Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8174

Search results for: judd-ofelt intensity parameters

8174 Correlation between General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Stress Response after One Month Practice of Moderate Intensity Physical Exercise

Authors: Mohita Singh, Sunil Sachdev, Amrita Singh


Background and Aim: Physical aerobic exercises promote positive changes in one’s mental health, intelligence, and ability to cope with stressful encounters. The present study was designed to explore the correlation between intelligence and stress parameters and to assess the correlation between the same parameters after the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise. Method: The study was conducted on thirty-five healthy male volunteer students to assess the correlation between stress parameters in subjects with varying level of general intelligence (GI) and emotional intelligence (EI). Correlation studies were again conducted after one month between the same parameters to evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity physical exercise (MIPE). Baseline values were recorded using standard scales. Result: IQ and EQ correlated negatively with both acute and chronic stress parameters and positively with each other. A positive correlation was found between acute and chronic stress. With the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise, there was significant increment between the parameters under study and hence improved results. Conclusion: MIPE improved correlation between GI, EI, stress parameters, and thus reduced stress and improved intelligence.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, general intelligence, moderate intensity physical exercise, stress response

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8173 Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia

Authors: Pedro Mauricio Acosta, Carlos Andrés Caro


This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last.

Keywords: intensity duration, frequency curves, regionalization, hydrology

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8172 Estimate of Maximum Expected Intensity of One-Half-Wave Lines Dancing

Authors: A. Bekbaev, M. Dzhamanbaev, R. Abitaeva, A. Karbozova, G. Nabyeva


In this paper, the regression dependence of dancing intensity from wind speed and length of span was established due to the statistic data obtained from multi-year observations on line wires dancing accumulated by power systems of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. The lower and upper limitations of the equations parameters were estimated, as well as the adequacy of the regression model. The constructed model will be used in research of dancing phenomena for the development of methods and means of protection against dancing and for zoning plan of the territories of line wire dancing.

Keywords: power lines, line wire dancing, dancing intensity, regression equation, dancing area intensity

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8171 Spectroscopic Study of a Eu-Complex Containing Hybrid Material

Authors: Y. A. R. Oliveira, M. A. Couto dos Santos, N. B. C. Júnior, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. D. Carlos


The Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 complex (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone) pure (EuTTA) and incorporated in an organicinorganic hybrid material (EuTTA-hyb) are revisited, this time from the crystal field parameters (CFP) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ) point of view. A detailed analysis of the emission spectra revealed that the EuTTA phase still remains in the hybrid phase. Sparkle Model calculations of the EuTTA ground state geometry have been performed and satisfactorily compared to the X-ray structure. The observed weaker crystal field strength of the phase generated by the incorporation is promptly interpreted through the existing EXAFS results of the EuTTA-hyb structure. Satisfactory predictions of the CFP, of the 7F1 level splitting and of the Ωλ in all cases were obtained by using the charge factors and polarizabilities as degrees of freedom of non-parametric models.

Keywords: crystal field parameters, europium complexes, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters

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8170 Selection of Intensity Measure in Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment of a Turkish Railway Bridge

Authors: M. F. Yilmaz, B. Ö. Çağlayan


Fragility curve is an effective common used tool to determine the earthquake performance of structural and nonstructural components. Also, it is used to determine the nonlinear behavior of bridges. There are many historical bridges in the Turkish railway network; the earthquake performances of these bridges are needed to be investigated. To derive fragility curve Intensity measures (IMs) and Engineering demand parameters (EDP) are needed to be determined. And the relation between IMs and EDP are needed to be derived. In this study, a typical simply supported steel girder riveted railway bridge is studied. Fragility curves of this bridge are derived by two parameters lognormal distribution. Time history analyses are done for selected 60 real earthquake data to determine the relation between IMs and EDP. Moreover, efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency of three different IMs are discussed. PGA, Sa(0.2s) and Sa(1s), the most common used IMs parameters for fragility curve in the literature, are taken into consideration in terms of efficiency, practicality and sufficiency.

