Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3670

Search results for: Co2 reduction

3670 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3669 Bipolar Reduction and Lithic Miniaturization: Experimental Results and Archaeological Implications

Authors: Justin Pargeter, Metin Eren

Abstract:

Lithic miniaturization, the systematic production and use of small tools from small cores, was a consequential development in Pleistocene lithic technology. The bipolar reduction is an important, but often overlooked and misidentified, strategy for lithic miniaturization. This experiment addresses the role of axial bipolar reduction in processes of lithic miniaturization. The experiments answer two questions: what benefits does axial bipolar reduction provide, and can we distinguish axial bipolar reduction from freehand reduction? Our experiments demonstrate the numerous advantages of bipolar reduction in contexts of lithic miniaturization. Bipolar reduction produces more cutting edge per gram and is more economical than freehand reduction. Our cutting edge to mass values exceeds even those obtained with pressure blade production on high-quality obsidian. The experimental results show that bipolar reduction produces cutting edge quicker and is more efficient than freehand reduction. We show that bipolar reduction can be distinguished from freehand reduction with a high degree of confidence using the quantitative criteria in these experiments. These observations overturn long-held perceptions about bipolar reduction. We conclude by discussing the role of bipolar reduction in lithic miniaturization and Stone Age economics more broadly.

Keywords: lithic miniaturization, bipolar reduction, late Pleistocene, Southern Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3668 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3667 Weighted G2 Multi-Degree Reduction of Bezier Curves

Authors: Salisu ibrahim, Abdalla Rababah

Abstract:

In this research, we use Weighted G2-Multi-degree reduction of Bezier curve of degree n to a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. The degree reduction of Bezier curves is used to represent a given Bezier curve of n by a Bezier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and degree reduction is approximate process in nature. We derive a weighted degree reducing method that is geometrically continuous at the end points. Different norms will be considered, several error minimizations will be given. The proposed methods produce error function that are less than the errors of existing methods.

Keywords: Bezier curves, multiple degree reduction, geometric continuity, error function

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3666 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim

Abstract:

In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

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3665 Size Reduction of Images Using Constraint Optimization Approach for Machine Communications

Authors: Chee Sun Won

Abstract:

This paper presents the size reduction of images for machine-to-machine communications. Here, the salient image regions to be preserved include the image patches of the key-points such as corners and blobs. Based on a saliency image map from the key-points and their image patches, an axis-aligned grid-size optimization is proposed for the reduction of image size. To increase the size-reduction efficiency the aspect ratio constraint is relaxed in the constraint optimization framework. The proposed method yields higher matching accuracy after the size reduction than the conventional content-aware image size-reduction methods.

Keywords: image compression, image matching, key-point detection and description, machine-to-machine communication

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3664 Response Reduction Factor for Earthquake Resistant Design of Special Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Rohan V. Ambekar, Shrirang N. Tande

Abstract:

The present study estimates the seismic response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall using static nonlinear (pushover) analysis. Calculation of response reduction factor (R) is done as per the new formulation of response reduction factor (R) given by Applied Technology Council (ATC)-19 which is the product of strength factor (Rs), ductility factor (Rµ) and redundancy factor (RR). The analysis revealed that these three factors affect the actual value of response reduction factor (R) and therefore they must be taken into consideration while determining the appropriate response reduction factor to be used during the seismic design process. The actual values required for determination of response reduction factor (R) is worked out on the basis of pushover curve which is a plot of base shear verses roof displacement. Finally, the calculated values of response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall are compared with the codal values.

Keywords: response reduction factor, ductility ratio, base shear, special moment resisting frames

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3663 Application of a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction Algorithm of Soft Sets in Online Shopping

Authors: Xiuqin Ma, Hongwu Qin

Abstract:

A new efficient normal parameter reduction algorithm of soft set in decision making was proposed. However, up to the present, few documents have focused on real-life applications of this algorithm. Accordingly, we apply a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction algorithm into real-life datasets of online shopping, such as Blackberry Mobile Phone Dataset. Experimental results show that this algorithm is not only suitable but feasible for dealing with the online shopping.

