Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2708

Search results for: ascorbic acid

2708 Protective Effect of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Aman Upaganlawar, Upasana Khairnar, Chandrashekhar Upasani


The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period, serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (Hemoglobin content, Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Total iron content), tissue parameters (Lipid peroxidation, Reduced glutathione, Nitric oxide content) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with Protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride-induced spleen toxicity. In conclusion Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride-induced splenic toxicity in rats.

Keywords: aniline, spleen toxicity, protocatechuic acid, ascorbic acid, antioxidants

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2707 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, vitamin C, juice, voltammetry

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2706 Effect of Chitosan and Ascorbic Acid Coating on the Refrigerated Tilapia Fish Fillet (Oreochromis niliticus)

Authors: Jau-Shya Lee, Rossita Shapawi, Vin Cent Pua


Tilapia is a popular cultured fresh-water fish in Malaysia. The highly perishable nature of the fish and increasing demand for high-quality ready-to-cook fish has intensified the search for better fish preservation method. Chitosan edible coating has been evident to extend the shelf life of fish fillet. This work was attempted to explore the potential of ascorbic acid in enhancing the shelf life extension ability of chitosan coated Tilapia fillet under refrigeration condition (4 ± 1oC). A 3 2 Factorial Design which comprising of three concentrations of chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) and two concentrations of ascorbic acids (2.5 and 5%) was used. The fish fillets were analyzed for total viable count, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, pH, aw and colour changes at 3-day interval over 15-day storage. The shelf life of chitosan coated (1.5% and 2%) fillet was increased to 15 days as compared to uncoated fish fillet which can only last for nine days. The inhibition of microbial growth of fish fillet was enhanced with the addition of 5% of ascorbic acids in 2% of chitosan. The TBA value, pH and aw for chitosan coated samples were found lower than that of uncoated sample (p<0.05). The colour stability of the fish fillet was also improved by the composite coating. Overall, 2% of chitosan and 5% of ascorbic acid formed the most effective coating to enhance the quality and to lengthen the shelf life of refrigerated Tilapia fillet.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, chitosan, edible coating, fish fillet

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2705 Study of Interaction between Ascorbic Acid and Bovine Hemoglobin by Multispectroscopic Methods

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Shanmugaraj, Malaichamy Ilanchelian


Ascorbic acid is an essential component in the diet of humans, and also is a typical long used pharmaceutical agent. In the present contribution, we have carried out a detailed study on the binding interaction of ascorbic acid (AA) with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) using steady state emission, time resolved fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and three dimensional emission (3D) spectral studies. The results from the emission spectral studies unveiled that the quenching of BHb emission by AA is attributed to the formation of a complex in the ground state (static in nature) after correcting for inner filter effect. The binding parameters calculated from corrected emission quenching data revealed that BHb exhibited a significant binding affinity towards AA. Moreover, AA induced tertiary and secondary conformational changes of BHb were monitored by UV-Vis absorption, CD, FT-IR and 3D emission spectral studies. The results presented here will help to further understand the credible mechanism of BHb-AA system which is expected to provide insights into conformational and microenvironmental changes of BHb.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, bovine hemoglobin, circular dichroism, three dimensional emission spectral studies

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2704 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad


A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

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2703 Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions

Authors: Lei Wang, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry, Hao Cheng, Li Liang


Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.

Keywords: stability, alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol, whey protein isolate

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2702 Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles Self-Assembled Functionalized Improved Graphene on Carbon Paste Electrode for Electrochemical Determination of Levodopa in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi


In this study, an electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized improved graphene (AuNPs-IGE) was fabricated for selective determination of L-dopa in the presence of ascorbic acid by a novel self-assembly method. The AuNP IGE modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-IGE/CPE) utilized for investigation of the electrochemical behavior of L-dopa in phosphate buffer solution. Compared to bare CPE, AuNPs-IGE/CPE shows novel properties towards the electrochemical redox of levodopa (L-dopa) in phosphate buffer solution at pH 4.0. The oxidation potential of L-dopa shows a significant decrease at the AuNPs-IGE/CPE. The oxidation current of L-dopa is higher than that of the unmodified CPE. AuNPs-IG/CPE shows excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method, the oxidation current is well linear with L-dopa concentration in the range of 0.4–50 µmol L-1, with a detection limit of about 1.41 nmol L-1 (S/N = 3). Therefore, it was applied to measure L-dopa from real samples that recoveries are 94.6-106.2%. The proposed electrode can also effectively avoid the interference of ascorbic acid, making the proposed sensor suitable for the accurate determination of L-dopa in both pharmaceutical preparations and human body fluids.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, improved graphene, L-dopa, self-assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2701 Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria From Human Origin

