Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1526

Search results for: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

1526 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: copper ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

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1525 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard


To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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1524 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of the Surface Layer on Inconel 625 after Exposition in Molten Salt

Authors: Marie Kudrnova, Jana Petru


This study is part of the international research - Materials for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) and addresses the part of the project dealing with the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials. Inconel 625 was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after high–temperature experiment in molten salt. The experiment was performed in a horizontal tube furnace molten salt reactor, at 450 °C in argon, at atmospheric pressure, for 150 hours. Industrially produced HITEC salt was used (NaNO3, KNO3, NaNO2). The XPS study was carried out using the ESCAProbe P apparatus (Omicron Nanotechnology Ltd.) equipped with a monochromatic Al Kα (1486.6 eV) X-ray source. The surface layer on alloy 625 after exposure contains only Na, C, O, and Ni (as NiOx) and Nb (as NbOx BE 206.8 eV). Ni was detected in the metallic state (Ni0 – Ni 2p BE-852.7 eV, NiOx - Ni 2p BE-854.7 eV) after a short Ar sputtering because the oxide layer on the surface was very thin. Nickel oxides can form a protective layer in the molten salt, but only future long-term exposures can determine the suitability of Inconel 625 for MSR.

Keywords: Inconel 625, molten salt, oxide layer, XPS

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1523 Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells

Authors: G. Balaji, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Prasanna, M. D. Kannan, K. Sivakumaran, David Mcilroy


Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.

Keywords: earth-abundant, Kesterite, RF sputtering, thin film solar cells

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1522 Structural and Magnetic Properties of NiFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer


Nickel spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 525 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in nickel ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nickel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, NiFe2O4

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1521 Preparation of Carbon Monoliths from PET Waste and Their Use in Solar Interfacial Water Evaporation

Authors: Andrea Alfaro Barajas, Arturo I. Martinez


3D photothermal structure of carbon was synthesized using PET bottles waste and sodium chloride through controlled carbonization. Characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and mechanical compression were carried out. The carbon showed physical integrity > 90%, an absorbance > 90% between 300-1000nm of the solar spectrum, and a high specific surface area from 450 to 620 m2/g. The X-ray was employed to examine the phase structure; the obtained pattern shows an amorphous material. A higher intensity of band D with respect to band G was confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy. C-OH, COOH, C-O, and C-C bonds were obtained from the deconvolution of the high-resolution C1s orbital. Macropores of 160 to 180µm and micropores of 0.5 to 2nm were observed by SEM and TEM images, respectively. Such combined characteristics of carbon confer efficient evaporation of water under 1 sun irradiation > 60%.

Keywords: solar-absorber, carbon, water-evaporation, interfacial

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1520 Near Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of CO Oxidation on Spinel Co3O4 Surfaces: Electronic Structure and Mechanistic Aspects of Wet and Dry CO Oxidation

Authors: Ruchi Jain, Chinnakonda S. Gopinath


The CO oxidation is a primary reaction in heterogeneous catalysis due to its potential to overcome the air pollution caused by various reasons. Indeed, in the study of sustainable catalysis, the role played by water is very important. The present work is focused on studying the effect of moisture on the sustainability of Co3O4 NR catalyst for CO oxidation reaction at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity, electronic structure and the mechanistic aspects of spinel Co3O4 nanorod surfaces have been explored in dry and wet atmosphere by near-ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopic techniques (NAP-PES) with conventional x-ray (Al kα) and ultraviolet sources (He-I).Comparative NAPPES studies have been employed to understand the elucidation of the catalytic reaction pathway and the evolution of various surface species. The presence of water with CO+O2 plummet the catalytic activity due to the change in electronic nature from predominantly oxidic (without water in the feed) to few intermediates covered Co3O4 surface. However, ≥ 375 K Co3O4 surface recovers and regain oxidation activity, at least partially, even in the presence of water. Above mentioned observations are fully supported by the changes observed in the work function of Co3O4 in the presence of wet (H2O+CO+O2) compared to dry (CO+O2) conditions. Various type of surface species, such as CO(ads), carbonate, formate, are found to be on the catalyst surface depending on the reaction conditions. Under dry condition, CO couples with labile O atoms to form CO2, however under wet conditions it also interacts with surface OH groups results in the formation carbonate and formate intermediate. The carbonate acts at reaction inhibitor at room temperature, however proves as active intermediate at temperature 375 K or above. On the other hand, formate has proved to be reaction spectator due to its high stability. The intrinsic role of these species to suppress the oxidation has been demonstrated through a possible reaction mechanism under different reaction conditions.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, surface chemistry, photoelectron spectroscopy, ambient oxidation