Keywords: railway bridges, earthquake performance, fragility analyses, selection of intensity measures

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8169 Microfluidic Based High Throughput Screening System for Photodynamic Therapy against Cancer Cells

Authors: Rina Lee, Chung-Hun Oh, Eunjin Lee, Jeongyun Kim


The Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizer as a drug to damage and kill cancer cells. After injecting the photosensitizer into the bloodstream, the drug is absorbed by cancer cells selectively. Then the area to be treated is exposed to specific wavelengths of light and the photosensitizer produces a form of oxygen that kills nearby cancer cells. PDT is has an advantage to destroy the tumor with minimized side-effects on normal cells. But, PDT is not a completed method for cancer therapy. Because the mechanism of PDT is quite clear yet and the parameters such as intensity of light and dose of photosensitizer are not optimized for different types of cancers. To optimize these parameters, we suggest a novel microfluidic system to automatically control intensity of light exposure with a personal computer (PC). A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip is composed with (1) a cell culture channels layer where cancer cells were trapped to be tested with various dosed photofrin (1μg/ml used for the test) as the photosensitizer and (2) a color dye layer as a neutral density (ND) filter to reduce intensity of light which exposes the cell culture channels filled with cancer cells. Eight different intensity of light (10%, 20%, …, 100%) are generated through various concentrations of blue dye filling the ND filter. As a light source, a light emitting diode (LED) with 635nm wavelength was placed above the developed PDMS microfluidic chip. The total time for light exposure was 30 minutes and HeLa and PC3 cell lines of cancer cells were tested. The cell viability of cells was evaluated with a Live/Dead assay kit (L-3224, Invitrogen, USA). The stronger intensity of light exposed, the lower viability of the cell was observed, and vice versa. Therefore, this system was demonstrated through investigating the PDT against cancer cell to optimize the parameters as critical light intensity and dose of photosensitizer. Our results suggest that the system can be used for optimizing the combinational parameters of light intensity and photosensitizer dose against diverse cancer cell types.

Keywords: photodynamic therapy, photofrin, high throughput screening, hela

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8168 Spectroscopic Investigations of Nd³⁺ Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for 1.06μM Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao


Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li₂O – 10PbO – (10-x) Al₂O₃ – 70B₂O₃ – xNd₂O₃ (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentiality. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters along with various spectroscopic parameters have been estimated. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions, ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₁₁/₂ (1063 nm) and ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₉/₂ (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd³⁺ ion concentration up to 1 mol %, and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd³⁺ ions concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively high values of emission cross-section, branching ratio, lifetimes and quantum efficiency suggest that 1.0 mol% of Nd³⁺ in LiPbAlB glasses is aptly suitable to generate lasing action in NIR region at 1063 nm.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

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8167 Simulation and Controller Tunning in a Photo-Bioreactor Applying by Taguchi Method

Authors: Hosein Ghahremani, MohammadReza Khoshchehre, Pejman Hakemi


This study involves numerical simulations of a vertical plate-type photo-bioreactor to investigate the performance of Microalgae Spirulina and Control and optimization of parameters for the digital controller by Taguchi method that MATLAB software and Qualitek-4 has been made. Since the addition of parameters such as temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide, biomass, and ... Some new physical parameters such as light intensity and physiological conditions like photosynthetic efficiency and light inhibitors are involved in biological processes, control is facing many challenges. Not only facilitate the commercial production photo-bioreactor Microalgae as feed for aquaculture and food supplements are efficient systems but also as a possible platform for the production of active molecules such as antibiotics or innovative anti-tumor agents, carbon dioxide removal and removal of heavy metals from wastewater is used. Digital controller is designed for controlling the light bioreactor until Microalgae growth rate and carbon dioxide concentration inside the bioreactor is investigated. The optimal values of the controller parameters of the S/N and ANOVA analysis software Qualitek-4 obtained With Reaction curve, Cohen-Con and Ziegler-Nichols method were compared. The sum of the squared error obtained for each of the control methods mentioned, the Taguchi method as the best method for controlling the light intensity was selected photo-bioreactor. This method compared to control methods listed the higher stability and a shorter interval to be answered.