Authors: Piña-Ronces Laura Gabriela, Reyes-Escogido María de Lourdes


Exist a large variability in Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB depending on carbon source, they have multiple applications in food industry mainly, but they have become important for the health. In this study, we identified EPS-producing strains belonging to the BAL group; they were previously isolated from humans. After that, we extracted and evaluated the antioxidant activity of EPS produced by all strains. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH method using ascorbic acid as standard for both comparison and quantification. 31 strains (51.66 %) produced EPS at concentrations between 451 and 1.561 mg/l, 16 of EPS extracted showed antioxidant effect superior to ascorbic acid at the same concentrations. EPS-producing strains were L. plantarum, L. sp and L. fermentum corresponding to Lactobacillus genus and, E. faecium, E. durans, and E. hirae of Enterococcus genus. Antioxidant activity showed by EPS from 3 strains of L. plantarum and 3 strains of E. faecium was different into specie, while the antioxidant activity determined for EPS obtained from the other strains did not show difference at specie level, but was superior to ascorbic acid. EPS produced by L. plantarum and E. hirae had the best activity, it could be considerate for selection them as a possible new alternative for therapy or treatment of diseases related whit oxidative stress. Further studies about biological functions of EPS have to be conducted for new applications in health.

Keywords: oxidative stress, lactic acid bacteria, exopolysaccharides, antioxidant activity

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2700 Antioxidant Properties, Ascorbic Acid and Total Carotenoids Values of Sweet and Hot Red Pepper Paste: A Traditional Food in Turkish Diet

Authors: Kubra Sayin, Derya Arslan


Red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) has long been recognized as a good source of antioxidants, being rich in ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals. In Turkish cuisine red pepper is sometimes consumed raw in salads and baked as a garnish, but its most wide consumption type is red pepper paste. The processing of red pepper into pepper paste includes various thermal treatment steps such as heating and pasteurizing. There are reports demonstrating an enhancement or reduction in antioxidant activity of vegetables after thermal treatment. So this study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids as well as free radical scavenging activity of raw red pepper and various red pepper pastes obtainable on the market. The samples were analyzed for radical-scavenging activity (RSA) and total polyphenol (TP) content using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. They were also evaluated for ascorbic acid content (AsA) by HPLC. Total carotenoids content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results suggest that there is no significant (P > 0.05) difference in RSA, TP, AsA and total carotenoids content between various red pepper paste products. However, red pepper paste showed marked differences (P < 0.05) in the RSA, TP and AsA contents compared with raw red pepper. It is concluded that the red pepper paste, that has a wide range of consumption in Turkish cuisine, presents a good dose of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and it should be regarded as a functional food.

Keywords: red pepper paste, antioxidant properties, total carotenoids, total phenolics

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2699 Kinetics of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity during Thermal Treatment of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L)

Authors: Mary-Luz Olivares-Tenorio, Ruud Verkerk, Matthijs Dekker, Martinus A. J. S. van Boekel


Cape gooseberry, the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. has gained interest in research given its contents of promising health-promoting compounds like contents. The presence of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals, polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidants. This project aims to study thermal stability of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, catechin and epicatechin and antioxidant activity in the matrix of the Cape Gooseberry. Fruits were obtained from a Colombian field in Cundinamarca. Ripeness stage was 4 (According to NTC 4580, corresponding to mature stage) at the moment of the experiment. The fruits have been subjected to temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120°C for several times. β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, catechin and epicatechin content were assessed with HPLC and antioxidant activity with the DPPH method. β-Carotene was stable upon 100°C, and showed some degradation at 120°C. The same behavior was observed for epicatechin. Catechin increased during treatment at 40°C, at 60°C it remained stable and it showed degradation at 80°C, 100°C and 120°C that could be described by a second order kinetic model. Ascorbic acid was the most heat-sensitive of the analyzed compounds. It showed degradation at all studied temperatures, and could be described by a first order model. The activation energy for ascorbic acid degradation in cape gooseberry was 46.0 kJ/mol and its degradation rate coefficient at 100 °C was 6.53 x 10-3 s-1. The antioxidant activity declined for all studied temperatures. Results from this study showed that cape gooseberry is an important source of different health-promoting compounds and some of them are stable to heat. That makes this fruit a suitable raw material for processed products such as jam, juices and dehydrated fruit, giving the consumer a good intake of these compounds.