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1519 Effect of Preparation Temperature on Producing Graphene Oxide by Chemical Oxidation Approach

Authors: Rashad Al-Gaashani, Muataz A. Atieh


In this study, the effect of preparation temperature, namely room temperature (RT), 40, 60, and 85°C, on producing of high-quality graphene oxide (GO) has been investigated. GO samples have been prepared by chemical oxidation of graphite via a safe improved chemical technique using a blend of two deferent acids: sulphuric acid (H₂SO₄) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) with volume ratio 4:1, respectively. potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were applied as oxidizing agents. In this work, sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) was excluded, so the emission of hazardous explosive gases such as NO₂ and N₂O₂ was shunned. Ice and oil baths were used to carefully control the temperature. Several characterization instruments including X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to study and compare the synthesized samples. The results indicated that GO can be prepared at RT with graphite oxide, and the purity of GO increased with rising of the solvent temperature. Optical properties of GO samples were studied using UV-vis absorption spectra.

Keywords: chemical method, graphite, graphene oxide, optical properties

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1518 Coordination Polymer Hydrogels Based on Coinage Metals and Nucleobase Derivatives

Authors: Lamia L. G. Al-Mahamad, Benjamin R. Horrocks, Andrew Houlton


Hydrogels based on metal coordination polymers of nucleosides and a range of metal ions (Au, Ag, Cu) have been prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. AFM images of the xerogels revealed the formation of extremely long polymer molecules (> 10 micrometers, the maximum scan range). This result is also consistent with TEM images which show a fibrous morphology. Oxidative doping of the Au-nucleoside fibres produces an electrically conductive nanowire. No sharp Bragg peaks were found at the at the X-ray diffraction pattern for metal ions hydrogels indicating that the samples were amorphous, but instead the data showed broad peaks in the range 20 < Q < 40 and correspond to distances d=2μ/Q. The data was analysed using a simplified Rietveld method by fitting a regression model to obtain the distance between atoms.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions, nanowire, nucleoside

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1517 Green Synthesized Palladium Loaded Titanium Nanotube Arrays for Simultaneous Azo-Dye Degradation and Hydrogen Production

Authors: Yen-Ping Peng, Ku-Fan Chen, Ken-Lin Chang, Jian Sun


In this study, palladium loaded titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (Pd/TNAs) was successfully synthesized by anodic oxidation etching method combined with microwave hydrothermal method, using tea or coffee as a green reductant. Pd/TNAs was employed as an electrode in a photoelectrochemcial (PEC) system to simultaneously remove azo-dye and to generate hydrogen in the anodic and cathodic chamber, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of as-synthesized Pd/TNAs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM image indicates the diameter and the length of Pd/TNAs were approximately 300 nm and 2.5 μm, respectively. XPS analyses indicate that 1.13% (atomic %) of Pd was loaded onto the surface of TNAs. UV-vis results show that the band gap of TNAs was reduced from 3.2 eV to 2.37 eV after Pd loading. In addition, the electrochemical performances of Pd/TNAs were investigated by photocurrent density test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photocurrent (4.0 mA/cm²) of Pd /TNAs was higher than that of the uncoated TNAs (1.4 mA/cm²) at a bias potential of 1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), indicating that Pd/TNAs-C can effectively separate photogenerated electrons and holes. The mechanism of our PEC system was proposed and discussed in detail in this study.

Keywords: Pd/TNAs, photoelectrochemical, azo-dye degradation, hydrogen generation

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1516 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Jaromir Havlica, Lukas Kalina, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

Keywords: sonochemical method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, dielectric property, electrical property

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1515 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo


For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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1514 A Near Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study on Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

