Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 378

Search results for: lifetime

378 Lifetime Improvement of IEEE.802.15.6 Sensors in Scheduled Access Mode

Authors: Latif Adnane, C. E. Ait Zaouiat, M. Eddabbah

Abstract:

In Wireless Body Area Networks, the issue of systems lifetime is a big challenge to complete. In this paper, we have tackled this subject to suggest some solutions. For this aim, we have studied some batteries characteristics related to human body temperature. Moreover, we have analyzed a mathematical model which defines sensors lifetime (battery lifetime). Based on this model, we note that the random access increases the energy consumption, because nodes are waking up during the whole superframe period. Results show that using scheduled mode access of IEEE 802.15.6 maximizes the lifetime function, by setting nodes in the sleep mode in the inactive period of transmission.

Keywords: battery, energy consumption, IEEE 802.15.6, lifetime, polling

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377 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Rail Pads for High Speed Trains

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluations of rail-pads were very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of rail pads. In this study, we performed properties and accelerated heat aging tests of rail pads considering degradation factors and all environmental conditions including operation, and then derived a lifetime prediction equation according to changes in hardness, thickness, and static spring constants in the Arrhenius plot to establish how to estimate the aging of rail pads. With the useful lifetime prediction equation, the lifetime of e-clip pads was 2.5 years when the change in hardness was 10% at 25°C; and that of f-clip pads was 1.7 years. When the change in thickness was 10%, the lifetime of e-clip pads and f-clip pads is 2.6 years respectively. The results obtained in this study to estimate the useful lifetime of rail pads for high speed trains can be used for determining the maintenance and replacement schedule for rail pads.

Keywords: rail pads, accelerated test, Arrhenius plot, useful lifetime prediction, mechanical engineering design

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376 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson

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Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

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375 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uni-axial tension, equi bi-axial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction

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374 Lifetime Assessment of Highly Efficient Metal-Based Air-Diffuser through Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sunmook Lee

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Degradation of standard oxygen transfer efficiency (SOTE) with time was observed for the assessment of lifetime of metal-based air-diffuser, which displaced a polymer composite-based air-diffuser in order to attain a longer lifetime in the actual field. The degradation of air-diffuser occurred due to the failure of the formation of small and uniform air bubbles since the patterns formed on the disc of air-diffuser deteriorated and/or changed from their initial shapes while they were continuously exposed to the air blowing condition during the operation in the field. Therefore, the lifetime assessment of metal-based air-diffuser was carried out through an accelerated degradation test by accelerating the air-blowing conditions in 200 L/min, 300 L/min, and 400 L/min and the lifetime of normal operating condition at 120 L/min was predicted. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the lifetime distribution of metal-based air-diffuser in the present study. The shape and scale parameters indicated that the accelerated blowing conditions were all within the acceleration domain. The lifetime was predicted by adopting inverse power model for a stress-life relationship and estimated to be B10=94,004 hrs with CL=95%. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (Grant number: N0001475).

Keywords: accelerated degradation test, air-diffuser, lifetime assessment, SOTE

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373 Residual Lifetime Estimation for Weibull Distribution by Fusing Expert Judgements and Censored Data