Keywords: photo-bioreactor, control and optimization, Light intensity, Taguchi method

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8166 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu


Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

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8165 Response of Insulin Resistance Indicators to Aerobic Exercise at Different Intensities in Obese College Students

Authors: Long-Shan Wu, Ming-Chen Ko, Chien-Chang Ho, Po-Fu Lee, Li-Yun Chen, Ching-Yu Tseng


The purpose of this study was to determine whether progressive aerobic exercise intensity effects the changes in insulin resistance indicators among obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) ≧ 27 kg/m2, aged 18-26 years old] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG): 40-50% of their heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG): 50-70% of their HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG): 70-80% of their HRR, and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was performed 60 minutes per day on a treadmill three days/week in a training period of 12 weeks. All subjects’ anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, all insulin resistance indicators did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG had significantly more changes in insulin level than the MITG, LITG, and CG. Our findings suggested that a short-term aerobic exercise program can play an important role in improving insulin resistance indicators; either middle-intensity training significantly increases the insulin level, but the high-intensity exercise training program effectively improves obese college students’ insulin resistance.

Keywords: aerobic training, exercise intensity, insulin resistance, obesity

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8164 Determination of the Structural Parameters of Calcium Phosphate for Biomedical Use

Authors: María Magdalena Méndez-González, Miguel García Rocha, Carlos Manuel Yermo De la Cruz


Calcium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(X)) is widely used in orthopedic applications and is widely used as powder and granules. However, their presence in bone is in the form of nanometric needles 60 nm in length with a non-stoichiometric phase of apatite contains CO3-2, Na+, OH-, F-, and other ions in a matrix of collagen fibers. The crystal size, morphology control and interaction with cells are essential for the development of nanotechnology. The structural results of calcium phosphate, synthesized by chemical precipitation with crystal size of 22.85 nm are presented in this paper. The calcium phosphate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy and FT-IR transmission electron microscopy. Network parameters, atomic positions, the indexing of the planes and the calculation of FWHM (full width at half maximum) were obtained. The crystal size was also calculated using the Scherer equation d (hkl) = cλ/βcosѲ. Where c is a constant related to the shape of the crystal, the wavelength of the radiation used for a copper anode is 1.54060Å, Ѳ is the Bragg diffraction angle, and β is the width average peak height of greater intensity. Diffraction pattern corresponding to the calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite phase of a hexagonal crystal system was obtained. It belongs to the space group P63m with lattice parameters a = 9.4394 Å and c = 6.8861 Å. The most intense peak is obtained 2Ѳ = 31.55 (FWHM = 0.4798), with a preferred orientation in 121. The intensity difference between the experimental data and the calculated values is attributable to the temperature at which the sintering was performed. The intensity of the highest peak is at angle 2Ѳ = 32.11. The structure of calcium phosphate obtained was a hexagonal configuration. The intensity changes in the peaks of the diffraction pattern, in the lattice parameters at the corners, indicating the possible presence of a dopant. That each calcium atom is surrounded by a tetrahedron of oxygen and hydrogen was observed by infrared spectra. The unit cell pattern corresponds to hydroxyapatite and transmission electron microscopic crystal morphology corresponding to the hexagonal phase with a preferential growth along the c-plane was obtained.

Keywords: structure, nanoparticles, calcium phosphate, metallurgical and materials engineering

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8163 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene


Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: agriculture, determinants of intensity, greenhouse gas emission, intensity

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8162 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar


The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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8161 Marketing Parameters on Consumer's Perceptions of Farmed Sea Bass in Greece

Authors: Sophia Anastasiou, Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Kostas Karipoglou


Wild fish are considered as testier and in fish restaurants are offered at twice the price of farmed fish. Several chemical and structural differences can affect the consumer's attitudes for farmed fish. The structure and chemical composition of fish muscle is also important for the performance of farmed fish during handling, storage and processing. In the present work we present the chemical and sensory parameters which are used as indicators of fish flesh quality and we investigated the perceptions of consumers for farmed sea bass and the organoleptic differences between samples of wild and farmed sea bass. A questionnaire was distributed to a group of various ages that were regular consumers of sea bass. The questionnaire included a survey on the perceptions on taste and appearance differences between wild and farmed sea bass. A significant percentage (>40%) of the participants stated their perception of superior taste of wild sea bass versus the farmed fish. The participants took part in an organoleptic assessment of wild and farmed sea bass prepared and cooked by a local fish restaurant. Portions were evaluated for intensity of sensorial attributes from 1 (low intensity) to 5 (high intensity). The results indicate that contrary to the assessor's perception, farmed sea bass scored better in al organoleptic parameters assessed with marked superiority in texture and taste over the wild sea bass. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: fish marketing, farmed fish, seafood quality, wild fish