Keywords: goldenberry, health-promoting compounds, phytochemical, processing, heat treatment

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2698 The Impact of Nano Fertilization, Salicylic Acid on Growth and some Anti-Oxidant Contents in Rocket under Salt Stress

Authors: Duraid K. A. Al-Taey, Zahraa J. M. Al-Musawi


This investigation aimed to study the organic fertilizers, Nano-fertilizers, and salicylic acid and illustrated their effect on the growth and yield of Rockets (Eruca sativa L.), the content of active compounds, and antioxidants when plants are exposed to salt stress, the experiment was conducted with the randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to the split-plot system. The main factor was water qualities (1.2 dS.m-1 and 8 dS.m-1 ) as the main plot, and the combination treatments were distributed in Sub-Plot, each treatment included 3 replicates. The treatments irrigated with saline water showed a reduction of Glucosinolate and Ascorbate contents (58 µg.g-1and 105.71 µg.g-1). Salinity led to increasing Glutathione and proline in leaves (1146 and 2.2 µg.g-1) respectively, whilst the fertilization treatments ( Poultry compost + Nano-NPK) and ( Poultry compost + Salicylic acid + Nano-NPK) resulted in an increase in the Glucosinolate content of leaves under salt stress (85.6 and 89.2 µg.g-1) respectively. The (Nano-NPK) treatment achieved a height value of ascorbic acid content of leaves under unstressed conditions (166.73 µg.g-1), while the ( Salicylic acid + Nano-NPK) treatment has been achieved the highest value of ascorbic acid under salt stress (137.4 µg.g-1).The treatment (Salicylic acid + Poultry compost+ Nano-NPK) has been obtained the highest value of Glutathione content in leaves ( 1950 µg.g-1) under stress conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the salt stress and Glutathione + proline, while the salt stress condition had a negative effect on the Glucosinolate, Ascorbate contents, and yield.

Keywords: glutathione, ascorbic acid, salt stress, nano fertilization

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2697 The Effects of Blanching, Boiling and Steaming on Ascorbic Acid Content, Total Phenolic Content, and Colour in Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis)

Authors: Huei Lin Lee, Wee Sim Choo


The effects of blanching, boiling and steaming on the ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content and colour in cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. Botrytis) was investigated. It was found that blanching was the best thermal processing to be applied on cauliflower compared to boiling and steaming processes. Blanching and steaming processes on cauliflower retained most of the ascorbic acid content (AAC) compared to those of boiling. As for the total phenolic content (TPC), blanching process retained a higher TPC in cauliflower compared to those of boiling and steaming processes. There were no significant differences between the TPC of boiled and steamed cauliflowers. As for the colour measurement, there were no significant differences in the colour of the cauliflower at different lead time (after processing to the point of consumption) of 30 minutes interval up to 3 hours but there were slight variations in L*, a*, and b* values among the thermal processed cauliflowers (blanched, boiled and steamed). The cauliflowers in this study were found to give a desirable white colour (L* value in the range of 77-83) in all the three thermal processes (blanching, boiling and steaming). There was no significant difference on the effect of lead time (30-minutes interval up to 3 hours) in raw and all the three thermal processed (blanched, boiled and steamed) cauliflowers.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, cauliflower, colour, phenolics

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2696 Microwave Assisted Foam-Mat Drying of Guava Pulp

Authors: Ovais S. Qadri, Abhaya K. Srivastava


Present experiments were carried to study the drying kinetics and quality of microwave foam-mat dried guava powder. Guava pulp was microwave foam mat dried using 8% egg albumin as foaming agent and then dried at microwave power 480W, 560W, 640W, 720W and 800W, foam thickness 3mm, 5mm and 7mm and inlet air temperature of 40˚C and 50˚C. Weight loss was used to estimate change in drying rate with respect to time. Powdered samples were analysed for various physicochemical quality parameters viz. acidity, pH, TSS, colour change and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA revealed that sample of 5mm foam thickness dried at 800W and 50˚C was the best with 0.3584% total acid, 3.98 pH, 14min drying time, 8˚Brix TSS, 3.263 colour change and 154.762mg/100g ascorbic acid content.

