Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1520

Search results for: acoustic emission

1520 Test Research on Damage Initiation and Development of a Concrete Beam Using Acoustic Emission Technology

Authors: Xiang Wang


In order to validate the efficiency of recognizing the damage initiation and development of a concrete beam using acoustic emission technology, a concrete beam is built and tested in the laboratory. The acoustic emission signals are analyzed based on both parameter and wave information, which is also compared with the beam deflection measured by displacement sensors. The results indicate that using acoustic emission technology can detect damage initiation and development effectively, especially in the early stage of the damage development, which can not be detected by the common monitoring technology. Furthermore, the positioning of the damage based on the acoustic emission signals can be proved to be reasonable. This job can be an important attempt for the future long-time monitoring of the real concrete structure.

Keywords: acoustic emission technology, concrete beam, parameter analysis, wave analysis, positioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
1519 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali


Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery as bearing is important in order to improve its stability of works. Acoustic emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that the success of vibration analysis does not take place below 100 rpm rotational speed. This because the energy generated below 100 rpm rotational speed is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this pint, this paper has presented a focused review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearings condition.

Keywords: condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis

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1518 Innovative Acoustic Emission Techniques for Concrete Health Monitoring

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Beenish Khan, Aftabullah, Abid A. Shah


This research is an attempt to investigate the wide range of events using acoustic emission (AE) sensors of the concrete cubes subjected to different stress condition loading and unloading of concrete cubes. A total of 27 specimens were prepared and tested including 18 cubic (6”x6”x6”) and nine cylindrical (4”x8”) specimens were molded from three batches of concrete using w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. The compressive strength of concrete was determined from concrete cylinder specimens. The deterioration of concrete was evaluated using the occurrence of felicity and Kaiser effects at each stress condition. It was found that acoustic emission hits usually exceeded when damage increases. Additionally, the correlation between AE techniques and the load applied were determined by plotting the normalized values. The influence of w/c on sensitivity of the AE technique in detecting concrete damages was also investigated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, concrete, felicity ratio, sensors

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1517 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin


The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: cyclic loadings, material structure changing, acoustic emission, fractal dimension

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1516 Modeling of Thermo Acoustic Emission Memory Effect in Rocks of Varying Textures

Authors: Vladimir Vinnikov


The paper proposes a model of an inhomogeneous rock mass with initially random distribution of microcracks on mineral grain boundaries. It describes the behavior of cracks in a medium under the effect of thermal field, the medium heated instantaneously to a predetermined temperature. Crack growth occurs according to the concept of fracture mechanics provided that the stress intensity factor K exceeds the critical value of Kc. The modeling of thermally induced acoustic emission memory effects is based on the assumption that every event of crack nucleation or crack growth caused by heating is accompanied with a single acoustic emission event. Parameters of the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect produced by cyclic heating and cooling (with the temperature amplitude increasing from cycle to cycle) were calculated for several rock texture types (massive, banded, and disseminated). The study substantiates the adaptation of the proposed model to humidity interference with the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect. The influence of humidity on the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect in quasi-homogeneous and banded rocks is estimated. It is shown that such modeling allows the structure and texture of rocks to be taken into account and the influence of interference factors on the distinctness of the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect to be estimated. The numerical modeling can be used to obtain information about the thermal impacts on rocks in the past and determine the degree of rock disturbance by means of non-destructive testing.