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8160 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua


An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: active braided intensity, bed load, sediment transport, shear stress, total braided intensity

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8159 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna


Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient

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8158 Vibration Propagation in Body-in-White Structures Through Structural Intensity Analysis

Authors: Jamal Takhchi


The understanding of vibration propagation in complex structures such as automotive body in white remains a challenging issue in car design regarding NVH performances. The current analysis is limited to the low frequency range where modal concepts are dominant. Higher frequencies, between 200 and 1000 Hz, will become critical With the rise of electrification. EVs annoying sounds are mostly whines created by either Gears or e-motors between 300 Hz and 2 kHz. Structural intensity analysis was Experienced a few years ago on finite element models. The application was promising but limited by the fact that the propagating 3D intensity vector field is masked by a rotational Intensity field. This rotational field should be filtered using a differential operator. The expression of this operator in the framework of finite element modeling is not yet known. The aim of the proposed work is to implement this operator in the current dynamic solver (NASTRAN) of Stellantis and develop the Expected methodology for the mid-frequency structural analysis of electrified vehicles.

Keywords: structural intensity, NVH, body in white, irrotatational intensity

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8157 Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors from near Crack Tip Field

Authors: Zhuang He, Andrei Kotousov


All current experimental methods for determination of stress intensity factors are based on the assumption that the state of stress near the crack tip is plane stress. Therefore, these methods rely on strain and displacement measurements made outside the near crack tip region affected by the three-dimensional effects or by process zone. In this paper, we develop and validate an experimental procedure for the evaluation of stress intensity factors from the measurements of the out-of-plane displacements in the surface area controlled by 3D effects. The evaluation of stress intensity factors is possible when the process zone is sufficiently small, and the displacement field generated by the 3D effects is fully encapsulated by K-dominance region.

Keywords: digital image correlation, stress intensity factors, three-dimensional effects, transverse displacement

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8156 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras


Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

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8155 Non-Destructive Evaluation for Physical State Monitoring of an Angle Section Thin-Walled Curved Beam

Authors: Palash Dey, Sudip Talukdar


In this work, a cross-breed approach is presented for obtaining both the amount of the damage intensity and location of damage existing in thin-walled members. This cross-breed approach is developed based on response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA). Theoretical finite element (FE) model of cracked angle section thin walled curved beam has been linked to the developed approach to carry out trial experiments to generate response surface functions (RSFs) of free, forced and heterogeneous dynamic response data. Subsequently, the error between the computed response surface functions and measured dynamic response data has been minimized using GA to find out the optimum damage parameters (amount of the damage intensity and location). A single crack of varying location and depth has been considered in this study. The presented approach has been found to reveal good accuracy in prediction of crack parameters and possess great potential in crack detection as it requires only the current response of a cracked beam.

Keywords: damage parameters, finite element, genetic algorithm, response surface methodology, thin walled curved beam

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8154 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Qayyum, Atif Zafar


Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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8153 Enhancement Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based MRI Contrast Agent at Different Concentrations and Magnetic Field Strengths

