Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Ashwin Bala

58 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Using Acetylene Gas in CI Engine

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ashwin Bala, S. Prithviraj, K. Panthala Rajakumaran, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar

Abstract:

Studies reveal that acetylene gas derived from hydrolysis of calcium carbide has similar properties to that of diesel. However, the self-ignition temperature of acetylene gas is higher than that of diesel. Early investigations reveal that acetylene gas could be used as alternative fuel mode. In the present work, acetylene gas of 31/min were inducted and diesel was injected into the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled diesel engine. It was observed that the higher calorific value of acetylene gas improves the brake thermal efficiency at full load conditions. The CO and HC emissions were higher at part load conditions as compared to conventional diesel. The Nox emission level was higher and smoke emission was lower during dual fuel mode under all operating conditions. It is concluded that dual fuel mode of acetylene gas and diesel improves the brake thermal efficiency and reduces smoke in diesel engine.

Keywords: acetylene gas, diesel engine, Nox emission, CO emission, HC emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
57 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
56 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

Abstract:

Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: inclusive education, national policy, education, special needs

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55 An Anatomic Approach to the Lingual Artery in the Carotid Triangle in South Indian Population

Authors: Ashwin Rai, Rajalakshmi Rai, Rajanigandha Vadgoankar

Abstract:

Lingual artery is the chief artery of the tongue and the neighboring structures pertaining to the oral cavity. At the carotid triangle, this artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite to the tip of greater cornua of hyoid bone, undergoes a tortuous course with its first part being crossed by the hypoglossal nerve and runs beneath the digastric muscle. Then it continues to supply the tongue as the deep lingual artery. The aim of this study is to draw surgeon's attention to the course of lingual artery in this area since it can be accidentally lesioned causing an extensive hemorrhage in certain surgical or dental procedures. The study was conducted on 44 formalin fixed head and neck specimens focusing on the anatomic relations of lingual artery. In this study, we found that the lingual artery is located inferior to the digastric muscle and the hypoglossal nerve contradictory to the classical description. This data would be useful during ligation of lingual artery to avoid injury to the hypoglossal nerve in surgeries related to the anterior triangle of neck.

Keywords: anterior triangle, digastric muscle, hypoglossal nerve, lingual artery

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54 Laboratory Investigation of Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate Gas (ASAG) Injection – a Novel EOR Process for a Light Oil Sandstone Reservoir

Authors: Vidit Mohan, Ashwin P. Ramesh, Anirudh Toshniwal

Abstract:

Alkali-Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(ASAG) injection, a novel EOR process has the potential to improve displacement efficiency over Surfactant-Alternate-Gas(SAG) by addressing the problem of surfactant adsorption by clay minerals in rock matrix. A detailed laboratory investigation on ASAG injection process was carried out with encouraging results. To further enhance recovery over WAG injection process, SAG injection was investigated at laboratory scale. SAG injection yielded marginal incremental displacement efficiency over WAG process. On investigation, it was found that, clay minerals in rock matrix adsorbed the surfactants and were detrimental for SAG process. Hence, ASAG injection was conceptualized using alkali as a clay stabilizer. The experiment of ASAG injection with surfactant concentration of 5000 ppm and alkali concentration of 0.5 weight% yields incremental displacement efficiency of 5.42% over WAG process. The ASAG injection is a new process and has potential to enhance efficiency of WAG/SAG injection process.

Keywords: alkali surfactant alternate gas (ASAG), surfactant alternate gas (SAG), laboratory investigation, EOR process

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
53 Multi-Level Priority Based Task Scheduling Algorithm for Workflows in Cloud Environment

Authors: Anju Bala, Inderveer Chana

Abstract:

Task scheduling is the key concern for the execution of performance-driven workflow applications. As efficient scheduling can have major impact on the performance of the system, task scheduling is often chosen for assigning the request to resources in an efficient way based on cloud resource characteristics. In this paper, priority based task scheduling algorithm has been proposed that prioritizes the tasks based on the length of the instructions. The proposed scheduling approach prioritize the tasks of Cloud applications according to the limits set by six sigma control charts based on dynamic threshold values. Further, the proposed algorithm has been validated through the CloudSim toolkit. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective for handling multiple task lists from workflows and in considerably reducing Makespan and Execution time.