Keywords: crack growth, cyclic heating and cooling, rock texture, thermo acoustic emission memory effect

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1515 Modeling of Thermally Induced Acoustic Emission Memory Effects in Heterogeneous Rocks with Consideration for Fracture Develo

Authors: Vladimir A. Vinnikov


The paper proposes a model of an inhomogeneous rock mass with initially random distribution of microcracks on mineral grain boundaries. It describes the behavior of cracks in a medium under the effect of thermal field, the medium heated instantaneously to a predetermined temperature. Crack growth occurs according to the concept of fracture mechanics provided that the stress intensity factor K exceeds the critical value of Kc. The modeling of thermally induced acoustic emission memory effects is based on the assumption that every event of crack nucleation or crack growth caused by heating is accompanied by a single acoustic emission event. Parameters of the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect produced by cyclic heating and cooling (with the temperature amplitude increasing from cycle to cycle) were calculated for several rock texture types (massive, banded, and disseminated). The study substantiates the adaptation of the proposed model to humidity interference with the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect. The influence of humidity on the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect in quasi-homogeneous and banded rocks is estimated. It is shown that such modeling allows the structure and texture of rocks to be taken into account and the influence of interference factors on the distinctness of the thermally induced acoustic emission memory effect to be estimated. The numerical modeling can be used to obtain information about the thermal impacts on rocks in the past and determine the degree of rock disturbance by means of non-destructive testing.

Keywords: degree of rock disturbance, non-destructive testing, thermally induced acoustic emission memory effects, structure and texture of rocks

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1514 Acoustic Emission for Investigation of Processes Occurring at Hydrogenation of Metallic Titanium

Authors: Anatoly A. Kuznetsov, Pavel G. Berezhko, Sergey M. Kunavin, Eugeny V. Zhilkin, Maxim V. Tsarev, Vyacheslav V. Yaroshenko, Valery V. Mokrushin, Olga Y. Yunchina, Sergey A. Mityashin


The acoustic emission is caused by short-time propagation of elastic waves that are generated as a result of quick energy release from sources localized inside some material. In particular, the acoustic emission phenomenon lies in the generation of acoustic waves resulted from the reconstruction of material internal structures. This phenomenon is observed at various physicochemical transformations, in particular, at those accompanying hydrogenation processes of metals or intermetallic compounds that make it possible to study parameters of these transformations through recording and analyzing the acoustic signals. It has been known that at the interaction between metals or inter metallides with hydrogen the most intensive acoustic signals are generated as a result of cracking or crumbling of an initial compact powder sample as a result of the change of material crystal structure under hydrogenation. This work is dedicated to the study into changes occurring in metallic titanium samples at their interaction with hydrogen and followed by acoustic emission signals. In this work the subjects for investigation were specimens of metallic titanium in two various initial forms: titanium sponge and fine titanium powder made of this sponge. The kinetic of the interaction of these materials with hydrogen, the acoustic emission signals accompanying hydrogenation processes and the structure of the materials before and after hydrogenation were investigated. It was determined that in both cases interaction of metallic titanium and hydrogen is followed by acoustic emission signals of high amplitude generated on reaching some certain value of the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase because of metal cracking at a macrolevel. The typical sizes of the cracks are comparable with particle sizes of hydrogenated specimens. The reasons for cracking are internal stresses initiated in a sample due to the increasing volume of a solid phase as a result of changes in a material crystal lattice under hydrogenation. When the titanium powder is used, the atomic ratio [H]/[Ti] in a solid phase corresponding to the maximum amplitude of an acoustic emission signal are, as a rule, higher than when titanium sponge is used.

Keywords: acoustic emission signal, cracking, hydrogenation, titanium specimen

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1513 Deformation Mechanisms of Mg-Based Composite Studied by Neutron Diffraction and Acoustic Emission

Authors: G. Farkas, K. Mathis, J. Pilch, P. Minarik


Deformation mechanisms in an Mg-Al-Ca alloy reinforced with short alumina fibres were studied by acoustic emission and in-situ neutron diffraction method. The fibres plane orientation with respect to the loading axis was found to be a key parameter, which influences the acting deformation processes, such as twinning or dislocation slip. In-situ neutron diffraction tests were measured at different temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200°C. The measurement shows the lattice strain changes in the matrix and also in the reinforcement phase depending on macroscopic compressive deformation and stress. In case of parallel fibre plane orientation, the increment of compressive lattice strain is lower in the matrix and higher in the fibres in comparison to perpendicular fibre orientation. Furthermore, acoustic emission results indicate a larger twinning activity and more frequent fibre cracking in sample with perpendicular fibre plane orientation. Both types of mechanisms are more dominant at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: neutron diffraction, acoustic emission, magnesium based composite, deformation mechanisms