Authors: Xiang Jia, Zhijun Cheng

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The residual lifetime of a product is the operation time between the current time and the time point when the failure happens. The residual lifetime estimation is rather important in reliability analysis. To predict the residual lifetime, it is necessary to assume or verify a particular distribution that the lifetime of the product follows. And the two-parameter Weibull distribution is frequently adopted to describe the lifetime in reliability engineering. Due to the time constraint and cost reduction, a life testing experiment is usually terminated before all the units have failed. Then the censored data is usually collected. In addition, other information could also be obtained for reliability analysis. The expert judgements are considered as it is common that the experts could present some useful information concerning the reliability. Therefore, the residual lifetime is estimated for Weibull distribution by fusing the censored data and expert judgements in this paper. First, the closed-forms concerning the point estimate and confidence interval for the residual lifetime under the Weibull distribution are both presented. Next, the expert judgements are regarded as the prior information and how to determine the prior distribution of Weibull parameters is developed. For completeness, the cases that there is only one, and there are more than two expert judgements are both focused on. Further, the posterior distribution of Weibull parameters is derived. Considering that it is difficult to derive the posterior distribution of residual lifetime, a sample-based method is proposed to generate the posterior samples of Weibull parameters based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. And these samples are used to obtain the Bayes estimation and credible interval for the residual lifetime. Finally, an illustrative example is discussed to show the application. It demonstrates that the proposed method is rather simple, satisfactory, and robust.

Keywords: expert judgements, information fusion, residual lifetime, Weibull distribution

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372 Computing Customer Lifetime Value in E-Commerce Websites with Regard to Returned Orders and Payment Method

Authors: Morteza Giti

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As online shopping is becoming increasingly popular, computing customer lifetime value for better knowing the customers is also gaining more importance. Two distinct factors that can affect the value of a customer in the context of online shopping is the number of returned orders and payment method. Returned orders are those which have been shipped but not collected by the customer and are returned to the store. Payment method refers to the way that customers choose to pay for the price of the order which are usually two: Pre-pay and Cash-on-delivery. In this paper, a novel model called RFMSP is presented to calculated the customer lifetime value, taking these two parameters into account. The RFMSP model is based on the common RFM model while adding two extra parameter. The S represents the order status and the P indicates the payment method. As a case study for this model, the purchase history of customers in an online shop is used to compute the customer lifetime value over a period of twenty months.

Keywords: RFMSP model, AHP, customer lifetime value, k-means clustering, e-commerce

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371 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri

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One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.

Keywords: drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus, aggregation

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370 A Lifetime-Enhancing Monitoring Node Distribution Using Minimum Spanning Tree in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Sungchul Ha, Hyunwoo Kim

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In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes in a network only have limited resources and calculation ability. Therefore communication topology which have long lifetime is good for all nodes in mobile ad hoc networks. There are a variety of researches on security problems in wireless ad hoc networks. The existing many researches try to make efficient security schemes to reduce network power consumption and enhance network lifetime. Because a new node can join the network at any time, the wireless ad hoc networks are exposed to various threats and can be destroyed by attacks. Resource consumption is absolutely necessary to secure networks, but more resource consumption can be a critical problem to network lifetime. This paper focuses on efficient monitoring node distribution to enhance network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks. Since the wireless ad hoc networks cannot use centralized infrastructure and security systems of wired networks, a new special IDS scheme is necessary. The scheme should not only cover all nodes in a network but also enhance the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an efficient IDS node distribution scheme using minimum spanning tree (MST) method. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in comparison with existing algorithms.

Keywords: MANETs, IDS, power control, minimum spanning tree

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369 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

Authors: Eduardo C. Guardia, Jose W. M. Lima, Afonso H. M. Santos

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This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Keywords: bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution

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368 Lifetime Assessment for Test Strips of POCT Device through Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Jinyoung Choi, Sunmook Lee

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In general, single parameter, i.e. temperature, as an accelerating parameter is used to assess the accelerated stability of Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) diagnostic devices. However, humidity also plays an important role in deteriorating the strip performance since major components of test strips are proteins such as enzymes. 4 different Temp./Humi. Conditions were used to assess the lifetime of strips. Degradation of test strips were studied through the accelerated stability test and the lifetime was assessed using commercial POCT products. The life distribution of strips, which were obtained by monitoring the failure time of test strip under each stress condition, revealed that the weibull distribution was the most proper distribution describing the life distribution of strips used in the present study. Equal shape parameters were calculated to be 0.9395 and 0.9132 for low and high concentrations, respectively. The lifetime prediction was made by adopting Peck Eq. Model for Stress-Life relationship, and the B10 life was calculated to be 70.09 and 46.65 hrs for low and high concentrations, respectively.

