Search results for: cleaner production options
7328 Carbon Footprint Reduction Using Cleaner Production Strategies in a Otoshimi Producing Plant
Authors: Razuana Rahim, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman
Abstract:In this work, a study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Cleaner Production (CP) strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emission (CO2) in a plant that produces Otoshimi. CP strategy is meant to reduce CO2 emission while taking into consideration the economic aspect. For this purpose, a CP audit was conducted and the information obtained were analyzed and major contributors of CO2 emission inside the boundary of the production plant was identified. Electricity, water and fuel consumption and generation of solid waste and wastewater were identified as the main contributors. Total CO2 emission generated was 0.27 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, where 68% was contributed by electricity consumption. Subsequently, a total of three CP options were generated and implementations of these options are expected to reduce the CO2 emission from electricity consumption to 0.16 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, a reduction of about 14%. The study proves that CP strategy can be implemented even without any investment to reduce CO2 for a plant that produces Otoshimi.
Keywords: carbon dioxide emission, cleaner production audit, cleaner production options, otoshimi productionProcedia PDF Downloads 332
7327 Cleaner Production Options for Fishery Wastes around Lake Tana-Ethiopia
Authors: Demisash, Abate Getnet, Gudisa, Ababo Geleta, Daba, Berhane Olani
Abstract:As consumption trends of fish are rising in Ethiopia, assessment of the environmental performance of Fisheries becomes vital. Hence, Cleaner Production Assessment was conducted on Lake Tana No.1 Fish Supply Association. This paper focuses on determining the characteristics, quantity, and setting up cleaner production options for the site with the experimental investigation. The survey analysis showed that illegal waste dumping in Lake Tana is common practice in the area, and some of the main reasons raised were they have no option than doing this for dis-charging fish wastes. Quantifying a fish waste by examination of records at the point of generation resulted in a generation rate of 72,822.61 kg per year, which is a significant amount of waste and needs management system. The result of the proximate analysis showed high free fat content of about 12.33%, and this was a good candidate for the production of biodiesel that has been set as an option for fish waste utilization. Among the different waste management options, waste reduction by product optimization, which involves biodiesel production, was chosen as a potential method. Laboratory scale experiments were performed to produce a renewable energy source from the wastes. The resulting biodiesel was characterized and found to have a density of 0.756kg/L, viscosity 0.24p, and 153°C flashpoints, which shows the product has values in compliance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.
Keywords: biodiesel, cleaner production, renewable energy, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 72
7326 Cleaner Production Options for Fishery Wastes Around Lake Tana-Ethiopia
Authors: Abate Getnet Demisash, Beshatu Taye Hatew, Ababo Geleta Gudisa
Abstract:As consumption trends of fish are rising in Ethiopia, assessment of the environmental performance of Fisheries becomes vital. Hence, Cleaner Production Assessment was conducted on Lake Tana No.1 Fish Supply Association. This paper focuses on determining the characteristics, quantity and setting up cleaner production option for the site with experimental investigation. The survey analysis showed that illegal waste dumping in Lake Tana is common practice in the area and some of the main reasons raised were they have no option than doing this for discharging fish wastes. Quantifying a fish waste by examination of records at the point of generation resulted in generation rate of 72,822.61 kg per year which is a significant amount of waste and needs management system. The result of the proximate analysis showed high free fat content of about 12.33% and this was a good candidate for the production of biodiesel that has been set as an option for fish waste utilization. Among the different waste management options, waste reduction by product optimization which involves biodiesel production was chosen as a potential method. Laboratory scale experiments were performed to produce renewable energy source from the wastes. The resulting biodiesel was characterized and found to have a density of 0.756kg/L, viscosity 0.24p and 153°C flash points which shows the product has values in compliance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.
Keywords: biodiesel, cleaner production, renewable energy, clean energy, waste to energyProcedia PDF Downloads 62
7325 Cleaner Production Framework for an Beverage Manufacturing Company
Authors: Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa
Abstract:This study explores to improve the resource efficiency, waste water reduction and to reduce losses of raw materials in a beverage making industry. A number of cleaner production technologies were put across in this work. It was also noted that cleaner production technology practices are not only desirable from the environmental point of view, but they also make good economic sense, in their contribution to the bottom line by conserving resources like energy, raw materials and manpower, improving yield as well as reducing treatment/disposal costs. This work is a resource in promoting adoption and implementation of CP in other industries for sustainable development.