Authors: Reza Vakili, Xiaolei Fan, Alex Walton


The first near ambient pressure (NAP)-XPS study of CO oxidation over Pt nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated into Zr-based UiO (UiO for Universitetet i Oslo) MOFs was carried out. For this purpose, the MOF-based Catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation ([email protected]) and linker design ([email protected]) methods along with [email protected]₂ as the control catalyst. Firstly, the as-synthesized catalysts were reduced in situ prior to the operando XPS analysis. The existence of Pt(II) species was proved in UiO-67 by observing Pt 4f core level peaks at a high binding energy of 72.6 ± 0.1 eV. However, by heating the [email protected] catalyst in situ to 200 °C under vacuum, the higher BE components disappear, leaving only the metallic Pt 4f doublet, confirming the formation of Pt NPs. The complete reduction of [email protected] is achieved at 250 °C and 1 mbar H₂. To understand the chemical state of Pt NPs in UiO-67 during catalytic turnover, we analyzed the Pt 4f region using operando NAP-XPS in the temperature-programmed measurements (100-260 °C) with reference to [email protected]₂ catalyst. CO conversion during NAP-XPS experiments with the stoichiometric mixture shows that [email protected] has a better CO turnover frequency (TOF, 0.066 s⁻¹ at 260 °C) than the other two (ca. 0.055 s⁻¹). Pt 4f peaks only show one chemical species present at all temperatures, but the core level BE shifts change as a function of reaction temperature, i.e., Pt 4f peak from 71.8 eV at T < 200 °C to 71.2 eV at T > 200 °C. As this higher BE state of 71.8 eV was not observed after in situ reductions of the catalysts and only once the CO/O₂ mixture was introduced, we attribute it to the surface saturation of Pt NPs with adsorbed CO. In general, the quantitative analysis of Pt 4f data from the operando NAP-XPS experiments shows that the surface chemistry of the Pt active phase in the two [email protected] catalysts is the same, comparable to that of [email protected]₂. The observed difference in the catalytic activity can be attributed to the particle sizes of Pt NPs, as well as the dispersion of active phase in the support, which are different in the three catalysts.

Keywords: CO oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, MOFs, Metal Organic Frameworks, NAP-XPS, Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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1513 In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics

Authors: Maxim Panov, Evgenia Khairullina, Sergey Ermakov, Oleg Gundobin, Vladimir Kochemirovsky


The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

Keywords: laser-induced deposition, electrochemical electrodes, non-enzymatic sensors, copper

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1512 Potentiostatic Growth of Hazenite Mineral Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in 0.1 M K₂HPO₄/0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ Solution

Authors: Liping Wu, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Junhua Dong, Changgang Wang, Lin Zhao, Wei Ke, Nan Chen


Hazenite conversion coating was deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy in a deaerated phosphate solution containing 0.1 M K₂HPO₄ and 0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ (Na₀.₁K0₀.₁) with pH 9 at −0.8 V. The coating mechanism of hazenite was elucidated by in situ potentiostatic current decay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The volume of H₂ evolved during potentiostatic polarization was measured by a gas collection apparatus. The degradation resistance of the hazenite coating was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37℃ by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The results showed that amorphous Mg(OH)₂ was deposited first, followed by the transformation of Mg(OH)₂ to amorphous MgHPO₄, subsequently the conversion of MgHPO₄ to crystallized K-struvite (KMgPO₄·6H₂O), finally the crystallization of crystallized hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The deposited coating was composed of four layers where the inner layer is comprised of Mg(OH)₂, the middle layer of Mg(OH)₂ and MgHPO₄, the top layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄ and K-struvite, the topmost layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄, K-struvite and hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The PD results showed that the hazenite coating decreased the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, potentiostatic technique, hazenite, mineral conversion coating

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1511 Synthesis and Characterization of CNPs Coated Carbon Nanorods for Cd2+ Ion Adsorption from Industrial Waste Water and Reusable for Latent Fingerprint Detection

Authors: Bienvenu Gael Fouda Mbanga


This study reports a new approach of preparation of carbon nanoparticles coated cerium oxide nanorods (CNPs/CeONRs) nanocomposite and reusing the spent adsorbent of Cd2+- CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite for latent fingerprint detection (LFP) after removing Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution. CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite was prepared by using CNPs and CeONRs with adsorption processes. The prepared nanocomposite was then characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-visible), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The average size of the CNPs was 7.84nm. The synthesized CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite has proven to be a good adsorbent for Cd2+ removal from water with optimum pH 8, dosage 0. 5 g / L. The results were best described by the Langmuir model, which indicated a linear fit (R2 = 0.8539-0.9969). The adsorption capacity of CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite showed the best removal of Cd2+ ions with qm = (32.28-59.92 mg/g), when compared to previous reports. This adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and intra particle diffusion processes. ∆G and ∆H values indicated spontaneity at high temperature (40oC) and the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite therefore showed potential as an effective adsorbent. Furthermore, the metal loaded on the adsorbent Cd2+- CNPs/CeONRs has proven to be sensitive and selective for LFP detection on various porous substrates. Hence Cd2+-CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite can be reused as a good fingerprint labelling agent in LFP detection so as to avoid secondary environmental pollution by disposal of the spent adsorbent.