Keywords: soft sets, parameter reduction, normal parameter reduction, online shopping

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
3662 Investigation on the Kinetic Mechanism of the Reduction of Fe₂O₃/CoO-Decorated Carbon Xerogel

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Michele Catti

Abstract:

The reduction of CoO/Fe₂O₃ oxides supported on carbon xerogels was studied to elucidate the effect of nano-size distribution of the catalyst in carbon matrices. Resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels were synthesized, impregnated with iron and cobalt nitrates, and subsequently heated to obtain the oxides. The mechanism of oxide reduction to metal was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction in dynamic, non-isothermal conditions. Kinetic profiles of the reactions were obtained by plotting the diffraction intensities of selected Bragg peaks vs. temperature. The extracted Temperature-Programmed-Reduction (TPR) diagrams were analyzed by appropriate kinetic models, leading to best results with the Avrami-Erofeev model for all reduction reactions considered. The activation energies for the two-step reduction of iron oxide were 65 and 37 kJmol⁻¹, respectively. The average value for the reduction of CoO to Co was found to be around 21 kJ mol⁻¹. Such results may contribute to develop efficient and inexpensive non-noble metal-based catalysts in element form, e.g., Fe, Co, via heterogenization of metal complexes on mesoporous supports.

Keywords: non-isothermal kinetics, carbon aerogel, in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reduction mechanisms

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3661 The Development and Validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers

Authors: Ian Phil Canlas, Mageswary Karpudewan, Joyce Magtolis, Rosario Canlas

Abstract:

This study reported the development and validation of the Awareness to Disaster Risk Reduction Questionnaire for Teachers (ADRRQT). The questionnaire is a combination of Likert scale and open-ended questions that were grouped into two parts. The first part included questions relating to the general awareness on disaster risk reduction. Whereas, the second part comprised questions regarding the integration of disaster risk reduction in the teaching process. The entire process of developing and validating of the ADRRQT was described in this study. Statistical and qualitative findings revealed that the ADRRQT is significantly valid and reliable and has the potential of measuring awareness to disaster risk reduction of stakeholders in the field of teaching. Moreover, it also shows the potential to be adopted in other fields.

Keywords: awareness, development, disaster risk reduction, questionnaire, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
3660 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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3659 Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.

Keywords: TiCl₄, titanium, hydrogen, plasma, reduction, thermodynamic calculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3658 Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring

Authors: Abdur Rosyid, Mohamed El-Madany, Mohanad Alata

Abstract:

Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the numbers and the locations of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.

Keywords: rotordynamic, finite element model, timoshenko beam, 3D solid elements, Guyan reduction method

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3657 The Reduction of CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector: An Optimization Approach

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Transportation sector represents more than 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. This sector is a major user of fossils based fuels, and it is increasingly being highlighted as the sector which contributes least to CO2 emission reduction targets. Considering this fact, this paper attempts to investigate the problem of reducing CO2 emission using linear programming approach. An optimization model which is used to investigate the optimal level of CO2 emission reduction in the road transport sector is presented. In this paper, scenarios have been used to demonstrate the emission reduction model: (1) utilising alternative fuel scenario, (2) improving fuel efficiency scenario, (3) removing fuel subsidy scenario, (4) reducing demand travel, (5) optimal scenario. This study finds that fuel balancing can contribute to the reduction of the amount of CO2 emission by up to 3%. Beyond 3% emission reductions, more stringent measures that include fuel switching, fuel efficiency improvement, demand travel reduction and combination of mitigation measures have to be employed. The model revealed that the CO2 emission reduction in the road transportation can be reduced by 38.3% in the optimal scenario.