Keywords: resource efficiency, beverages, reduce losses, cleaner production, energy, yieldProcedia PDF Downloads 355
7324 Sustainable Development through Cleaner Production in India: Barriers and Possible Directions for Implementation Based on Case Study
Authors: Aparajita Mukherjee, D. P. Mukherjee
Abstract:This paper critically assessed pollution problems in small and medium enterprises with unique references to foundries and sponge iron industries to survey the adverse impact on human societies and the environment. The objective of this paper was to show how cleaner production concept was implemented in one foundry through improvisation of existing technology in India. Incremental advancement of existing technology minimized environmental issues and resource utilization. This study depicted that poor fiscal help, poor enforcement of government regulations, owners’ attitude and lacking specialized technical workers were the significant hindrances towards cleaner production. The paper explored the possible ways to overcome these hindrances for cleaner production. On a more general level, findings raise important questions regarding the need for a new paradigm for the implementation of cleaner production. Improvisation of existing technology in these enterprises would be cost effective towards sustainable development.
Keywords: SME pollution, ecological crisis, sustainable development, cleaner production, trainingProcedia PDF Downloads 311
7323 The Integration of Cleaner Production Innovation and Creativity for Supply Chain Sustainability of Bogor Batik SMEs
Authors: Sawarni Hasibuan, Juliza Hidayati
Abstract:Competitiveness and sustainability issues not only put pressure on big companies, but also small and medium enterprises (SMEs). SMEs Batik Bogor is one of the local culture-based creative industries in Bogor city which is also dealing with the issue of sustainability. The purpose of this research is to develop framework of sustainability at SMEs Batik Indonesia case of SMEs Batik Bogor by integrating innovation of cleaner production in its supply chain. The approach used is desk study, field survey, in-depth interviews, and benchmarking best practices of SMEs sustainability. In-depth interviews involve stakeholders to identify the needs and standards of sustainability of SMEs Batik. Data analysis was done by benchmarking method, Multi Dimension Scaling (MDS) method, and Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat (SWOT) analysis. The results recommend the framework of sustainability for SMEs Batik in Indonesia. The sustainability status of SMEs Batik Bogor is classified as Moderate Sustainable. Factors that support the sustainability of SMEs Batik Bogor such is a strong commitment of top management in adopting cleaner production innovation and creativity approach. Successful cleaner production innovations are implemented primarily in the substitution of dye materials from toxic to non-toxic, reducing the intensity of non-renewable energy use, as well as the reuse and recycle of solid waste. “Mosaic Batik” is one of the innovations of solid waste utilization of batik waste produced by company R&D center that gives benefit to three pillars of sustainability, that is financial benefit, environmental benefit, and social benefit. The sustainability of SMEs Batik Bogor cannot be separated from the support of Bogor City Government which proactively facilitates the promotion of sustainable innovation produced by SMEs Batik Bogor.
Keywords: cleaner production innovation, creativity, SMEs Batik, sustainability supply chainProcedia PDF Downloads 212
7322 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Best Available Technique Application in a Food Processing Plant
Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Pavel Budinsky, Ignac Hoza, Alexandr Bozek, Magdalena Naplavova
Abstract:A cleaner production project was implemented in a bakery. The project is based on the substitution of the best available technique for an obsolete leaven production technology. The new technology enables production of durable, high-quality leavens. Moreover, 25% of flour as the original raw material can be replaced by pastry from the previous day production which has not been sold. That pastry was previously disposed in a waste incineration plant. Besides the environmental benefits resulting from less waste, lower consumption of energy, reduction of sewage waters quantity and floury dustiness there are also significant economic benefits. Payback period of investment was calculated with help of static method of financial analysis about 2.6 years, using dynamic method 3.5 years and an internal rate of return more than 29%. The supposed annual average profit after taxation in the second year of operation was incompliance with the real profit.
Keywords: bakery, best available technology, cleaner production, costs, economic benefit, efficiency, energy, environmental benefit, investment, savingsProcedia PDF Downloads 304
7321 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal
Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta
Abstract:This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.
Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, NepalProcedia PDF Downloads 133
7320 Options Trading and Crash Risk
Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao
Abstract:Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.
Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crashProcedia PDF Downloads 386
7319 Role of Nano-Technology on Remediation of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances Contaminated Soil and Ground Water
Authors: Leila Alidokht
Abstract:PFAS (poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances) are a large collection of environmentally persistent organic chemicals of industrial origin that have a negative influence on human health and ecosystems. Many distinct PFAS are being utilized in a wide range of applications (on the order of thousands), and there is no comprehensive source of information on the many different compounds and their roles in diverse applications. Facilities are increasingly looking into ways to reduce waste from cleanup projects. PFAS are widespread in the environment, have been found in a wide range of human biomonitoring investigations, and are a rising source of regulatory concern for federal, state, and local governments. Nanotechnology has the potential to contribute considerably to the creation of a cleaner, greener technologies with considerable environmental and health benefits. Nanotechnology approaches are being studied for their potential to provide pollution management and mitigation options, as well as to increase the effectiveness of standard environmental cleanup procedures. Diversified nanoparticles have shown useful in removing certain pollutants from their original environment, such as sewage spills and landmines. Furthermore, they have a low hazardous effect during production rates and can thus be thoroughly explored in the future to make them more compatible with lower production costs.