Keywords: cloud computing, priority based scheduling, task scheduling, VM allocation

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52 Indoor Visible Light Communication Channel Characterization for User Mobility: A Use-Case Study

Authors: Pooja Sanathkumar, Srinidhi Murali, Sethuraman TV, Saravanan M, Paventhan Arumugam, Ashwin Ashok

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed a significant interest in visible light communication (VLC) technology, as VLC can potentially achieve high data rate links and secure communication channels. However, the use of VLC under mobile settings is fundamentally limited as its a line-of-sight (LOS) technology and there has been limited breakthroughs in realizing VLC for mobile settings. In this regard, this work targets to study the VLC channel under mobility. Through a use-case study analysis with experiment data traces this paper presents an empirical VLC channel study considering the application of VLC for smart lighting in an indoor room environment. This paper contributes a calibration study of a prototype VLC smart lighting system in an indoor environment and through the inferences gained from the calibration, and considering a user is carrying a mobile device fit with a VLC receiver, this work presents recommendations for user's position adjustments, with the goal to ensure maximum connectivity across the room.

Keywords: visible light communication, mobility, empirical study, channel characterization

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51 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

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50 Influence of Build Orientation on Machinability of Selective Laser Melted Titanium Alloy-Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Manikandakumar Shunmugavel, Ashwin Polishetty, Moshe Goldberg, Junior Nomani, Guy Littlefair

Abstract:

Selective laser melting (SLM), a promising additive manufacturing (AM) technology, has a huge potential in the fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V near-net shape components. However, poor surface finish of the components fabricated from this technology requires secondary machining to achieve the desired accuracy and tolerance. Therefore, a systematic understanding of the machinability of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components is paramount to improve the productivity and product quality. Considering the significance of machining in SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components, this research aim is to study the influence of build orientation on machinability characteristics by performing low speed orthogonal cutting tests. In addition, the machinability of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V is compared with conventionally produced wrought Ti-6Al-4V to understand the influence of SLM technology on machining. This paper is an attempt to provide evidence to the hypothesis associated that build orientation influences cutting forces, chip formation and surface integrity during orthogonal cutting of SLM Ti-6Al-4V samples. Results obtained from the low speed orthogonal cutting tests highlight the practical importance of microstructure and build orientation on machinability of SLM Ti-6Al-4V.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, build orientation, machinability, titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V)

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49 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad

Abstract:

Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

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48 Analysis of Interleaving Scheme for Narrowband VoIP System under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Monica Sharma, Harjit Pal Singh, Jasbinder Singh, Manju Bala

Abstract:

In Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system, the speech signal is degraded when passed through the network layers. The speech signal is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss and jitter. The packet loss is the major issue of the degradation in the VoIP signal quality; even a single lost packet may generate audible distortion in the decoded speech signal. In addition to these network degradations, the quality of the speech signal is also affected by the environmental noises and coder distortions. The signal quality of the VoIP system is improved through the interleaving technique. The performance of the system is evaluated for various types of noises at different network conditions. The performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrow band signal.

Keywords: VoIP, interleaving, packet loss, packet size, background noise

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47 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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46 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
45 Local Texture and Global Color Descriptors for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Anu Bala

Abstract:

An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching, and retrieving images from a large database of digital images a new algorithm meant for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the color and texture features which are extracted the global and local information of the image. The local texture feature is extracted by using local binary patterns (LBP), which are evaluated by taking into consideration of local difference between the center pixel and its neighbors. For the global color feature, the color histogram (CH) is used which is calculated by RGB (red, green, and blue) spaces separately. In this paper, the combination of color and texture features are proposed for content-based image retrieval. The performance of the proposed method is tested on Corel 1000 database which is the natural database. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and CH.

Keywords: color, texture, feature extraction, local binary patterns, image retrieval

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44 Insiders’ Perspectives of Countering Public Sector Corruption in Nigeria: Identifying and Targeting Its Nature, Characteristics and Fundamental Causes

Authors: Musa Bala Zakari, Mark Button

Abstract:

This paper explores the extent, nature, and characteristics of public sector corruption in Nigeria and the enhancement of the major anti-corruption initiatives (reforms), thereby providing insight into the types, forms and causes of corruption in Nigeria. This paper argues that attempts to devise and suggest effective anti-corruption reforms to control systemic corruption in Nigeria require identifying the most prevalent types of corruption targeted and tackling the fundamental country specific causes. It analyses two types of public sector corruption as it relates to Nigeria and the workings of its inefficient governance system. This paper concludes with the imperative of a collective action against corruption supported by considerable amount of domestic political will existing in a favourable policy context. In undertaking this, the paper draws upon publicly available documents, case laws review and semi-structured interviews conducted with various personnel working in the field of corruption in the dedicated anticorruption agencies, academics, and practitioners from other relevant institutions of accountability.