Keywords: CO2 emission, fuel consumption, optimization, linear programming, transportation sector, Malaysia

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3656 Model Order Reduction for Frequency Response and Effect of Order of Method for Matching Condition

Authors: Aref Ghafouri, Mohammad javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi

Abstract:

In this paper, model order reduction method is used for approximation in linear and nonlinearity aspects in some experimental data. This method can be used for obtaining offline reduced model for approximation of experimental data and can produce and follow the data and order of system and also it can match to experimental data in some frequency ratios. In this study, the method is compared in different experimental data and influence of choosing of order of the model reduction for obtaining the best and sufficient matching condition for following the data is investigated in format of imaginary and reality part of the frequency response curve and finally the effect and important parameter of number of order reduction in nonlinear experimental data is explained further.

Keywords: frequency response, order of model reduction, frequency matching condition, nonlinear experimental data

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3655 The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction

Authors: Winai Mankhatitham

Abstract:

This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1) Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction, 2) The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane, 3) Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.

Keywords: green roof, heat reduction, groundcover, energy saving

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3654 Reduction in the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking Gaits Using Quasi-Passive Upper Body Exoskeleton

Authors: Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Gautham Muthukumaran, Amir Jafari

Abstract:

Human walking gait is considered to be the most efficient biped walking gait. There are various types of gait human follows during locomotion and arm swing is one of the most important factors which controls and differentiates human gaits. Earlier studies declared a 7% reduction in the metabolic cost due to the arm swing. In this research, we compared different types of arm swings in terms of metabolic cost reduction and then suggested, designed, fabricated and tested a quasi-passive upper body exoskeleton to study the metabolic cost reduction in the folded arm walking gate scenarios. Our experimental results validate a 10% reduction in the metabolic cost of walking aided by the application of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: arm swing, MET (metabolic equivalent of a task), calorimeter, oxygen consumption, upper body quasi-passive exoskeleton

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3653 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
3652 The Investigation on the Status of Disaster Prevention and Reduction Knowledge in Rural Pupils in China

Authors: Jian-Na Zhang, Xiao-Li Chen, Si-Jian Li

Abstract:

Objective: In order to investigate current status on knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction in rural pupils, to explore education method on disaster prevention and reduction for rural pupils. Method: A questionnaire was designed based on literature review. Convenient sampling was used in the survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 180 students from Huodehong town central primary school which located in Ludian county of Zhaotong city in Yunnan province, where 6.5 magnitude earthquake happened in 2014. The result indicated that the pupils’ knowledge and skills on disaster prevention and reduction relevant poor. The source for them to obtain the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction included TV (68.9%), followed by their parents (43.9%), while only 24.4% of knowledge is from the teachers. The scores about different natural disaster are ranking in descending order: earthquake (5.39 ±1.27), floods (3.77 ±1.17); debris flow (2.81 ±1.05), family fire (2.16± 0.96). And the disaster experience did not help the pupils enhance the knowledge reserves. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in knowledge scores of disaster prevention and reduction between experienced and non-experienced group. Conclusion: The local disaster experiences did not draw the attention of parents and schools. Knowledge popularization of disaster for local pupils is extremely urgent. It is necessary to take advantage of more mediums to popularize the knowledge and skills about disaster prevention and reduction, for example, family education, school education, newspapers, brochures, etc. The training courses on disaster prevention and reduction which are based on the characteristics of the local rural pupils and the characteristics of the local disasters would be useful.

Keywords: rural, pupils, disaster prevention and reduction knowledge, popularization

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3651 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3650 Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction

Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Man Singh

Abstract:

Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, surfactant, methylene blue, amino acid

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3649 QCARNet: Networks for Quality-Adaptive Compression Artifact

Authors: Seung Ho Park, Young Su Moon, Nam Ik Cho

Abstract:

We propose a convolution neural network (CNN) for quality adaptive compression artifact reduction named QCARNet. The proposed method is different from the existing discriminative models that learn a specific model at a certain quality level. The method is composed of a quality estimation CNN (QECNN) and a compression artifact reduction CNN (CARCNN), which are two functionally separate CNNs. By connecting the QECNN and CARCNN, each CARCNN layer is able to adaptively reduce compression artifacts and preserve details depending on the estimated quality level map generated by the QECNN. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance compared to other state-of-the-art blind compression artifact reduction methods.