Keywords: foam mat drying, foam mat guava, guava powder, microwave drying

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2695 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago


A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: anodization, ascorbic acid, carbon paste electrodes, dopamine, uric acid

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2694 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi


Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: salinity, stress, vitamin c, antioxidant, NaCl, enzyme

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2693 A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of Pure L-Ascorbic Acid with Using a Needle-Free and Micro-Needle Mesotherapy in Treatment of Anti-Aging Procedure

Authors: M. Zasada, A. Markiewicz, A. Erkiert-Polguj, E. Budzisz


The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium covered by the hydro-lipid barrier. Therefore, active substances should be able to penetrate through this hydro-lipid coating. L-ascorbic acid is one of the vitamins which plays an important role in stimulation fibroblast to produce collagen type I and in hyperpigmentation lightening. Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant, which protects skin from oxidation damage and rejuvenates photoaged skin. No-needle mesotherapy is a non-invasive rejuvenation technique depending on electric pulses, electroporation, and ultrasounds. These physicals factors result in deeper penetration of cosmetics. It is important to increase the penetration of L-ascorbic acid, thereby increasing the spectrum of its activity. The aim of the work was to assess the effectiveness of pure L-ascorbic acid activity in anti-aging therapy using a needle-free and micro-needling mesotherapy. The study was performed on a group of 35 healthy volunteers in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1964 and agreement of the Ethics Commissions no RNN/281/16/KE 2017. Women were randomized to mesotherapy or control group. Control group applied topically 2,5 ml serum containing 20% L-ascorbic acid with hydrate from strawberries, every 10 days for a period of 9 weeks. No-needle mesotherapy, on the left half of the face and micro-needling on the right with the same serum, was done in mesotherapy group. The pH of serum was 3.5-4, and the serum was prepared directly prior to the facial treatment. The skin parameters were measured at the beginning and before each treatment. The measurement of the forehead skin was done using Cutometer® (measurement of skin elasticity and firmness), Corneometer® (skin hydration measurement), Mexameter® (skin tone measurement). Also, the photographs were taken by Fotomedicus system. Additionally, the volunteers fulfilled the questionnaire. Serum was tested for microbiological purity and stability after the opening of the cosmetic. During the study, all of the volunteers were taken care of a dermatologist. The regular application of the serum has caused improvement of the skin parameters. Respectively, after 4 and 8 weeks improvement in hydration and elasticity has been seen (Corneometer®, Cutometer® results). Moreover, the number of hyper-pigmentated spots has decreased (Mexameter®). After 8 weeks the volunteers has claimed that the tested product has smoothing and moisturizing features. Subjective opinions indicted significant improvement of skin color and elasticity. The product containing the L-ascorbic acid used with intercellular penetration promoters demonstrates higher anti-aging efficiency than control. In vivo studies confirmed the effectiveness of serum and the impact of the active substance on skin firmness and elasticity, the degree of hydration and skin tone. Mesotherapy with pure L-ascorbic acid provides better diffusion of active substances through the skin.

Keywords: anti-aging, l-ascorbic acid, mesotherapy, promoters

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2692 Effects of Gelatin on Characteristics and Dental Pathogen Inhibition by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Siriporn Okonogi, Temsiri Suwan, Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Jakkapan Sirithunyalug


In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and silver nitrate as a precursor. The effects of gelatin (G) on particle characteristics and dental pathogen inhibition were investigated. The spectra of AgNPs and G-AgNPs were compared using UV-Vis and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The obtained AgNPs and G-AgNPs showed the maximum absorption at 410 and 430 nm, respectively, and EDX spectra of both systems confirmed Ag element. Scanning electron microscope showed that AgNPs and G-AgNPs were spherical in shape. Particles size, size distribution, and zeta potential were determined using dynamic light scattering approach. The size of AgNPs and G-AgNPs were 56 ± 2.4 and 67 ± 3.6 nm, respectively with a size distribution of 0.23 ± 0.03 and 0.19 ± 0.02, respectively. AgNPs and G-AgNPs exhibited negative zeta potential of 24.1 ± 2.7 mV and 32.7 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the obtained AgNPs and G-AgNPs against three strains of dental pathogenic bacteria; Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using broth dilution method. AgNPs and G-AgNPs showed the strongest inhibition against S. gordonii with the MIC of 0.05 and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively and the MBC of 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity test of AgNPs and G-AgNPs on human breast cancer cells using MTT assay indicated that G-AgNPs (0.1 mg/mL) was significantly stronger toxic than AgNPs with the cell inhibition of 91.1 ± 5.4%. G-AgNPs showed significantly less aggregation after storage at room temperature for 90 days than G-AgNPs.