Keywords: corruption, development, good governance, public sector

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43 Integration of Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Using Combine Inversion for Ancient River Findings at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Malaysia

Authors: Rais Yusoh, Rosli Saad, Mokhtar Saidin, Fauzi Andika, Sabiu Bala Muhammad

Abstract:

Resistivity and seismic refraction profiling have become a common method in pre-investigations for visualizing subsurface structure. The integration of the methods could reduce an interpretation ambiguity. Both methods have their individual software packages for data inversion, but potential to combine certain geophysical methods are restricted; however, the research algorithms that have this functionality was existed and are evaluated personally. The interpretation of subsurface were improve by combining inversion data from both methods by influence each other models using closure coupling; thus, by implementing both methods to support each other which could improve the subsurface interpretation. These methods were applied on a field dataset from a pre-investigation for archeology in finding the ancient river. There were no major changes in the inverted model by combining data inversion for this archetype which probably due to complex geology. The combine data analysis provides an additional technique for interpretation such as an alluvium, which can have strong influence on the ancient river findings.

Keywords: ancient river, combine inversion, resistivity, seismic refraction

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42 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

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41 Moderating Role of Fast Food Restaurants Employees Prior Job Experience on the Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

Authors: Mohammed Bala Banki

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and loyalty in fast food restaurants in Nigeria and ascertains if prior job experience of employees before their present job moderate the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Data for this study were collected from matched pairs of employees and customers of fast restaurants in four Nigerian cities. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the analysis to test the proposed relationships and hierarchical multiple regression was performed in SPSS 22 to test moderating effect. Findings suggest that there is a direct positive and significant relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction and loyalty while the path between employee satisfaction and customer loyalty is insignificant. Results also reveal that employee’s prior job experience significantly moderate the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Further analysis indicates that employees with more years of experience provide more fulfilling services to restaurants customers. This paper provides some theoretical and managerial implications for academia and practitioners.

Keywords: employee’s satisfaction, customer’s satisfaction, loyalty, employee’s prior job experience, fast food industry

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40 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma

Abstract:

The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes and incorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin.The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12 h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release

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39 Modeling of Full Range Flow Boiling Phenomenon in 23m Long Vertical Steam Generator Tube

Authors: Chaitanya R. Mali, V. Vinod, Ashwin W. Patwardhan

Abstract:

Design of long vertical steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plant involves an understanding of different aspects of flow boiling phenomenon such as flow instabilities, flow regimes, dry out, critical heat flux, pressure drop, etc. The knowledge of the prediction of local thermal hydraulic characteristics is necessary to understand these aspects. For this purpose, the methodology has been developed which covers all the flow boiling regimes to model full range flow boiling phenomenon. In this methodology, the vertical tube is divided into four sections based on vapor fraction value at the end of each section. Different modeling strategies have been applied to the different sections of the vertical tube. Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a vertical SG tube of 0.0126 m inner diameter and 23 m length. The thermal hydraulic parameters such as vapor fraction, liquid temperature, heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, heat flux distribution have been analyzed for different designed heat duties (1.1 MW (20%) to 3.3 MW (60%)) and flow conditions (10 % to 80 %). The sensitivity of different boiling parameters such as bubble departure diameter, nucleation site density, bubble departure frequency on the thermal hydraulic parameters was also studied. Flow instability has been observed at 20 % designed heat duty and 20 % flow conditions.

Keywords: thermal hydraulics, boiling, vapor fraction, sensitivity

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38 Social Capital and Adoption of Sustainable Management Practices of Non Timber Forest Product in Cameroon

Authors: Eke Bala Sophie Michelle

Abstract:

The renewable resource character of NTFPs is an opportunity to its sustainability, this study analyzed the role of social capital in the adoption of sustainable management practices of NTFPs by households in the community forest (CF) Morikouali-ye. The analysis shows that 67% of households surveyed perceive the level of degradation of NTFPs in their CF as time passes and are close to 74% for adoption of sustainable management practices of NTFPs that are domestication, sustainable management of the CF, the logging ban trees and uprooting plants, etc. 26% refused to adopt these practices estimate that, at 39% it is better to promote logging in the CF. The estimated probit model shows that social capital through trust, solidarity and social inclusion significantly influences the probability of households to adopt sustainable NTFP management practices. In addition, age, education level and income from the sale of NTFPs have a significant impact on the probability of adoption. The probability of adoption increases with the level of education and confidence among households. So should they be animated by a spirit of solidarity and trust and not let a game of competition for sustainable management of NTFPs in their CF.