Keywords: compression artifact reduction, deblocking, image denoising, image restoration

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3648 A Review on Disaster Risk Reduction and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Kudu Dangana

Abstract:

The occurrences of disaster often call for the support of both government and non-government organization. Consequently, disaster relief remains extremely important in disaster management. However, this approach alone does not proactively address the need to adduce the human and environment impacts of future disasters. Recent thinking in the area of disaster management is indicative of the need for a new paradigm that focuses on reducing the risk of disasters with the involvement and participation of communities. This paper reviews the need for communities to place more emphasis on a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction. This approach involves risk assessment, risk reduction, early warning and disaster preparedness in order to effectively address the reduction of social, economic, and environmental costs of disasters nationally and at the global level.

Keywords: disaster, early, management, warning, relief, risk vulnerability

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3647 Predicting Intention and Readiness to Alcohol Consumption Reduction and Cessation among Thai Teenagers Using Scales Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Rewadee Watakakosol, Arunya Tuicomepee, Panrapee Suttiwan, Sakkaphat T. Ngamake

Abstract:

Health problems caused by alcohol consumption not only have short-term effects at the time of drinking but also leave long-lasting health conditions. Teenagers who start drinking in their middle-high or high school years or before entering college have higher likelihood to increase their alcohol use and abuse, and they were found to be less healthy compared with their non-drinking peers when entering adulthood. This study aimed to examine factors that predict intention and readiness to reduce and quit alcohol consumption among Thai teenagers. Participants were 826 high-school and vocational school students, most of whom were females (64.4%) with the average age of 16.4 (SD = 0.9) and the average age of first drinking at 13.7 (SD = 2.2). Instruments included the scales that developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. They were the Attitude toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, Normative Group and Influence Scale, Perceived Behavioral Control toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, Behavioral Intent toward Alcohol Reduction and Cessation Scale, and Readiness to Reduce and Quit Alcohol Consumption Scale. Findings revealed that readiness to reduce / quit alcohol was the most powerful predictive factor (β=. 53, p < .01), followed by attitude of easiness in alcohol reduction and cessation (β=.46, p < .01), perceived behavioral control toward alcohol reduction and cessation (β =.41, p < .01), normative group and influence (β=.15, p < .01), and attitude of being accepted from alcohol reduction and cessation (β = -.12, p < .01), respectively. Attitude of improved health after alcohol reduction and cessation did not show statistically significantly predictive power. All factors significantly predict teenagers’ alcohol reduction and cessation behavior and accounted for 59 percent of total variance of alcohol consumption reduction and cessation.

Keywords: alcohol consumption reduction and cessation, intention, readiness to change, Thai teenagers

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3646 The Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akın, H. Çoban

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR + Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR + BA, 1/9 CTR + BA applications on yield and yield components of four years old Alphonse Lavallee grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on grafted 110 Paulsen rootstock in Konya province in Turkey in the vegetation period in 2015. According to the results, the highest maturity index 21.46 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest grape juice yields 736.67 ml with 1/3 CTR + BA application; the highest L* color value 32.07 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest a* color value 1.74 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest b* color value 3.72 with 1/9 CTR application were obtained. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, cluster weight and berry weight were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: alphonse lavallee grape cultivar, different cluster tip reduction (1/3, 1/6, 1/9), foliar boric acid application, yield, quality

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3645 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

This paper describes two methods for the reduction of the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps. Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a factor of 6 during boosting

Keywords: bi-stable display driver, Dickson charge pump, high-voltage generator, peak current reduction, sub-pump boosting, variable frequency boosting

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3644 A Hybrid System for Boreholes Soil Sample

Authors: Ali Ulvi Uzer

Abstract:

Data reduction is an important topic in the field of pattern recognition applications. The basic concept is the reduction of multitudinous amounts of data down to the meaningful parts. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is frequently used for data reduction. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) method is a discriminative classifier formally defined by a separating hyperplane. In other words, given labeled training data, the algorithm outputs an optimal hyperplane which categorizes new examples. This study offers a hybrid approach that uses the PCA for data reduction and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for classification. In order to detect the accuracy of the suggested system, two boreholes taken from the soil sample was used. The classification accuracies for this dataset were obtained through using ten-fold cross-validation method. As the results suggest, this system, which is performed through size reduction, is a feasible system for faster recognition of dataset so our study result appears to be very promising.