Keywords: antipathogenic activity, ascorbic acid, cytotoxicity, stability

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2691 Determination of Performances of Some Mulberry (Morus spp.) Species Selected from Different Places of Turkey under Kahramanmaras Conditions

Authors: Muruvvet Ilgin, Ilknur Agca


Common mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species which were selected from different regions of Turkey were used as material in order to determine their performance. Therefore, phenological observations, pomological analysis (fruit size, fruit weight, fruit stalk length, acidity and TSS (Total Soluble Solids) and phytochemical properties organic acids (oxalic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) total phenolics and antioxidant capacity values of mulberries) were determined. Phenological observations of seven different periods were also identified. Fruit weight values varied between 3.48 to 4.26 g. TSS contents value were from 14.36 to 21.30%, and fruit acidity was determined between 0.29 to 2.02%. The amount of ascorbic acid of Finger mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species were identified as 35.60% and 363.28%. The highest value of total phenolic contents belonged to with a finger mulberry genotypes P1 934.80 mg/100g whereas the lowest one was of purple mulberry genotypes 278.70 mg/100g. FRAP and TEAC methods were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of the values of 0.58-22.65 micromol TE/kg and 20.34-31.6 micromol TE/kg. Total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity strongly depends on fruit color intensity with a positive correlation. The obtained results have been found to be important as a source of future pharmacological studies and pomological and breeding programs.

Keywords: mulberry, phenology, phytochemical property, pomology

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2690 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur


In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: linden, herbal tea beverage, bioaccessibility, antioxidant capacity

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2689 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi


The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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2688 Stereological and Morphometric Evaluation of Wound Healing Burns Treated with Ulmo Honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) Unsupplemented and Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

Authors: Carolina Schencke, Cristian Sandoval, Belgica Vasquez, Mariano Del Sol


Introduction: In a burn injury, the successful repair requires not only the participation of various cells, such as granulocytes and fibroblasts, but also of collagen, which plays a crucial role as a structural and regulatory molecule of scar tissue. Since honey and ascorbic acid have presented a great therapeutic potential to cellular and structural level, experimental studies have proposed its combination in the treatment of wounds. Aim: To evaluate stereological and morphometric parameters of healing wounds, caused by burns, treated with honey Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) unsupplemented, comparing its effect with Ulmo honey supplemented with ascorbic acid. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used, of both sexes, average weight 450 g from the Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Morfológicos y Quirúrgicos (CEMyQ) at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The animals were divided at random into three groups: positive control (C+), honey only (H) and supplemented honey (SH) and were fed on pellets supplemented with ascorbic acid and water ad libitum, under ambient conditions controlled for temperature, ambient noise and a cycle of 12h light–darkness. The protocol for the experiment was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The parameters measured were number density per area (NA), volume density (VV), and surface density (SV) of fibroblast; NA and VV of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and, evaluation of the content of collagen fibers in the scar dermis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis and its respective Post hoc tests. Results: The ANOVA analysis for NA, VV and SV of fibroblasts, NA and VV of PMN, and evaluation of collagen content, type I and III, showed that at least one group differs from other (P≤ 0.001). There were differences (P= 0.000) in NA of fibroblast between the groups [C+= 3599.560 mm-2 (SD= 764.461), H= 3355.336 mm-2 (SD= 699.443) and SH= 4253.025 mm-2 (SD= 1041.751)]. The VV and SV of fibroblast increased (P= 0.000) in the SH group [20.400% (SD= 5.897) and 100.876 mm2/mm3 (SD= 29.431), respectively], compared to the C+ [16.324% (SD= 7.719) and 81.676 mm2/mm3 (SD= 28.884), respectively). The mean values of NA and VV of PMN were higher (P= 0.000) in the H [756.875 mm-2 (SD= 516.489) and 2.686% (SD= 2.380), respectively) group. Regarding to the evaluation of the content of collagen fibers, type I and III, the one-way analysis of ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). The content of collagen fibers type I was higher in C+ (1988.292 μm2; SD= 1312.379), while the content of collagen fibers type III was higher in SH (1967.163 μm2; SD= 1047.944 μm2) group. Conclusions: The stereological results were correlated with the stage of healing observed for each group. These results suggest that the combination of honey with ascorbic acid potentiate the healing effect, where both participated synergistically.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, morphometry, stereology, Ulmo honey