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1512 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Measurement by Means of Classic Method and Acoustic Emission

Authors: V. Mentl, V. Koula, P. Mazal, J. Volák


Nowadays, the acoustic emission is a widely recognized method of material damage investigation, mainly in cases of cracks initiation and growth observation and evaluation. This is highly important in structures, e.g. pressure vessels, large steam turbine rotors etc., applied both in classic and nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the acoustic emission signals must be correlated with the real crack progress to be able to evaluate the cracks and their growth by this non-destructive technique alone in real situations and to reach reliable results when the assessment of the structures' safety and reliability is performed and also when the remaining lifetime should be evaluated. The main aim of this study was to propose a methodology for evaluation of the early manifestations of the fatigue cracks and their growth and thus to quantify the material damage by acoustic emission parameters. Specimens made of several steels used in the power producing industry were subjected to fatigue loading in the low- and high-cycle regimes. This study presents results of the crack growth rate measurement obtained by the classic compliance change method and the acoustic emission signal analysis. The experiments were realized in cooperation between laboratories of Brno University of Technology and West Bohemia University in Pilsen within the solution of the project of the Czech Ministry of Industry and Commerce: "A diagnostic complex for the detection of pressure media and material defects in pressure components of nuclear and classic power plants" and the project “New Technologies for Mechanical Engineering”.

Keywords: fatigue, crack growth rate, acoustic emission, material damage

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1511 Laser Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Acoustic Emission Technique for Examination of Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Dmitry V. Morozov, Ivan E. Sas


Laboratory studies of the stress-strain behavior of rocks specimens were conducted by using acoustic emission and laser-ultrasonic diagnostics. The sensitivity of the techniques allowed changes in the internal structure of the specimens under uniaxial compressive load to be examined at micro- and macro scales. It was shown that microcracks appear in geologic materials when the stress level reaches about 50% of breaking strength. Also, the characteristic stress of the main crack formation was registered in the process of single-stage compression of rocks. On the base of laser-ultrasonic echoscopy, 2D visualization of the internal structure of rocky soil specimens was realized, and the microcracks arising during uniaxial compression were registered.

Keywords: acoustic emission, geomaterial, laser ultrasound, uniaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1510 Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission

Authors: Ramin Khamedi, Isa Ahmadi


In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).

Keywords: acoustic emission, dual phase steels, deformation, failure, fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1509 The Lubrication Regimes Recognition of a Pressure-Fed Journal Bearing by Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals

Authors: S. Hosseini, M. Ahmadi Najafabadi, M. Akhlaghi


The health of the journal bearings is very important in preventing unforeseen breakdowns in rotary machines, and poor lubrication is one of the most important factors for producing the bearing failures. Hydrodynamic lubrication (HL), mixed lubrication (ML), and boundary lubrication (BL) are three regimes of a journal bearing lubrication. This paper uses acoustic emission (AE) measurement technique to correlate features of the AE signals to the three lubrication regimes. The transitions from HL to ML based on operating factors such as rotating speed, load, inlet oil pressure by time domain and time-frequency domain signal analysis techniques are detected, and then metal-to-metal contacts between sliding surfaces of the journal and bearing are identified. It is found that there is a significant difference between theoretical and experimental operating values that are obtained for defining the lubrication regions.