Keywords: accelerated degradation, diagnostic device, lifetime assessment, POCT

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367 Ion Thruster Grid Lifetime Assessment Based on Its Structural Failure

Authors: Juan Li, Jiawen Qiu, Yuchuan Chu, Tianping Zhang, Wei Meng, Yanhui Jia, Xiaohui Liu

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This article developed an ion thruster optic system sputter erosion depth numerical 3D model by IFE-PIC (Immersed Finite Element-Particle-in-Cell) and Mont Carlo method, and calculated the downstream surface sputter erosion rate of accelerator grid; Compared with LIPS-200 life test data, the results of the numerical model are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Finally, we predict the lifetime of the 20cm diameter ion thruster via the erosion data obtained with the model. The ultimate result demonstrates that under normal operating condition, the erosion rate of the grooves wears on the downstream surface of the accelerator grid is 34.6μm⁄1000h, which means the conservative lifetime until structural failure occurring on the accelerator grid is 11500 hours.

Keywords: ion thruster, accelerator gird, sputter erosion, lifetime assessment

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366 CERD: Cost Effective Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

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A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence, we require energy efficient route discovery technique to enhance their lifetime and network performance. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient route discovery technique CERD that greatly reduces the number of route requests flooded into the network and also gives priority to the route request packets sent from the routers that has communicated with the destination very recently, in single or multi-hop paths. This does not only enhance the lifetime of nodes but also decreases the delay in tracking the destination.

Keywords: ad hoc network, energy efficiency, flooding, node lifetime, route discovery

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365 Theoretical Prediction on the Lifetime of Sessile Evaporating Droplet in Blade Cooling

Authors: Yang Shen, Yongpan Cheng, Jinliang Xu

Abstract:

The effective blade cooling is of great significance for improving the performance of turbine. The mist cooling emerges as the promising way compared with the transitional single-phase cooling. In the mist cooling, the injected droplet will evaporate rapidly, and cool down the blade surface due to the absorbed latent heat, hence the lifetime for evaporating droplet becomes critical for design of cooling passages for the blade. So far there have been extensive studies on the droplet evaporation, but usually the isothermal model is applied for most of the studies. Actually the surface cooling effect can affect the droplet evaporation greatly, it can prolong the droplet evaporation lifetime significantly. In our study, a new theoretical model for sessile droplet evaporation with surface cooling effect is built up in toroidal coordinate. Three evaporation modes are analyzed during the evaporation lifetime, include “Constant Contact Radius”(CCR) mode、“Constant Contact Angle”(CCA) mode and “stick-slip”(SS) mode. The dimensionless number E0 is introduced to indicate the strength of the evaporative cooling, it is defined based on the thermal properties of the liquid and the atmosphere. Our model can predict accurately the lifetime of evaporation by validating with available experimental data. Then the temporal variation of droplet volume, contact angle and contact radius are presented under CCR, CCA and SS mode, the following conclusions are obtained. 1) The larger the dimensionless number E0, the longer the lifetime of three evaporation cases is; 2) The droplet volume over time still follows “2/3 power law” in the CCA mode, as in the isothermal model without the cooling effect; 3) In the “SS” mode, the large transition contact angle can reduce the evaporation time in CCR mode, and increase the time in CCA mode, the overall lifetime will be increased; 4) The correction factor for predicting instantaneous volume of the droplet is derived to predict the droplet life time accurately. These findings may be of great significance to explore the dynamics and heat transfer of sessile droplet evaporation.