Keywords: community forest, social capital, NTFP, trust, solidarity, social inclusion, sustainable management

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37 Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements

Authors: Sabiu Bala Muhammad, Rosli Saad

Abstract:

Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.

Keywords: apparent resistivity, depth, horizontal location, multiple linear regression, true resistivity

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36 An Assessment of the Impact of Safe Motherhood Initiative on Maternal Health of Women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Mudi, Bala Zakar

Abstract:

The paper assesses the impact of safe motherhood initiative on maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The work will specifically concentrate on the background on safe motherhood scheme and maternal health of women. The objective of this paper is to assess the level of safe motherhood scheme in Gumel local government area, to find out the level of maternal health in Gumel local government as well as to determine the impact of safe motherhood scheme on maternal health on women in Gumel Local Government Area Jigawa State. Various literature on the topic are reviewed, the paper adopts survey design and use questionnaire to collect data from the respondent. The study comprises 350 women selected from six rural communities in Gumel using random sampling techniques, and the data was analysed by simple frequency and percentage. The research concluded that safe motherhood initiative has a significant impact on the maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Finally, suitable recommendations were given on how to improve the scheme to ensure better maternal health in the region.

Keywords: action, assessment, maternal health, safe motherhood, surgery

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35 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi Sani Shehu, Tankut Yalcınoz, Abdullahi Bala Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diode-clamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, power quality, selective harmonic elimination

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34 Interrogating Democracy and Development in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors: Yusuf Bala

Abstract:

The last decades of the 20th Centaury witnessed renewed hope about the birth of democracy and development in Africa the interface between democracy and development in Africa has long engaged the sustained interest of scholars and researchers across Africa. The process was actively supported by all segment of society, labour students market women, rural dweller who saw in it, the prospects of reversing the trend of political despair and in disillusionment that hither to characterized political life in Africa. The political tyranny and dictatorship while having it own clientele and beneficiaries had negative and suffocating effect on the majority of the people. The democratic aspiration of the Africa people is not only confined to the Arena of political Democracy of election and granting of civil and political rights, but it involves the demand for economic empowerment better living standards of the people and adequate social welfare indeed, for the majority of the people democracy is meaningful only when it delivers socio-economic goods. However, democracy and development have generated enormous interest no conclusive evidence seems to be shared in Africa. In the course of this research emphasis shall be made on certain issues, such as issues of corruption in democracy in Africa, ethnic conflict and democracy in Africa contribution of women to democratic practice and women participation in political arena, is still very low, democratization process and industrial relation in Africa as factor that hinder the development of Democracy in Africa, a case study of Nigeria.

Keywords: democracy, development, dictatorship, conflict, ethnicity

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33 Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Zeolite Catalyzed Chemical Industry Processes

Authors: Mithil Pandey, Ragunathan Bala Subramanian

Abstract:

One of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry is Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) which produces the majority of the world’s gasoline. Some useful products are generated from the vacuum gas oil, heavy gas oil and residue feedstocks by the FCC unit in an oil refinery. Moreover, Zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) have found widespread applications and have proved to be substantial and paradigmatic in oil refining and petrochemical processes, such as FCC because of their porous features. Several famous zeo-catalysts have been fabricated and applied in industrial processes as milestones in history, and have brought on huge changes in petrochemicals. So far, more than twenty types of zeolites have been industrially applied, and their versatile porous architectures with their essential features have contributed to affect the catalytic efficiency. This poster depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts which are accompanied by an increase in environmental and demands. The crucial roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The development of industrial processes for the FCC process, aromatic conversions and olefin production, makes it obvious that the pore architecture plays a very important role in zeo-catalysis processes. By looking at the different necessities of industrial processes, rational construction of the pore model is critically essential. Besides, the pore structure of the zeolite would have a substantial and direct effect on the utilization efficiency of the zeo-catalyst.