Keywords: acoustic emission technique, pressure fed journal bearing, time and frequency signal analysis, metal-to-metal contact

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1508 Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Surface Roughness in Ultra High Precision Grinding of Borosilicate-Crown Glass

Authors: Goodness Onwuka, Khaled Abou-El-Hossein


The increase in the demand for precision optics, coupled with the absence of much research output in the ultra high precision grinding of precision optics as compared to the ultrahigh precision diamond turning of optical metals has fostered the need for more research in the ultra high precision grinding of an optical lens. Furthermore, the increase in the stringent demands for nanometric surface finishes through lapping, polishing and grinding processes necessary for the use of borosilicate-crown glass in the automotive and optics industries has created the demand to effectively monitor the surface roughness during the production process. Acoustic emission phenomenon has been proven as useful monitoring technique in several manufacturing processes ranging from monitoring of bearing production to tool wear estimation. This paper introduces a rare and unique approach with the application of acoustic emission technique to monitor the surface roughness of borosilicate-crown glass during an ultra high precision grinding process. This research was carried out on a 4-axes Nanoform 250 ultrahigh precision lathe machine using an ultra high precision grinding spindle to machine the flat surface of the borosilicate-crown glass with the tip of the grinding wheel. A careful selection of parameters and design of experiment was implemented using Box-Behnken method to vary the wheel speed, feed rate and depth of cut at three levels with a 3-center point design. Furthermore, the average surface roughness was measured using Taylor Hobson PGI Dimension XL optical profilometer, and an acoustic emission data acquisition device from National Instruments was utilized to acquire the signals while the data acquisition codes were designed with National Instrument LabVIEW software for acquisition at a sampling rate of 2 million samples per second. The results show that the raw and root mean square amplitude values of the acoustic signals increased with a corresponding increase in the measured average surface roughness values for the different parameter combinations. Therefore, this research concludes that acoustic emission monitoring technique is a potential technique for monitoring the surface roughness in the ultra high precision grinding of borosilicate-crown glass.

Keywords: acoustic emission, borosilicate-crown glass, surface roughness, ultra high precision grinding

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1507 Acoustic Emission for Tool-Chip Interface Monitoring during Orthogonal Cutting

Authors: D. O. Ramadan, R. S. Dwyer-Joyce


The measurement of the interface conditions in a cutting tool contact is essential information for performance monitoring and control. This interface provides the path for the heat flux to the cutting tool. This elevate in the cutting tool temperature leads to motivate the mechanism of tool wear, thus affect the life of the cutting tool and the productivity. This zone is representative by the tool-chip interface. Therefore, understanding and monitoring this interface is considered an important issue in machining. In this paper, an acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to find the correlation between AE parameters and the tool-chip interface. For this reason, a response surface design (RSD) has been used to analyse and optimize the machining parameters. The experiment design was based on the face centered, central composite design (CCD) in the Minitab environment. According to this design, a series of orthogonal cutting experiments for different cutting conditions were conducted on a Triumph 2500 lathe machine to study the sensitivity of the acoustic emission (AE) signal to change in tool-chip contact length. The cutting parameters investigated were the cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed and the experiments were performed for 6082-T6 aluminium tube. All the orthogonal cutting experiments were conducted unlubricated. The tool-chip contact area was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results obtained in this paper indicate that there is a strong dependence of the root mean square (RMS) on the cutting speed, where the RMS increases with increasing the cutting speed. A dependence on the tool-chip contact length has been also observed. However there was no effect observed of changing the cutting depth and feed on the RMS. These dependencies have been clarified in terms of the strain and temperature in the primary and secondary shear zones, also the tool-chip sticking and sliding phenomenon and the effect of these mechanical variables on dislocation activity at high strain rates. In conclusion, the acoustic emission technique has the potential to monitor in situ the tool-chip interface in turning and consequently could indicate the approaching end of life of a cutting tool.