Keywords: blade cooling, droplet evaporation, lifetime, theoretical analysis

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364 Differences in Guilt, Shame, Self-Anger, and Suicide Cognitions Based on Recent Suicide Ideation and Lifetime Suicide Attempt History

Authors: E. H. Szeto, E. Ammendola, J. V. Tabares, A. Starkey, J. Hay, J. G. McClung, C. J. Bryan

Abstract:

Introduction: Suicide is a leading cause of death globally, which accounts for more deaths annually than war, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, homicides, and car accidents, while an estimated 140 million individuals have significant suicide ideation (SI) each year in the United States. Typical risk factors such as hopelessness, depression, and psychiatric disorders can predict suicide ideation but cannot distinguish between those who ideate from those who attempt suicide (SA). The Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide posits that a person’s activation of the suicidal mode is predicated on one’s predisposition, triggers, baseline/acute risk, and protective factors. The current study compares self-conscious cognitive-affective states (including guilt, shame, anger towards the self, and suicidal beliefs) among patients based on the endorsement of recent SI (i.e., past two weeks; acute risk) and lifetime SA (i.e., baseline risk). Method: A total of 2,722 individuals in an outpatient primary care setting were included in this cross-sectional, observational study; data for 2,584 were valid and retained for analysis. The Differential Emotions Scale measuring guilt, shame, and self-anger and the Suicide Cognitions Scale measuring suicide cognitions were administered. Results: A total of 2,222 individuals reported no recent SI or lifetime SA (Group 1), 161 reported recent SI only (Group 2), 145 reported lifetime SA only (Group 3), 56 reported both recent SI and lifetime SA (Group 4). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that guilt, shame, self-anger, and suicide cognitions were the highest for Group 4 (both recent SI and lifetime SA), followed by Group 2 (recent SI-only), then Group 3 (lifetime SA-only), and lastly, Group 1 (no recent SI or lifetime SA). Conclusion: The results on recent SI-only versus lifetime SA-only contribute to the literature on the Fluid Vulnerability Theory of suicide by capturing SI and SA in two different time periods, which signify the acute risks and chronic baseline risks of the suicidal mode, respectively. It is also shown that: (a) people with a lifetime SA reported more severe symptoms than those without, (b) people with recent SI reported more severe symptoms than those without, and (c) people with both recent SI and lifetime SA were the most severely distressed. Future studies may replicate the findings here with other pertinent risk factors such as thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability, the last of which is consistently linked to attempting among ideators.

Keywords: suicide, guilt, shame, self-anger, suicide cognitions, suicide ideation, suicide attempt

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363 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, sensors, wireless sensor networks

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362 Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Wafa’ Alsharafat, Khalid Batiha, Alaa Kassab

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Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of a huge number of small and cheap devices known as sensor nodes. Usually, these sensor nodes are massively and deployed randomly as in Ad-hoc over hostile and harsh environment to sense, collect and transmit data to the needed locations (i.e., base station). One of the main advantages of WSN is that the ability to work in unattended and scattered environments regardless the presence of humans such as remote active volcanoes environments or earthquakes. In WSN expanding network, lifetime is a major concern. Clustering technique is more important to maximize network lifetime. Nature-inspired algorithms are developed and optimized to find optimized solutions for various optimization problems. We proposed Energy Efficient Firefly Algorithm to improve network lifetime as long as possible.

Keywords: wireless network, SN, Firefly, energy efficiency

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361 Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

Authors: P. Kumar, D. Eisenhauer, M. M. K. Yousef, Q. Shi, A. S. G. Khalil, M. R. Saber, C. Becker, T. Pullerits, K. J. Karki

Abstract:

In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: carrier lifetime, impedance, nano-textured, photocurrent

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360 Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohan Singh Mehata, R. K. Ratnesh

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CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.