Keywords: Cd2+-CNPs/CeONRs nanocomposite, cadmium adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamics, reusable for latent fingerprint detection

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1510 Influence of Laser Excitation on SERS of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of Silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) were obtained using two different laser excitations: 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Silver nano particles were used as plasmonics metal nano particles due to a robust SERS effect that observed when they mixed with SiNCs. SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized using photo chemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The synthesized AgNPs have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement in the SERS intensity was observed for AgNPs100/SiNCs and AgNPs30/SiNCs mixtures increasing up to 9 and 3 times respectively using 488 nm intensity; whereas the intensity of the SERS signal increased up to 7 and 2 times respectively, using 514.5 nm excitation source. The enhancement in SERS intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs. The results provide good consensus between the wavelength of the laser excitation source and surface plasmon resonance absorption band of silver nano particles consider to be an important requirement in SERS experiments.

Keywords: silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS)

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1509 Influence of Surface Preparation Effects on the Electrochemical Behavior of 2098-T351 Al–Cu–Li Alloy

Authors: Rejane Maria P. da Silva, Mariana X. Milagre, João Victor de S. Araujo, Leandro A. de Oliveira, Renato A. Antunes, Isolda Costa


The Al-Cu-Li alloys are advanced materials for aerospace application because of their interesting mechanical properties and low density when compared with conventional Al-alloys. However, Al-Cu-Li alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion. The near-surface deformed layer (NSDL) induced by the rolling process during the production of the alloy and its removal by polishing can influence on the corrosion susceptibility of these alloys. In this work, the influence of surface preparation effects on the electrochemical activity of AA2098-T351 (Al–Cu–Li alloy) was investigated using a correlation between surface chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical activity. Two conditions were investigated, polished and as-received surfaces of the alloy. The morphology of the two types of surfaces was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical microscopy. The surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Global electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and EIS technique) and a local electrochemical technique (Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-LEIS) were used to examine the electrochemical activity of the surfaces. The results obtained in this study showed that in the as-received surface, the near-surface deformed layer (NSDL), which is composed of Mg-rich bands, influenced the electrochemical behavior of the alloy. The results showed higher electrochemical activity to the polished surface condition compared to the as-received one.

Keywords: Al-Cu-Li alloys, surface preparation effects, electrochemical techniques, localized corrosion

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1508 Structure and Optical Properties of Potassium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Lila A. Alkhattaby, Norah A. Alsayegh, Mohammad S. Ansari, Mohammad O. Ansari


In this work, we doped zinc oxide ZnO with potassium K we have synthesized using the sol-gel method. Structural properties were depicted by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy distribution spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies confirm the nanosized of the particles and favored orientations along the (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) planes confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The optical properties study using the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The band gap decreases from 4.05 eV to 3.88 eV, the lowest band gap at 10% doped concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy results show two main peaks, a sharp peak at ≈ 384 nm in the UV region and a broad peak around 479 nm in the visible region. The highest intensity of the band-edge luminescence was for 2% doped concentration because of the combined effect of the decreased probability of nonradiative recombination and has better crystallinity.

Keywords: K doped ZnO, photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy

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1507 Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega


The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).