Keywords: Acoustic emission, tool-chip interface, orthogonal cutting, monitoring

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1506 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh


Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

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1505 Acoustic Partial Discharge Propagation and Perfectly Matched Layer in Acoustic Detection-Transformer

Authors: Nirav J. Patel, Kalpesh K. Dudani


Partial discharge (PD) is the dissipation of energy caused by localized breakdown of insulation. Power transformers are one of the most important components in the electrical energy network. Insulation degradation of transformer is frequently linked to PD. This is why PD detection is used in power system to monitor the health of high voltage transformer. If such problem are not detected and repaired, the strength and frequency of PD may increase and eventually lead to the catastrophic failure of the transformer. This can further cause external equipment damage, fires and loss of revenue due to an unscheduled outage. Hence, reliable online PD detection is a critical need for power companies to improve personnel safety and decrease the probability of loss of service. The PD phenomenon is manifested in a variety of physically observable signals including Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radiation and Acoustic Disturbances, Electrical pulses. Acoustic method is based on sensing the radiated acoustic emission from discharge sites in the insulation. Propagated wave from the PD fault site are captured sensor are consequently pre-amplified, filtered, recorded and analyze.

Keywords: acoustic, partial discharge, perfectly matched layer, sensor

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1504 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner


In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, damage detection, shaking table test, structural health monitoring

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1503 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel


In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

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1502 Prediction of Bubbly Plume Characteristics Using the Self-Similarity Model

Authors: Li Chen, Alex Skvortsov, Chris Norwood


Gas releasing into water can be found in for many industrial situations. This process results in the formation of bubbles and acoustic emission which depends upon the bubble characteristics. If the bubble creation rates (bubble volume flow rate) are of interest, an inverse method has to be used based on the measurement of acoustic emission. However, there will be sound attenuation through the bubbly plume which will influence the measurement and should be taken into consideration in the model. The sound transmission through the bubbly plume depends on the characteristics of the bubbly plume, such as the shape and the bubble distributions. In this study, the bubbly plume shape is modelled using a self-similarity model, which has been normally applied for a single phase buoyant plume. The prediction is compared with the experimental data. It has been found the model can be applied to a buoyant plume of gas-liquid mixture. The influence of the gas flow rate and discharge nozzle size is studied.

Keywords: bubbly plume, buoyant plume, bubble acoustics, self-similarity model

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1501 Acoustic Emission Techniques in Monitoring Low-Speed Bearing Conditions

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed


It is widely acknowledged that bearing failures are the primary reason for breakdowns in rotating machinery. These failures are extremely costly, particularly in terms of lost production. Roller bearings are widely used in industrial machinery and need to be maintained in good condition to ensure the continuing efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of the production process. The research presented here is an investigation of the use of acoustic emission (AE) to monitor bearing conditions at low speeds. Many machines, particularly large, expensive machines operate at speeds below 100 rpm, and such machines are important to the industry. However, the overwhelming proportion of studies have investigated the use of AE techniques for condition monitoring of higher-speed machines (typically several hundred rpm, or even higher). Few researchers have investigated the application of these techniques to low-speed machines ( < 100 rpm). This paper addressed this omission and has established which, of the available, AE techniques are suitable for the detection of incipient faults and measurement of fault growth in low-speed bearings. The first objective of this paper program was to assess the applicability of AE techniques to monitor low-speed bearings. It was found that the measured statistical parameters successfully monitored bearing conditions at low speeds (10-100 rpm). The second objective was to identify which commonly used statistical parameters derived from the AE signal (RMS, kurtosis, amplitude and counts) could identify the onset of a fault in the out race. It was found that these parameters effectually identify the presence of a small fault seeded into the outer races. Also, it is concluded that rotational speed has a strong influence on the measured AE parameters but that they are entirely independent of the load under such load and speed conditions.

Keywords: acoustic emission, condition monitoring, NDT, statistical analysis

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1500 The Effectiveness of Energy Index Technique in Bearing Condition Monitoring

Authors: Faisal Alshammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed, Taihiret Alhashan


The application of acoustic emission techniques is gaining popularity, as it can monitor the condition of gears and bearings and detect early symptoms of a defect in the form of pitting, wear, and flaking of surfaces. Early detection of these defects is essential as it helps to avoid major failures and the associated catastrophic consequences. Signal processing techniques are required for early defect detection – in this article, a time domain technique called the Energy Index (EI) is used. This article presents an investigation into the Energy Index’s effectiveness to detect early-stage defect initiation and deterioration, and compares it with the common r.m.s. index, Kurtosis, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. It is concluded that EI is a more effective technique for monitoring defect initiation and development than other statistical parameters.