Keywords: biocompatibility, core-shell quantum dots, photoluminescence and lifetime, sensing ability

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359 The Quantitative Analysis of the Influence of the Superficial Abrasion on the Lifetime of the Frog Rail

Authors: Dong Jiang

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Turnout is the essential equipment on the railway, which also belongs to one of the strongest demanded infrastructural facilities of railway on account of the more seriously frog rail failures. In cooperation with Germany Company (DB Systemtechnik AG), our research team focuses on the quantitative analysis about the frog rails to predict their lifetimes. Moreover, the suggestions for the timely and effective maintenances are made to improve the economy of the frog rails. The lifetime of the frog rail depends strongly on the internal damage of the running surface until the breakages occur. On the basis of Hertzian theory of the contact mechanics, the dynamic loads of the running surface are calculated in form of the contact pressures on the running surface and the equivalent tensile stress inside the running surface. According to material mechanics, the strength of the frog rail is determined quantitatively in form of the Stress-cycle (S-N) curve. Under the interaction between the dynamic loads and the strength, the internal damage of the running surface is calculated by means of the linear damage hypothesis of the Miner’s rule. The emergence of the first Breakage on the running surface is to be defined as the failure criterion that the damage degree equals 1.0. From the microscopic perspective, the running surface of the frog rail is divided into numerous segments for the detailed analysis. The internal damage of the segment grows slowly in the beginning and disproportionately quickly in the end until the emergence of the breakage. From the macroscopic perspective, the internal damage of the running surface develops simply always linear along the lifetime. With this linear growth of the internal damages, the lifetime of the frog rail could be predicted simply through the immediate introduction of the slope of the linearity. However, the superficial abrasion plays an essential role in the results of the internal damages from the both perspectives. The influences of the superficial abrasion on the lifetime are described in form of the abrasion rate. It has two contradictory effects. On the one hand, the insufficient abrasion rate causes the concentration of the damage accumulation on the same position below the running surface to accelerate the rail failure. On the other hand, the excessive abrasion rate advances the disappearance of the head hardened surface of the frog rail to result in the untimely breakage on the surface. Thus, the relationship between the abrasion rate and the lifetime is subdivided into an initial phase of the increased lifetime and a subsequent phase of the more rapid decreasing lifetime with the continuous growth of the abrasion rate. Through the compensation of these two effects, the critical abrasion rate is discussed to reach the optimal lifetime.

Keywords: breakage, critical abrasion rate, frog rail, internal damage, optimal lifetime

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358 Ensuring Uniform Energy Consumption in Non-Deterministic Wireless Sensor Network to Protract Networks Lifetime

Authors: Vrince Vimal, Madhav J. Nigam

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Wireless sensor networks have enticed much of the spotlight from researchers all around the world, owing to its extensive applicability in agricultural, industrial and military fields. Energy conservation node deployment stratagems play a notable role for active implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering is the approach in wireless sensor networks which improves energy efficiency in the network. The clustering algorithm needs to have an optimum size and number of clusters, as clustering, if not implemented properly, cannot effectively increase the life of the network. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to address connectivity issues with the aim of ensuring the uniform energy consumption of nodes in every part of the network. The results obtained after simulation showed that the proposed algorithm has an edge over existing algorithms in terms of throughput and networks lifetime.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN), Random Deployment, Clustering, Isolated Nodes, Networks Lifetime

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357 Weibull Cumulative Distribution Function Analysis with Life Expectancy Endurance Test Result of Power Window Switch

Authors: Miky Lee, K. Kim, D. Lim, D. Cho

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This paper presents the planning, rationale for test specification derivation, sampling requirements, test facilities, and result analysis used to conduct lifetime expectancy endurance tests on power window switches (PWS) considering thermally induced mechanical stress under diurnal cyclic temperatures during normal operation (power cycling). The detail process of analysis and test results on the selected PWS set were discussed in this paper. A statistical approach to ‘life time expectancy’ was given to the measurement standards dealing with PWS lifetime determination through endurance tests. The approach choice, within the framework of the task, was explained. The present task was dedicated to voltage drop measurement to derive lifetime expectancy while others mostly consider contact or surface resistance. The measurements to perform and the main instruments to measure were fully described accordingly. The failure data from tests were analyzed to conclude lifetime expectancy through statistical method using Weibull cumulative distribution function. The first goal of this task is to develop realistic worst case lifetime endurance test specification because existing large number of switch test standards cannot induce degradation mechanism which makes the switches less reliable. 2nd goal is to assess quantitative reliability status of PWS currently manufactured based on test specification newly developed thru this project. The last and most important goal is to satisfy customer’ requirement regarding product reliability.