Keywords: PFOS, PFOA, PFAS, soil remediationProcedia PDF Downloads 27
7318 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production
Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov
Abstract:A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.
Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheelProcedia PDF Downloads 250
7317 Numerical Methods versus Bjerksund and Stensland Approximations for American Options Pricing
Authors: Marasovic Branka, Aljinovic Zdravka, Poklepovic Tea
Abstract:Numerical methods like binomial and trinomial trees and finite difference methods can be used to price a wide range of options contracts for which there are no known analytical solutions. American options are the most famous of that kind of options. Besides numerical methods, American options can be valued with the approximation formulas, like Bjerksund-Stensland formulas from 1993 and 2002. When the value of American option is approximated by Bjerksund-Stensland formulas, the computer time spent to carry out that calculation is very short. The computer time spent using numerical methods can vary from less than one second to several minutes or even hours. However to be able to conduct a comparative analysis of numerical methods and Bjerksund-Stensland formulas, we will limit computer calculation time of numerical method to less than one second. Therefore, we ask the question: Which method will be most accurate at nearly the same computer calculation time?
Keywords: Bjerksund and Stensland approximations, computational analysis, finance, options pricing, numerical methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 383
7316 Natural Gas Production Forecasts Using Diffusion Models
Authors: Md. Abud Darda
Abstract:Different options for natural gas production in wide geographic areas may be described through diffusion of innovation models. This type of modeling approach provides an indirect estimate of an ultimately recoverable resource, URR, capture the quantitative effects of observed strategic interventions, and allow ex-ante assessments of future scenarios over time. In order to ensure a sustainable energy policy, it is important to forecast the availability of this natural resource. Considering a finite life cycle, in this paper we try to investigate the natural gas production of Myanmar and Algeria, two important natural gas provider in the world energy market. A number of homogeneous and heterogeneous diffusion models, with convenient extensions, have been used. Models validation has also been performed in terms of prediction capability.
Keywords: diffusion models, energy forecast, natural gas, nonlinear productionProcedia PDF Downloads 146
7315 Adopting the Two-Stage Nested Mixed Analysis of Variance Test to the Eco Indicator 99 to Evaluate Building Technologies under LCA Uncertainties
Authors: Svetlana Pushkar
Abstract:Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) considers fundamental life cycle assessment (LCA) uncertainties via egalitarian/egalitarian (e/e), hierarchist/hierarchist (h/h), individualist/individualist (i/i), individualist/average (i/a), egalitarian/average (e/a), and hierarchist/average (h/a) methodological options. The objective of this study is to provide a reliable two-stage nested mixed balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test as a supplemental test to EI99 to address the problematic combination of similarly and not similarly produced materials usually found in building technologies. The robustness of the test was determined from both the “EI99 (all options)” stage (including e/e, i/i, h/h, e/a, i/a, and h/a - all methodological options) and the “EI99 (perspectives)” stage (including e/e, i/i, and h/h methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with their particular weighting set or e/a, i/a, and h/a methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with the average weighting set) of evaluating building technologies.
Keywords: building technologies, LCA uncertainty, Eco-indicator 99, two-stage nested mixed ANOVA testProcedia PDF Downloads 242
7314 Random Walks and Option Pricing for European and American Options
Authors: Guillaume Leduc
Abstract:In this paper, we describe a broad setting under which the error of the approximation can be quantified, controlled, and for which convergence occurs at a speed of n⁻¹ for European and American options. We describe how knowledge of the error allows for arbitrarily fast acceleration of the convergence.
Keywords: random walk approximation, European and American options, rate of convergence, option pricingProcedia PDF Downloads 385
7313 Dwelling in the Built Environment: The Resilience by Design in Modular Thinking toward an Adaptive Alternatives
Authors: Tzen-Ying Ling
Abstract:Recently, the resilience of dwellings in urban areas has been deliberated, as to accommodate the growing demand for changing the demography and rapid urbanization. The need to incorporate sustainability and cleaner production thinking have intensified to mitigate climate risks and satisfy the demand for housing. The modular thinking satisfies both the pressing call for fast-tracked housing stocks; while meeting the goal of more sustainable production. In the other side, the importance of the dwelling as a podium for well-being and social connectedness are sought to explore the key human/environment design thinking for the modular system in dwelling. We argue the best practice incorporates the concept of systemic components thinking. The fieldwork reported in this paper illustrates the process of the case study in a modular dwelling unit prototype development; focusing on the systemic frame system design process and adjustment recommendation hereafter. Using a case study method, the study identified that: (1) inclusive human dimensional factoring through systemic design thinking results in affordable implementations possibilities. (2) The environmental dimension encourages the place-based solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system. (3) Prototype design consideration avails module system component as dwelling construction alternative. (4) Building code often acts as an inhibitor for such dwelling units by the restriction in lot sizes and units placement. The demand for fast-track dwelling construction and cleaner production decisively outweighs the code inhibition; we further underscored the sustainability implication of the alternative prototype as the core of this study. The research suggests that modular thinking results in a resilient solution suited for the locality and the increasing demand for dwelling in the urban system.