Authors: Bimali Sanjeevani Weerakoon, Toshiaki Osuga, Takehisa Konishi


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents (MRI-CM) are significant in the clinical and biological imaging as they have the ability to alter the normal tissue contrast, thereby affecting the signal intensity to enhance the visibility and detectability of images. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, coated with dextran or carboxydextran are currently available for clinical MR imaging of the liver. Most SPIO contrast agents are T2 shortening agents and Resovist (Ferucarbotran) is one of a clinically tested, organ-specific, SPIO agent which has a low molecular carboxydextran coating. The enhancement effect of Resovist depends on its relaxivity which in turn depends on factors like magnetic field strength, concentrations, nanoparticle properties, pH and temperature. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of field strength and different contrast concentrations on enhancement effects of Resovist. The study explored the MRI signal intensity of Resovist in the physiological range of plasma from T2-weighted spin echo sequence at three magnetic field strengths: 0.47 T (r1=15, r2=101), 1.5 T (r1=7.4, r2=95), and 3 T (r1=3.3, r2=160) and the range of contrast concentrations by a mathematical simulation. Relaxivities of r1 and r2 (L mmol-1 Sec-1) were obtained from a previous study and the selected concentrations were 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mmol/L. T2-weighted images were simulated using TR/TE ratio as 2000 ms /100 ms. According to the reference literature, with increasing magnetic field strengths, the r1 relaxivity tends to decrease while the r2 did not show any systematic relationship with the selected field strengths. In parallel, this study results revealed that the signal intensity of Resovist at lower concentrations tends to increase than the higher concentrations. The highest reported signal intensity was observed in the low field strength of 0.47 T. The maximum signal intensities for 0.47 T, 1.5 T and 3 T were found at the concentration levels of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that, the concentrations higher than the above, the signal intensity was decreased exponentially. An inverse relationship can be found between the field strength and T2 relaxation time, whereas, the field strength was increased, T2 relaxation time was decreased accordingly. However, resulted T2 relaxation time was not significantly different between 0.47 T and 1.5 T in this study. Moreover, a linear correlation of transverse relaxation rates (1/T2, s–1) with the concentrations of Resovist can be observed. According to these results, it can conclude that the concentration of SPIO nanoparticle contrast agents and the field strengths of MRI are two important parameters which can affect the signal intensity of T2-weighted SE sequence. Therefore, when MR imaging those two parameters should be considered prudently.

Keywords: Concentration, resovist, field strength, relaxivity, signal intensity

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8152 Free Radical Dosimetry for Ultrasound in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi Shanei


When a liquid is irradiated with high intensities (> 1 W) and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz) ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation generates free radicals from the breakdown of water and other molecules. The existence of particles in liquid provide nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and lead to decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing 30 nm gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a range of condition in medical ultrasound fields.

Keywords: acoustic cavitation, gold nanoparticle, chemical dosimetry, terephthalic acid

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8151 Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Responses to Supplemental High Intensity Exercise in Middle School Children

Authors: R. M. Chandler, A. J. Stringer


In adults, short bursts of high-intensity exercise (intensities between 80-95% of maximum heart rates) increase cardiovascular and metabolic function without the time investment of traditional aerobic training. Similar improvements in various health indices are also becoming increasingly evident in children in countries other than the United States. In the United States, physical education programs have become shorter in length and fewer in frequency. With this in the background, it is imperative that health and physical educators delivered well-organized and focused fitness programs that can be tolerated across many different somatotypes. Perhaps the least effective lag-time in a US physical education (PE) class is the first 10 minutes, a time during which children warm up. Replacing a traditional PE warmup with a 10 min high-intensity excise protocol is a time-efficient method to impact health, leaving as much time for other PE material such as skill development, motor behavior development as possible. This supplemented 10 min high-intensity exercise increases cardiovascular function as well as induces favorable body composition changes in as little as six weeks with further enhancement throughout a semester of activity. The supplemental high-intensity exercise did not detract from the PE lesson outcomes.

Keywords: cardiovascular fitness, high intensity interval training, high intensity exercise, pediatric

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8150 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash


A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

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8149 Simulation and Fabrication of Plasmonic Lens for Bacteria Detection

Authors: Sangwoo Oh, Jaewoo Kim, Dongmin Seo, Jaewon Park, Yongha Hwang, Sungkyu Seo


Plasmonics has been regarded one of the most powerful bio-sensing modalities to evaluate bio-molecular interactions in real-time. However, most of the plasmonic sensing methods are based on labeling metallic nanoparticles, e.g. gold or silver, as optical modulation markers, which are non-recyclable and expensive. This plasmonic modulation can be usually achieved through various nano structures, e.g., nano-hole arrays. Among those structures, plasmonic lens has been regarded as a unique plasmonic structure due to its light focusing characteristics. In this study, we introduce a custom designed plasmonic lens array for bio-sensing, which was simulated by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) approach and fabricated by top-down approach. In our work, we performed the FDTD simulations of various plasmonic lens designs for bacteria sensor, i.e., Samonella and Hominis. We optimized the design parameters, i.e., radius, shape, and material, of the plasmonic lens. The simulation results showed the change in the peak intensity value with the introduction of each bacteria and antigen i.e., peak intensity 1.8711 a.u. with the introduction of antibody layer of thickness of 15nm. For Salmonella, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 2.3654 a.u. and for Hominis, the peak intensity changed from 1.8711 a.u. to 3.2355 a.u. This significant shift in the intensity due to the interaction between bacteria and antigen showed a promising sensing capability of the plasmonic lens. With the batch processing and bulk production of this nano scale design, the cost of biological sensing can be significantly reduced, holding great promise in the fields of clinical diagnostics and bio-defense.