Keywords: power window switch, endurance test, Weibull function, reliability, degradation mechanism

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356 Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System

Authors: S. Pushkar, O. Verbitsky

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Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected. Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities, and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs, whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area + Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design, neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bio-climatic and passive solar aspects.

Keywords: green rating system, urban community, sustainable design, standardization, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture

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355 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud

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The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

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354 Monocrystalline Silicon Surface Passivation by Porous Silicon

Authors: Mohamed Ben Rabha

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In this paper, we report on the effect of porous silicon (PS) treatment on the surface passivation of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). PS film with a thickness of 80 nm was deposited by stain etching. It was demonstrated that PS coating is a very interesting solution for surface passivation. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance and FTIR. As a results, the effective minority carrier lifetime increase from 2 µs to 7 µs at ∆n=1015 cm-3 and the reflectivity reduce from 28 % to about 7 % after PS coating.

Keywords: porous silicon, effective minority carrier lifetime, reflectivity

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353 Forecast of the Small Wind Turbines Sales with Replacement Purchases and with or without Account of Price Changes

Authors: V. Churkin, M. Lopatin

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to estimate the US small wind turbines market potential and forecast the small wind turbines sales in the US. The forecasting method is based on the application of the Bass model and the generalized Bass model of innovations diffusion under replacement purchases. In the work an exponential distribution is used for modeling of replacement purchases. Only one parameter of such distribution is determined by average lifetime of small wind turbines. The identification of the model parameters is based on nonlinear regression analysis on the basis of the annual sales statistics which has been published by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) since 2001 up to 2012. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) without account of price changes is 57080 (confidence interval from 49294 to 64866 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 62402 (confidence interval from 54154 to 70648 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 90,7%, while in the second - 91,8%. The effect of the wind turbines price changes on their sales was estimated using generalized Bass model. This required a price forecast. To do this, the polynomial regression function, which is based on the Berkeley Lab statistics, was used. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) in that case is 42542 (confidence interval from 32863 to 52221 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 47426 (confidence interval from 36092 to 58760 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 95,3%, while in the second –95,3%.

Keywords: bass model, generalized bass model, replacement purchases, sales forecasting of innovations, statistics of sales of small wind turbines in the United States

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352 Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Monitoring

Authors: Ebrahim Farahmand, Ali Mahani

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can facilitate continuous monitoring of patients and increase early detection of emergency conditions and diseases. High density WSNs helps us to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. Due to energy capacity limitation of sensors, enhancing the lifetime and the reliability of WSNs are important factors in designing of these networks. The clustering strategies are verified as effective and practical algorithms for reducing energy consumption in WSNs and can tackle WSNs limitations. In this paper, an Energy-efficient weight-based Clustering Protocol (EWCP) is presented. Artificial retina is selected as a case study of WSNs applied in body sensors. Cluster heads’ (CHs) selection is equipped with energy efficient parameters. Moreover, cluster members are selected based on their distance to the selected CHs. Comparing with the other benchmark protocols, the lifetime of EWCP is improved significantly.

