taken into consideration. This approach generates a picture as to how India is enriching its educational system for human resource development and this research study will be useful for the policy makers to determine the appropriate level of overall spending of government and achievements in the education system for human resource development. Analytical research methodology has been adopted.

Keywords: government policies, inclusive education, National Educational Policy, NCERT

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1429 Study of Fire Propagation and Soot Flow in a Pantry Car of Railway Locomotive

Authors: Juhi Kaushik, Abhishek Agarwal, Manoj Sarda, Vatsal Sanjay, Arup Kumar Das

Abstract:

Fire accidents in trains bring huge disaster to human life and property. Evacuation becomes a major challenge in such incidents owing to confined spaces, large passenger density and trains moving at high speeds. The pantry car in Indian Railways trains carry inflammable materials like cooking fuel and LPG and electrical fittings. The pantry car is therefore highly susceptible to fire accidents. Numerical simulations have been done in a pantry car of Indian locomotive train using computational fluid dynamics based software. Different scenarios of a fire outbreak have been explored by varying Heat Release Rate per Unit Area (HRRPUA) of the fire source, introduction of exhaust in the cooking area, and taking a case of an air conditioned pantry car. Temporal statures of flame and soot have been obtained for each scenario and differences have been studied and reported. Inputs from this study can be used to assess casualties in fire accidents in locomotive trains and development of smoke control/detection systems in Indian trains.

Keywords: fire propagation, flame contour, pantry fire, soot flow

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1428 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

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1427 Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Blood Biochemical Changes and Lipid Profile of Vanaraja Chicken in Tropics

Authors: Kaushalendra Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Chandra Moni, Sanjay Kumar, P. K. Singh, Ajeet Kumar

Abstract:

Present study investigated the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on production efficiency, hemato-biochemical profile and economy of Vanaraja birds under tropical condition. Experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days on 300 Vanaraja birds randomly divided in to five different experimental groups including control of 60 birds each group replicated with 20 chicks in each replicate. T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were offered with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Moringa oleifera leaf meal along with basal ration. All the standard managemental practices were followed during experimental period including vaccination schedule. Locally available Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested at mature stage and allowed to dry under shady and aerated conditions. Thereafter, dried leaves were milled to make a leaf meal and stored in the airtight nylon bags to avoid any possible contamination from foreign material and use for experiment. Production parameters were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed and weight gain every weeks. The body weight gain of T2 group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher side whereas T3 group was comparable with control. The feed conversion ratio for T2 group was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other treatment groups, while none of the group was comparable with each other. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected from birds for haematology study while serum biochemistry performed using spectrophotometer following statndard protocols. The haematological attributes were significantly (P > 0.05) not differed among the groups. However, serum biochemistry showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine level with higher level of MOLM diet, indicates better utilization of protein supplemented through MOLM. The total cholesterol and triglyceride level was declined significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group with increased level of MOLM in basal diet, decreasing trend of serum cholesterol noted. However, value of HDL for T3 group was highest and for T1 group was lowest but no significant difference (P < 0.05) found among the groups. It might be due to presence of β-sitosterol a bioactive compound present in MOLM which causes lowering of plasma concentration of LDL. During experiment total, LDL and VLDL level was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group. It was observed that the production efficiency of birds significantly improved with 5% followed by 10% Moringa oleifera leaf meal among the treatment groups. However, the maximum profit per kg live weight was noted in 10 % level and least profit observed in 20% MOLM fed group. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of MOLM improved overall performances without affecting metabolic status and effective in reducing cholesterol level reflects healthy chicken production for human consumption.

Keywords: hemato biochemistry, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, performance, Vanaraja birds

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1426 Multi-Level Clustering Based Congestion Control Protocol for Cyber Physical Systems

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Amita Rani, Sanjay Kumar

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IoT), a cyber-physical paradigm, allows a large number of devices to connect and send the sensory data in the network simultaneously. This tremendous amount of data generated leads to very high network load consequently resulting in network congestion. It further amounts to frequent loss of useful information and depletion of significant amount of nodes’ energy. Therefore, there is a need to control congestion in IoT so as to prolong network lifetime and improve the quality of service (QoS). Hence, we propose a two-level clustering based routing algorithm considering congestion score and packet priority metrics that focus on minimizing the network congestion. In the proposed Priority based Congestion Control (PBCC) protocol the sensor nodes in IoT network form clusters that reduces the amount of traffic and the nodes are prioritized to emphasize important data. Simultaneously, a congestion score determines the occurrence of congestion at a particular node. The proposed protocol outperforms the existing Packet Discard Network Clustering (PDNC) protocol in terms of buffer size, packet transmission range, network region and number of nodes, under various simulation scenarios.

Keywords: internet of things, cyber-physical systems, congestion control, priority, transmission rate

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