Keywords: brilliant black, Co-doped TiO₂, polyamidoamine generation 1 (PAMAM G1), photodegradation

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1506 Dielectric, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Elastomer Filled with in situ Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide and Spinel Ferrite NiFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuritka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, David Skoda, Milan Masar


The elastomer nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method with an elastomer as a matrix and in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as filler. Spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were prepared by the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The influence of filler on the microstructure, morphology, dielectric, electrical and magnetic properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel Ferrite-Elastomer nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Dielectric Impedance analyzer, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the fillers were incorporated in elastomer matrix homogeneously. The dielectric constant and dielectric tangent loss of nanocomposites was decreased with the increase of frequency, whereas, the dielectric constant increases with the addition of filler. Further, AC conductivity was increased with the increase of frequency and addition of fillers. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites exhibited ferromagnetic behavior. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: polymer-matrix composites, nanoparticles as filler, dielectric property, magnetic property

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1505 Visible-Light-Driven OVs-BiOCl Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity toward NO Oxidation

Authors: Jiazhen Liao, Xiaolan Zeng


A series of BiOCl nanoplates with different oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentrations were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The concentration of OVs of BiOCl can be tuned by the ratios of water/ethylene glycol. Such nanoplates containing oxygen vacancies served as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for NO oxidation. Compared with pure BiOCl, the enhanced photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the introduction of OVs, which greatly enhanced light absorption, promoted electron transfer, activated oxygen molecules. The present work could provide insights into the understanding of the role of OVs in photocatalysts for reference. Combined with characterization analysis, such as XRD(X-ray diffraction), XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM(Transmission Electron Microscopy), PL(Fluorescence Spectroscopy), and DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, the effect of vacancies on photoelectrochemical properties of BiOCl photocatalysts are shown. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic NO oxidation were also revealed. According to the results of in situ DRIFTS ( Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy), various intermediates were produced during different time intervals of NO photodegradation. The possible pathways are summarized below. First, visible light irradiation induces electron-hole pairs on the surface of OV-BOC (BiOCl with oxygen vacancies). Second, photogenerated electrons form superoxide radical with the contacted oxygen. Then, the NO molecules adsorbed on the surface of OV-BOC are attacked by superoxide radical and form nitrate instead of NO₂ (by-products). Oxygen vacancies greatly improve the photocatalytic oxidation activity of NO and effectively inhibit the production of harmful by-products during the oxidation of NO.

Keywords: OVs-BiOCl nanoplate, oxygen vacancies, NO oxidation, photocatalysis

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1504 Dendrimer-Encapsulated N, Pt Co-Doped TiO₂ for the Photodegration of Contaminated Wastewater

Authors: S. K. M. Nzaba, H. H. Nyoni, B. Ntsendwana, B. B. Mamba, A. T. Kuvarega


Azo dye effluents, released into water bodies are not only toxic to the ecosystem but also pose a serious impact on human health due to the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of the compounds present in the dye discharge. Conventional water treatment methods such as adsorption, flocculation/coagulation and biological processes are not effective in completely removing most of the dyes and their natural degradation by-products. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proven to be effective technologies for complete mineralization of these recalcitrant pollutants. Therefore, there is a need for new technology that can solve the problem. Thus, this study examined the photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye brilliant black (BB) using non-metal/metal codoped TiO₂. N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 0 (PAMAM G0), amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 1 ( PAMAM G1) and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI) as templates and source of nitrogen. Structural, morphological, and textural properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier- transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra-violet /visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the Degussa P-25 revealing a red shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black (BB) dye. The N, metal codoped TiO₂ containing 0.5 wt. % of the metal consisted mainly of the anatase phase as confirmed by XRD results of all three samples, with a particle size range of 13–30 nm. The particles were largely spherical and shifted the absorption edge well into the visible region. Band gap reduction was more pronounced for the N, Pt HPEI (Pt 0.5 wt. %) codoped TiO₂ compared to PAMAM G0 and PAMAM G1. Consequently, codoping led to an enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the materials for the degradation of brilliant black (BB).

Keywords: codoped TiO₂, dendrimer, photodegradation, wastewater

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1503 Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Omar Concepcion, Osvaldo De Melo, Arturo Escobosa


Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.

Keywords: Bismuth telluride, molecular beam epitaxy, physical vapor transport, topological insulator

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1502 Investigation of VN/TiN Multilayer Coatings on AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: M. Ertas, A. C. Onel, G. Ekinci, B. Toydemir, S. Durdu, M. Usta, L. Colakerol Arslan


To develop AZ91D magnesium alloys with improved properties, we have applied TiN and VN/TiN multilayer coatings using DC magnetron sputter technique. Coating structure, surface morphology, chemical bonding and corrosion resistance of coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and tafel extrapolation method, respectively. XPS analysis reveal that VN overlayer reacts with oxygen at the VN/TiN interface and forms more stable TiN layer. Morphological investigations and the corrosion results show that VN/TiN multilayer thin film coatings are quite effective to optimize the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloys, high corrosion resistance, transition metal nitride coatings, magnetron sputter