Keywords: feature selection, sequential forward selection, support vector machines, soil sample

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3643 Efficacy and Safety by Baseline A1c with Once-Weekly Dulaglutide in the AWARD Program

Authors: Alaa Mostafa, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Maria Yu, Nan Zhang, Dara Schuster, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez

Abstract:

Dulaglutide (DU), a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, was studied in the AWARD clinical trial program in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and demonstrated significant hemoglobin A1c (A1c) reduction and potential for weight loss. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg in patients with T2D by baseline A1c <8.5% or ≥8.5%, a post-hoc analysis was conducted on AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 at 6 months. Across 7 studies, 55% to 82% of the DU-treated patients had a baseline A1c <8.5%, and 18% to 45% had a baseline A1c ≥8.5%. The ranges of A1c reductions with baseline A1c <8.5% and ≥8.5%, respectively, were: DU 1.5 mg: -0.67% to -1.25% and -1.22% to -2.37%; DU 0.75 mg: -0.53% to -1.07% and -1.37% to -2.19%. The A1c reduction from the pooled analysis was greater in patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% than patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, respectively: DU 1.5 mg: -1.86% and -1.02%; DU 0.75 mg: -1.75% and -0.83%. DU treatments were well tolerated among baseline A1c subgroups. Across the AWARD program, DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg demonstrated significant A1c reduction in both subgroups with an acceptable safety profile. Compared to patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% had greater A1c reduction. Disclosures: This study was supported and conducted by Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Keywords: A1c reduction, dulaglutide, type 2 diabetes, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3642 A Hybrid Method for Determination of Effective Poles Using Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm

Authors: Anuj Abraham, N. Pappa, Daniel Honc, Rahul Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of some model order reduction techniques is presented. A new hybrid algorithm for model order reduction of linear time invariant systems is compared with the conventional techniques namely Balanced Truncation, Hankel Norm reduction and Dominant Pole Algorithm (DPA). The proposed hybrid algorithm is known as Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm (CDPA) is able to compute the full set of dominant poles and its cluster center efficiently. The dominant poles of a transfer function are specific eigenvalues of the state space matrix of the corresponding dynamical system. The effectiveness of this novel technique is shown through the simulation results.

Keywords: balanced truncation, clustering, dominant pole, Hankel norm, model reduction

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3641 Wet Chemical Synthesis for Fe-Ni Alloy Nanocrystalline Powder

Authors: Neera Singh, Devendra Kumar, Om Parkash

Abstract:

We have synthesized nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy powders where Ni varies as 10, 30 and 50 mole% by a wet chemical route (sol-gel auto-combustion) followed by reduction in hydrogen atmosphere. The ratio of citrate to nitrate was maintained at 0.3 where citric acid has worked as a fuel during combustion. The reduction of combusted powders was done at 700°C/1h in hydrogen atmosphere using an atmosphere controlled quartz tube furnace. Phase and microstructure analysis has shown the formation of α-(Fe,Ni) and γ-(Fe,Ni) phases after reduction. An increase in Ni concentration resulted in more γ-(Fe,Ni) formation where complete γ-(Fe,Ni) formation was achieved at 50 mole% Ni concentration. Formation of particles below 50 nm size range was confirmed using Scherrer’s formula and Transmission Electron Microscope. The work is aimed at the effect of Ni concentration on phase, microstructure and magnetic properties of synthesized alloy powders.

Keywords: combustion, microstructure, nanocrystalline, reduction

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