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2687 GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower

Authors: Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi, Mehdi Mohebodini


Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

Keywords: drought stress, nano-silicon dioxide, oil content, TiO2 nanoparticles

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2686 Study on the Efficiency of Some Antioxidants on Reduction of Maillard Reaction in Low Lactose Milk

Authors: Farnaz Alaeimoghadam, Farzad Alaeimoghadam


In low-lactose milk, due to lactose hydrolysis and its conversion to monosaccharides like glucose and galactose, the Maillard reaction (non-enzymatic browning) occurs more readily compared to non-hydrolyzed milk. This reaction incurs off-flavor and dark color, as well as a decrease in the nutritional value of milk. The target of this research was to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidants in diminishing the browning in low-lactose milk. In this research, three antioxidants, namely ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and pantothenic acid in the concentration range of 0-1 mM/L, either in combination with each other or separately, were added to low-lactose milk. After heat treatment (120 0C for 3 min.), milk samples incubated at 55 0C for one day and then stored at 4 0C for 9 days. Quality indices, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color indices, and sensory characters, were measured during intervals of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 9 days. Results of this research showed that the effect of storage time and adding antioxidants were significant on pH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds either before or after heating, index L*, color change, and sensational characteristics (p < 0.05); however, acidity, a* and b* indices, chroma, and hue angle showed no significant changes (p > 0.05). The findings showed that the simultaneous application of gallic acid and ascorbic in the diminishing of non-enzymatic browning and color change, increasing pH, longevity, and antioxidant activity after heat treatment, and augmenting phenolic compounds before heat treatment was better than that of pantothenic acid.

Keywords: Maillard, low-lactose milk, non-enzymatic browning, natural antioxidant

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2685 Ascorbic Acid Application Mitigates the Salt Stress Effects on Helianthus annuus L. Plants Grown on a Reclaimed Saline Soil

Authors: Mostafa M. Rady, Majed M. Howladar, Saad M. Howladar


A field trial was conducted during two successive seasons (2013 and 2014) in Southeast Fayoum, Egypt (29º 17'N; 30º 53'E) to investigate the improving effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C) foliar spray at the rates of 0, 1, 2 or 3 mM on the growth, seed and oil yields, and some chemical constituents of sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil (EC = 7.98–7.83). Vit C application at all rates (1, 2 and 3 mM) was significantly increased growth traits, seed and oil yields, and the concentrations of endogenous Vit C, leaf photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, free proline and nutrient elements as well as K/Na ratio. In contrast, Na concentration was significantly reduced with the application of all Vit C levels. Vit C foliar spray at the rate of 2 mM was found to be the best treatment, alleviating the inhibitory effects of salinity on sunflower plants grown on a reclaimed saline soil.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Vit C, salinity, growth, seed and oil yields, osmoprotectants

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2684 Anticataract Activity of Betulinic Acid in Chick Embryo Lens Model

Authors: Surendra Bodakhe


In this investigation, anticataract activity was determined using cataract formation in developing chick embryo by hydrocortisone. Lenses were evaluated firstly for the extent of opacity and secondly, for lens glutathione (GSH) levels. Betulinic acid was isolated from the chloroform fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata bark (SBE). Fourteen days old Australorp fertilized eggs were divided into different groups of six eggs each. After 24 hrs incubation in a humidified incubator (37οC), at 15 days of age; hydrocortisone (0.25µM/0.2ml/egg) was administered to the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos through a small hole in the egg shell on the air sack. Ascorbic acid (standard) or Betulinic acid (test) were administered at 3, 10 and 20 hr after hydrocortisone administration at a specified dose. The puncture was sealed with a cellophane tape and eggs were incubated for 48 hrs in a humidified incubator at 37οC. After 48 hrs, the lenses were isolated for the determination of the extent of opacity and Glutathione level. The betulinic acid prevented the opacification of the chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone. The betulinic acid also prevented the decline of GSH content caused by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that betulinic acid protect the cataract formation in chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone.