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1501 Thorium-Doped PbS Thin Films for Radiation Damage Studies

Authors: Michael Shandalov, Tzvi Templeman, Michael Schmidt, Itzhak Kelson, Eyal Yahel


We present a new method to produce a model system for the study of radiation damage in non-radioactive materials. The method is based on homogeneously incorporating 228Th ions in PbS thin films using a small volume chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The common way to alloy metals with radioactive elements is by melting pure elements, which requires considerable amounts of radioactive material with its safety consequences such as high sample activity. Controlled doping of the thin films with (very) small amounts (100-200ppm) of radioactive elements such as thorium is expected to provide a unique path for studying radiation damage in materials due to decay processes without the need of sealed enclosure. As a first stage, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films (~100 nm thick) with the stable isotope (t1/2~106 years), 232Th. Next, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films with active 228Th isotope. This was achieved by altering deposition parameters such as temperature, pH, reagent concentrations and time. The 228Th-doped films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, which indicated a single phase material. Film morphology and thickness were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping in the analytical transmission electron microscope (A-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles and autoradiography indicated that the Th ions were homogeneously distributed throughout the films, suggesting Pb substitution by Th ions in the crystal lattice. The properties of the PbS (228Th) film activity were investigated by using alpha-spectroscopy and gamma spectroscopy. The resulting films are applicable for isochronal annealing of resistivity measurements and currently under investigation. This work shows promise as a model system for the analysis of dilute defect systems in semiconductor thin films.

Keywords: thin films, doping, radiation damage, chemical bath deposition

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1500 Carbon Nitride Growth on ZnO Architectures for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Application

Authors: Špela Hajduk, Sean P. Berglund, Matejka Podlogar, Goran Dražić, Fatwa F. Abdi, Zorica C. Orel, Menny Shalom


Graphitic carbon nitride materials (g-CN) have emerged as an attractive photocatalyst and electrocatalyst for photo and electrochemical water splitting reaction, due to their environmental benignity nature and suitable band gap. Many approaches were introduced to enhance the photoactivity and electronic properties of g-CN and resulted in significant changes in the electronic and catalytic properties. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of thin and homogenous g-CN layer on highly ordered ZnO nanowire (NW) substrate by growing a seeding layer of small supramolecular assemblies on the nanowires. The new synthetic approach leads to the formation of thin g-CN layer (~3 nm) without blocking all structure. Two different deposition methods of carbon nitride were investigated and will be presented. The amount of loaded carbon nitride significantly influences the PEC activity of hybrid material and all the ZnO/g-CNx electrodes show great improvement in photoactivity. The chemical structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited g-CN were fully characterized by various techniques as X-ray powder spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), high-resolution scanning microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Keywords: carbon nitride, photoanode, solar water splitting, zinc oxide

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1499 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng


Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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1498 The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin

Authors: Mingmei Zhang, Xinyong Li


AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.

Keywords: AIS nanocomposites, electron-hole pairs, charges transfer, DFTcaculations

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1497 An Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of CoTi Thin Films

Authors: Jose Alberto Duarte Moller, Cynthia Deisy Gomez Esparza


The cobalt-titanium system was grown as thin films in an INTERCOVAMEX V3 sputtering system, equipped with four magnetrons assisted by DC pulsed and direct DC. A polished highly oriented (400) silicon wafer was used as substrate and the growing temperature was 500 oC. Xray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments were carried out in the SSRL in the 4-3 beam line. The Extenden X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra have been numerically processed by WINXAS software from the background subtraction until the normalization and FFT adjustment. Analyzing the absorption spectra of cobalt in the CoTi2 phase we can appreciate that they agree in energy with the reference spectra that corresponds to the CoO, which indicates that the valence where upon working is Co2+. The RDF experimental results were then compared with those RDF´s generated theoretically by using FEFF software, from a model compound of CoTi2 phase obtained by XRD. The fitting procedure is a highly iterative process. Fits are also checked in R-space using both the real and imaginary parts of Fourier transform. Finally, the presence of overlapping coordination shells and the correctness of the assumption about the nature of the coordinating atom were checked.

Keywords: XAS, EXAFS, FEFF, CoTi

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