Keywords: acoustic emission, signal processing, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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1499 In-situ Acoustic Emission Analysis of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolyser

Authors: M. Maier, I. Dedigama, J. Majasan, Y. Wu, Q. Meyer, L. Castanheira, G. Hinds, P. R. Shearing, D. J. L. Brett


Increasing the efficiency of electrolyser technology is commonly seen as one of the main challenges on the way to the Hydrogen Economy. There is a significant lack of understanding of the different states of operation of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers (PEMWE) and how these influence the overall efficiency. This in particular means the two-phase flow through the membrane, gas diffusion layers (GDL) and flow channels. In order to increase the efficiency of PEMWE and facilitate their spread as commercial hydrogen production technology, new analytic approaches have to be found. Acoustic emission (AE) offers the possibility to analyse the processes within a PEMWE in a non-destructive, fast and cheap in-situ way. This work describes the generation and analysis of AE data coming from a PEM water electrolyser, for, to the best of our knowledge, the first time in literature. Different experiments are carried out. Each experiment is designed so that only specific physical processes occur and AE solely related to one process can be measured. Therefore, a range of experimental conditions is used to induce different flow regimes within flow channels and GDL. The resulting AE data is first separated into different events, which are defined by exceeding the noise threshold. Each acoustic event consists of a number of consequent peaks and ends when the wave diminishes under the noise threshold. For all these acoustic events the following key attributes are extracted: maximum peak amplitude, duration, number of peaks, peaks before the maximum, average intensity of a peak and time till the maximum is reached. Each event is then expressed as a vector containing the normalized values for all criteria. Principal Component Analysis is performed on the resulting data, which orders the criteria by the eigenvalues of their covariance matrix. This can be used as an easy way of determining which criteria convey the most information on the acoustic data. In the following, the data is ordered in the two- or three-dimensional space formed by the most relevant criteria axes. By finding spaces in the two- or three-dimensional space only occupied by acoustic events originating from one of the three experiments it is possible to relate physical processes to certain acoustic patterns. Due to the complex nature of the AE data modern machine learning techniques are needed to recognize these patterns in-situ. Using the AE data produced before allows to train a self-learning algorithm and develop an analytical tool to diagnose different operational states in a PEMWE. Combining this technique with the measurement of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows for in-situ optimization and recognition of suboptimal states of operation.

Keywords: acoustic emission, gas diffusion layers, in-situ diagnosis, PEM water electrolyser

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1498 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh


Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

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1497 Study on Comparison Between Acoustic Emission Behavior and Strain on Concrete Surface During Rebar Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Ejazulhaq Rahimi


The development of techniques evaluating deterioration on concrete structures is vital for structural health monitoring (SHM). One of the main reasons for reinforced concrete structure's deterioration is the corroding of embedded rebars. It is a natural process that begins when the rebar starts to rust. It occurs when the protective layer on the rebar is destroyed. The rebar in concrete is usually protected against corrosion by the high pH of the surrounding cement paste. However, there are chemicals that can destroy the protective layer, making it susceptible to corrosion. It is very destructive for the lifespan and durability of the concrete structure. Corrosion products which are 3 to 6 times voluminous than the rebar stress its surrounding concrete and lead to fracture as cracks even peeling off the cover concrete over the rebar. As is clear that concrete shows limit elastic behavior in its stress strain property, so corrosion product stresses can be detected as strains from the concrete surface. It means that surface strains have a relation with the situation and amount of corrosion products and related concrete fractures inside reinforced concrete. In this paper, a comparative study of surface strains due to corrosion products detected by strain gauges and acoustic emission (AE) testing under periodic accelerated corrosion in the salty environment with 3% NaCl is reported. From the results, three different stages of strains were clearly observed based on the type and rate of strains in each corrosion situation and related fracture types. AE parameters which mostly are related to fracture and their shapes, describe the same phases. It is confirmed that there is a great agreement to the result of each other and describes three phases as generation and expansion of corrosion products and initiation and propagation of corrosion-induced cracks, and surface cracks. In addition, the strain on the concrete surface was rapidly increased before the cracks arrived at the surface of the concrete.