Keywords: betulinic acid, cataract, cloudiness, ovine

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2683 Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Murine Epidermis and Dermis and Their Responses to Ultraviolet Light

Authors: Ben Abderrahmane Ayoub El Fateh, Bnina Rachid


A comprehensive comparison of antioxidant defenses in the dermis and epidermis and their response to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has not previously been attempted. In this study, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of hairless mice were compared. Enzyme activities are presented both as units/gram of skin and units/milligram of protein; arguments are presented for the superiority of skin wet weight as a reference base. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase (units/gram of skin) were higher in the epidermis than dermis by 49%, 86%, and 74%, respectively. Superoxide dismutase did not follow this pattern. Lipophilic antioxidants ( -tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, and ubiquinone 9) and hydrophilic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and glutathione) were 24–95% higher in the epidermis than in dermis. In contrast, oxidized glutathione was 60% lower in the epidermis than in dermis. Mice were irradiated with solar light to examine the response of these cutaneous layers to UV irradiation. After irradiation with 25 J/cm2 (UVA + UVB, from a solar simulator), 10 times the minimum erythemal dose, epidermal and dermal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were greatly decreased. Tocopherol, ubiquinol 9, ubiquinone 9, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione decreased in both epidermis and dermis by 26-93%. Oxidizedgiutathione showed a slight, non-significant increase. Because the reduction in total ascorbate and catalase was much more severe in the epidermis than dermis, it can be concluded that UV light is more damaging to the antioxidant defenses in the epidermis than in the dermis.

Keywords: antioxidant defenses, enzymic, epidermis, oxidizedgiutathione

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2682 Antioxidant Activity of Friedelin, Eudesmic Acid and Methyl-3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoate from Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl., and K. Krause) [Loranthaceae] Grown in Nigeria

Authors: Odunayo Christy Atewolara-Odule, Olapeju O. Aiyelaagbe


The search for new natural anti-oxidants has grown tremendously over the years because reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress have been linked to a large number of human degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and diabetes. Tapinanthus bangwensis, a parasitic plant commonly known as mistletoe belonging to the Loranthaceae family, is mostly employed traditionally to treat inflammation, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension to mention a few. In this study, air-dried pulverized leaves and stem of Tapinanthus bangwensis were successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol to give the corresponding crude extracts. The extracts were purified by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography to give the isolated compounds. Structural elucidation was done using mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infra-red, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ascorbic acid as standard. Three compounds; Friedelin, Eudesmic acid (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic) and Methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate were isolated from the extracts of Tapinanthus bangwensis. Friedelin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the stem while the two other compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves. The percentages of free radical scavenging activities of the compounds are as follows: Friedelin, 73.69%, methyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, 79.33% and eudesmic, 87.68% anti-oxidant activity which were quite comparable to 93.96% given by ascorbic acid. We are reporting, to our best knowledge, for the first time the occurrence of friedelin and eudesmic acid in Tapinanthus bangwensis. The high anti-oxidant activity of these compounds supports the use of this plant in the management of diabetes and hypertension as they will be useful in combating complications arising from the disease.

Keywords: column chromatography, eudesmic acid, friedelin, Tapinanthus bangwensis

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2681 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum


At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: free radical, antioxidant, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

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2680 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe


A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

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2679 Biological Activities of Protease Inhibitors from Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis

Authors: Tooba N. Shamsi, Romana Perveen, Sadaf Fatima


Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are widespread in nature, produced by animals, plants and microorganisms. They play vital role in various biological activities by keeping a check on activity of proteases. Present study aims to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of PPI from Cajanus cajan (CCTI) and Phaseolus limensis (LBTI). PPI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed by two most common radical scavenging assays of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Also, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and membrane stabilization assay at different concentrations. Ascorbic acid and aspirin were used as a standards for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays respectively. The PPIs were also checked for antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains. The CCTI and LBTI showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration–dependent manner with IC50 values 544 µg/ml and 506 µg/ml respectively comparative to ascorbic acid which was 258 µg/ml. Following FRAP assay, it was evaluated that LBTI had 87.5% and CCTI showed 84.4% antioxidant activity, taking value of standard ascorbic acid to be 100%. The PPIs also showed in-vitro anti‐inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation with IC50 values of 686 µg/ml and 615 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively compared to the standard (aspirin) which was 70.8 µg/ml. Red blood cells membrane stabilization with IC50 values of 641 µg/ml and 587 µg/ml for CCTI and LBTI respectively against aspirin which showed IC50 value of 70.4 µg/ml. PPIs showed antibacterial activity against 7 known strains while there was apparently no action against fungi.

Keywords: Cajanus cajan, Phaseolus limensis, Lima beans, protein protease inhibitor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activity

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