Keywords: WSN, healthcare monitoring, weighted based clustering, lifetime

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351 The Role of Lifetime Stress in the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Health-Risk Behaviors

Authors: Teresa Smith, Farrah Jacquez

Abstract:

Health-risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, poor diet) directly increase the risk for chronic disease and morbidity. There is substantial evidence of a negative association between socioeconomic status (SES) and engagement in health-risk behaviors. However, due to the complexity of SES, researchers have suggested looking beyond this factor to fully understand the mechanisms that underlie engagement in health-risk behaviors. Stress is one plausible mechanism through which SES impacts health-risk behaviors. Currently, it remains unclear how stress occurring across the life course might impact health behaviors and explain the association between SES and these behaviors. To address the gaps in the literature, 172 adults between the ages of 18-49 were surveyed about their lifetime stress exposure, sociodemographic variables, and health-risk behaviors via an online recruitment portal, Prolific. Five major findings emerged from the current study. First, SES was negatively associated with engagement in health-risk behaviors and lifetime stress above and beyond current stress and other relevant demographics. Second, lifetime stress was significantly associated with health-risk behaviors above and beyond current stress and relevant demographic variables. Third, lifetime stress fully mediated the association between SES and health-risk behaviors above and beyond current stress and other demographics. Fourth, the severity of stress experienced emerged as the most significant lifetime stress variable that explains the relation between SES and health-risk behaviors. Fifth and finally, lower SES and experiencing financial and legal/crime stressors increased the likelihood of engaging in health-risk behaviors. The current study results align with previous research and suggest that stress occurring over the lifespan impacts the relation between SES and health-risk behaviors, which are in turn known to impact health outcomes. However, our findings move the current literature forward by providing a more nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of stress that influence this association. Specifically, the severity of stress experienced across the entire lifespan was the most important aspect of stress when examining the association between SES and health-risk behaviors. Further, individuals most at risk for engaging in health-risk behaviors are those of the lowest SES and experience financial and legal/crime stressors. These findings have the potential to inform interventions and policies aimed at addressing health-risk behaviors by providing a more sophisticated understanding of the impact of stress.

Keywords: stress, health behaviors, socioeconomic status, health

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350 Load-Enabled Deployment and Sensing Range Optimization for Lifetime Enhancement of WSNs

Authors: Krishan P. Sharma, T. P. Sharma

Abstract:

Wireless sensor nodes are resource constrained battery powered devices usually deployed in hostile and ill-disposed areas to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Due to their limited power supply, the major challenge for researchers is to utilize their battery power for enhancing the lifetime of whole network. Communication and sensing are two major sources of energy consumption in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a deployment strategy for enhancing the average lifetime of a sensor network by effectively utilizing communication and sensing energy to provide full coverage. The proposed scheme is based on the fact that due to heavy relaying load, sensor nodes near to the sink drain energy at much faster rate than other nodes in the network and consequently die much earlier. To cover this imbalance, proposed scheme finds optimal communication and sensing ranges according to effective load at each node and uses a non-uniform deployment strategy where there is a comparatively high density of nodes near to the sink. Probable relaying load factor at particular node is calculated and accordingly optimal communication distance and sensing range for each sensor node is adjusted. Thus, sensor nodes are placed at locations that optimize energy during network operation. Formal mathematical analysis for calculating optimized locations is reported in present work.

Keywords: load factor, network lifetime, non-uniform deployment, sensing range

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349 Testing of Small Local Zones by Means of Small Punch Test at Room and Creep Temperatures

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, Josef Volak

Abstract:

In many industrial applications, materials are subjected to degradation of mechanical properties as a result of real service conditions, temperature, cyclic loading, humidity or other corrosive media, irradiation, their combination etc. The assessment of the remaining lifetime of components and structures is commonly based on correlated procedures including numerous destructive, non-destructive and mathematical techniques that should guarantee reasonably precise assessment of the current damage extent of materials in question and the remaining lifetime evaluation of the component under consideration. The answers to demands of customers to extend the lifetime of existing components beyond their original design life must be based on detailed assessment of the current degradation extent, what can be rarely realised by means of traditional mechanical (standardised) tests that need relatively large volumes of representative material for the test specimen manufacturing. This fact accelerated the research of miniaturised test specimen that can be sampled non-invasively from the component.

Keywords: small punch test, correlation, creep, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 190