Keywords: plasmonic lens, FDTD, fabrication, bacteria sensor, salmonella, hominis

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8148 A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model

Authors: Fariba Azizi, Firoozeh Haghighi, Viliam Makis


In this paper, we propose a method to model the relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods.

Keywords: cause of failure, linear degradation path, reliability function, expectation-maximization algorithm, intensity, masked data

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8147 Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Kailash Kale


In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.

Keywords: binomial process, non-informative prior, maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), rayleigh class, software reliability growth model (SRGM)

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8146 Optimizing the Design Parameters of Acoustic Power Transfer Model to Achieve High Power Intensity and Compact System

Authors: Ariba Siddiqui, Amber Khan


The need for bio-implantable devices in the field of medical sciences has been increasing day by day; however, the charging of these devices is a major issue. Batteries, a very common method of powering the implants, have a limited lifetime and bulky nature. Therefore, as a replacement of batteries, acoustic power transfer (APT) technology is being accepted as the most suitable technique to wirelessly power the medical implants in the present scenario. The basic model of APT consists of piezoelectric transducers that work on the principle of converse piezoelectric effect at the transmitting end and direct piezoelectric effect at the receiving end. This paper provides mechanistic insight into the parameters affecting the design and efficient working of acoustic power transfer systems. The optimum design considerations have been presented that will help to compress the size of the device and augment the intensity of the pressure wave. A COMSOL model of the PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducer was developed. The model was simulated and analyzed on a frequency spectrum. The simulation results displayed that the efficiency of these devices is strongly dependent on the frequency of operation, and a wrong choice of the operating frequency leads to the high absorption of acoustic field inside the tissue (medium), poor power strength, and heavy transducers, which in effect influence the overall configuration of the acoustic systems. Considering all the tradeoffs, the simulations were performed again by determining an optimum frequency (900 kHz) that resulted in the reduction of the transducer's thickness to 1.96 mm and augmented the power strength with an intensity of 432 W/m². Thus, the results obtained after the second simulation contribute to lesser attenuation, lightweight systems, high power intensity, and also comply with safety limits provided by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was also found that the chosen operating frequency enhances the directivity of the acoustic wave at the receiver side.

Keywords: acoustic power, bio-implantable, COMSOL, Lead Zirconate Titanate, piezoelectric, transducer

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8145 Assessment of Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Aerobic Exercises in Sedentary Adults and Amateur Athletes

Authors: Caner Yilmaz, Zuhal Didem Takinaci


Introduction: Today, our knowledge about the effects of physical activity performed at the different intensity of the cardiovascular system are still not clear. Therefore, to contribute to the literature, in our study, sedentary individuals and amateur athletes were assessed in a single session with the aim of evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the moderate and severe exercise. Methods: 80 participants (40 amateur athletes and 40 sedentary, young adults) participated in our study. Participants were divided into two groups: amateur athletes (mean age: 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) and sedentary in group II (mean age: 23.8 ± 3.7 yrs). Participants in both groups were assessed twice, namely, firstly, at moderate intensity (5km/h 30 min. walking) and secondly at the vigorous intensity (8km/h 20 min. jogging). Participants’ SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), HR (Heart Rate), SpO₂ (Oxygen Saturation), BT (Body Temperature) and RR (Respiratory Rate) were measured. Results: In our study, the findings showed that after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, change in SBP, DBP, and SpO₂ were significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). After the severe intensity aerobic exercises, change in SBP, SpO₂, HR, and RR was significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). The BORG score of Group II was significantly higher after both moderate and severe intensity aerobic exercise (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The cardiovascular responses of amateur athletes were closer to initial values, and the differences between the two groups were increased in direct proportion to the intensity of the exercise. Both exercise intensities could be adequate.

Keywords: aerobic, exercise, sedantary, cardi̇ovascular

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