Keywords: acoustic emission, monitoring, rebar corrosion, reinforced concrete, strain

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1496 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens

Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi


Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.

Keywords: brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture

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1495 Effects of Charge Fluctuating Positive Dust on Linear Dust-Acoustic Waves

Authors: Sanjit Kumar Paul, A. A. Mamun, M. R. Amin


The Linear propagation of the dust-acoustic wave in a dusty plasma consisting of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions and mobile charge fluctuating positive dust grains has been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that the dust charge fluctuation is a source of dissipation and its responsible for the formation of the dust-acoustic waves in such a dusty plasma. The basic features of such dust-acoustic waves have been identified. It has been proposed to design a new laboratory experiment which will be able to identify the basic features of the dust-acoustic waves predicted in this theoretical investigation.

Keywords: dust acoustic waves, dusty plasma, Boltzmann distributed electrons, charge fluctuation

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1494 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma


Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

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1493 ReS, Resonant String Shell: Development of an Acoustic Shell for Outdoor Chamber Music Concerts

Authors: Serafino Di Rosario


ReS is a sustainable hand-built temporary acoustic shell, developed since 2011 and built during the architectural workshop at Villa Pennisi in Musica in Acireale, Sicily, each year since 2012. The design concept aims to provide a portable structure by reducing the on-site construction problems and the skills required by the builders together with maximizing the acoustic performance for the audience and the musicians. The shell is built using only wood, recycled for the most part, and can be built and dismantled by non-specialized workers in just three days. This paper describes the research process, which spans over four years and presents the final results in form of acoustic simulations performed by acoustic modeling software and real world measurements. ReS is developed by the ReS team who has been presented with the Peter Lord Award in 2015 by the Institute of Acoustics in the UK.

Keywords: acoustic shell, outdoor natural amplification, computational design, room acoustics

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1492 Analytical Solutions for Geodesic Acoustic Eigenmodes in Tokamak Plasmas

Authors: Victor I. Ilgisonis, Ludmila V. Konovaltseva, Vladimir P. Lakhin, Ekaterina A. Sorokina


The analytical solutions for geodesic acoustic eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas with circular concentric magnetic surfaces are found. In the frame of ideal magnetohydrodynamics the dispersion relation taking into account the toroidal coupling between electrostatic perturbations and electromagnetic perturbations with poloidal mode number |m| = 2 is derived. In the absence of such a coupling the dispersion relation gives the standard continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes. The analysis of the existence of global eigenmodes for plasma equilibria with both off-axis and on-axis maximum of the local geodesic acoustic frequency is performed.

Keywords: tokamak, MHD, geodesic acoustic mode, eigenmode

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1491 Condition Based Assessment of Power Transformer with Modern Techniques

Authors: Piush Verma, Y. R. Sood


This paper provides the information on the diagnostics techniques for condition monitoring of power transformer (PT). This paper deals with the practical importance of the transformer diagnostic in the Electrical Engineering field. The life of the transformer depends upon its insulation i.e paper and oil. The major testing techniques applies on transformer oil and paper i.e dissolved gas analysis, furfural analysis, radio interface, acoustic emission, infra-red emission, frequency response analysis, power factor, polarization spectrum, magnetizing currents, turn and winding ratio. A review has been made on the modern development of this practical technology.

Keywords: temperature, condition monitoring, diagnostics methods, paper analysis techniques, oil analysis techniques

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