Keywords: catalysts, fluid catalytic cracking, industrial processes, zeolite

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32 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu

Abstract:

Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

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31 Influence of the Granular Mixture Properties on the Rheological Properties of Concrete: Yield Stress Determination Using Modified Chateau et al. Model

Authors: Rachid Zentar, Mokrane Bala, Pascal Boustingorry

Abstract:

The prediction of the rheological behavior of concrete is at the center of current concerns of the concrete industry for different reasons. The shortage of good quality standard materials combined with variable properties of available materials imposes to improve existing models to take into account these variations at the design stage of concrete. The main reasons for improving the predictive models are, of course, saving time and cost at the design stage as well as to optimize concrete performances. In this study, we will highlight the different properties of the granular mixtures that affect the rheological properties of concrete. Our objective is to identify the intrinsic parameters of the aggregates which make it possible to predict the yield stress of concrete. The work was done using two typologies of grains: crushed and rolled aggregates. The experimental results have shown that the rheology of concrete is improved by increasing the packing density of the granular mixture using rolled aggregates. The experimental program realized allowed to model the yield stress of concrete by a modified model of Chateau et al. through a dimensionless parameter following Krieger-Dougherty law. The modelling confirms that the yield stress of concrete depends not only on the properties of cement paste but also on the packing density of the granular skeleton and the shape of grains.

Keywords: crushed aggregates, intrinsic viscosity, packing density, rolled aggregates, slump, yield stress of concrete

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30 Interpreting Chopin’s Music Today: Mythologization of Art: Kitsch

Authors: Ilona Bala

Abstract:

The subject of this abstract is related to the notion of 'popular music', a notion that should be treated with extreme care, particularly when applied to Frederic Chopin, one of the greatest composers of Romanticism. By ‘popular music’, we mean a category of everyday music, set against the more intellectual kind, referred to as ‘classical’. We only need to look back to the culture of the nineteenth century to realize that this ‘popular music’ refers to the ‘music of the low’. It can be studied from a sociological viewpoint, or as sociological aesthetics. However, we cannot ignore the fact that, very quickly, this music spread to the wealthiest strata of the European society of the nineteenth century, while likewise the lowest classes often listen to the intellectual classical music, so pleasant to listen to. Further, we can observe that a sort of ‘sacralisation of kitsch’ occurs at the intersection between the classical and popular music. This process is the topic of this contribution. We will start by investigating the notion of kitsch through the study of Chopin’s popular compositions. However, before considering the popularisation of this music in today’s culture, we will have to focus on the use of the word kitsch in Chopin’s times, through his own musical aesthetics. Finally, the objective here will be to negate the theory that art is simply the intellectual definition of aesthetics. A kitsch can, obviously, only work on the emotivity of the masses, as it represents one of the features of culture-language (the words which the masses identify with). All art is transformed, becoming something outdated or even outmoded. Here, we are truly within a process of mythologization of art, through the study of the aesthetic reception of the musical work.

Keywords: F. Chopin, kitsch, musical work, mythologization of art, popular music, romantic music

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29 A Comparative Analysis Of Da’wah Methodology Applied by the Two Variant Factions of Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Alhaji Bala

Abstract:

The Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah is a Da’wah organization and reform movement launched in Jos - Nigeria in 1978 as a purely reform movement under the leadership of late Shaykh Ismai’la Idris. The organization started a full fledge preaching sessions at National, State and Local Government levels immediately after its formation. The contributions of this organization to da'wah activities in Nigeria are paramount. The organization conducted its preaching under the council of preaching with the help of the executives, elders and patrons of the movement. Teaching and preaching have been recognized as the major programs of the society. Its preaching activities are conducted from ward, local, state and national levels throughout the states of Nigeria and beyond. It also engaged itself in establishing Mosques, schools and offers sermons during Friday congregation and Eid days throughout its mosques where its sermon is translated into vernacular language, this attracted many Muslims who don’t understand Arabic to patronize the its activities. The organization however split into two faction due to different approaches to Da’wah methodology and some seemingly selfish interests among its leaders. It is upon this background that this research was conducted using analytical method to compare and contrast the da’wah methodology applied by the two factions of the organization. The research discussed about the formation, Da’wah activities of the organization. It also compared and contrast the Da’wah approach and methodology of the two factions. The research finding reveals that different approach and methods applied by these factions is one of the main reason of their split in addition to other selfish interest among its leaders.

Keywords: activities, Da’wah, methodology, organization

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