Keywords: system prototype, urban resilience, human/environment dimension, modular thinking, dwelling alternativeProcedia PDF Downloads 107
7312 The Study of Elders’ Needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the Options of Health Tourism
Authors: Chantouch Wannathanom
Abstract:Research The study of elders’ needs in Bangkok metropolis for the options of health tourism. The objective is to study of elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism. The research her collected data using a questionnaire. The samples used in this research is elderly people living in the Dusit area. Of 400 people found the majority were female than male. Accounted for18 percent aged between 50-55 years, mostly undergraduate degree. Moreover, most seniors do not have underlying disease. The study found that 1. Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism; 2. Tourism activity patterns that fit elderly was divided into 5 categories, including massage, massage, and herbal sauna. Practicing meditation and ascetic. The results showed that selection of elderly tourist activities by choosing healthy eating are the first. The hypothesis testing period: Elders’ needs in Bangkok Metropolis for the options of health tourism is different. The level of statistical significance .05 level.
Keywords: needs, elder, health tourism, BangkokProcedia PDF Downloads 291
7311 Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options
Authors: Mimi Hafizah Abdullah, Hanani Farhah Harun, Nik Ruzni Nik Idris
Abstract:With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the implied adjusted volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian index options market covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007. The implied adjusted volatility was found to escalate approximately triple the rate prior the crisis.
Keywords: implied adjusted volatility, financial crisis, Leland option pricing models, Australian index optionsProcedia PDF Downloads 302
7310 Strengthening National Salt Industry through Cultivation Upgrading and Product Diversification
Authors: Etty Soesilowati
Abstract:This research was intended to: (1) designing production systems that produce high quality salt and (2) diversification of salt products. This research used qualitative and quantitative approaches which Garam Mas Ltd. as the research site. The data were analyzed interactively and subjected to laboratory tests. The analyses showed that salt production system using HDPE geomembranes produced whiter and cleaner salts than those produced by conventional methods without HDPE geomembranes. High quality consumption salt contained 97% NaCl and a maximum of 0.05% water, in the form of white minute crystals and usually used for table salt of food and snack seasoning, souses and cheese and vegetable oil industries. Medium grade salt contained 94.7%-97% NaCl and 3%-7% water and usually used for kitchen salt, soy sauce, tofu industries and cattle feeding. Low quality salt contained 90%-94.7% NaCl and 5%-10% water, with dull white color and usually used for fish preservation and agriculture. The quality and quantity of salts production were influenced by temperatures, weather, water concentrations used during production processes and the discipline of salt farmers itself. The use of water temperature less than 23 °Be during the production processes produced low quality salts. Optimizing cultivation of the production process from raw material to end product (consumption salt) should be attempted to produce quality salt that fulfills the Indonesian National Standard. Therefore, the integrated policies among stakeholders are really needed to build strong institutional base at salt farmer level. This might be achieved through the establishment of specific region for salt production.
Keywords: cultivation system, diversification, salt products, high quality saltProcedia PDF Downloads 345
7309 Biodiversity of the National Production through Companion Plants Analysis
Authors: Astrid Rivera, Diego Villatoro
Abstract:The world population increases at an accelerated pace, and it is essential to find solutions to feed the population. Nevertheless, crop diversity has significantly decreased in the last years, and the increase in food production is not the optimal solution. It is essential to consider the origin of the food, the nutriment contributions, among other dimensions. In this regard, biodiversity plays an indispensable role when designing an effective strategy to face the actual food security problems. Consequently, the purpose of this work is to analyze biodiversity in the Mexican national food production and suggest a proper crop selection based on companion plants, for which empirical and experimental knowledge shows a better scenery than current efforts. As a result, we get a set of crop recommendations to increase production in sustainable and nutritive planning. It is essential to explore more feasible options to advance sustainable development goals beyond an economic aspect.
Keywords: biodiversity, food security, companion plats, nutritionProcedia PDF Downloads 133
7308 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model
Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare
Abstract:We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.
Keywords: fractional brownian model, symmetry, transaction cost, option pricingProcedia PDF Downloads 340
7307 Future of the Supply Chain Management
Authors: Mehmet Şimşek
Abstract:In the rapidly changing market conditions, it is getting harder to survive without adapting new abilities. Technology and globalization have enabled foreign producers to enter into national markets, even local ones. For this reason there is now big competition among production companies for market share. Furthermore, competition has provided customer with broad range of options to choose from. To be able to survive in this environment, companies need to produce at low price and at high quality. The best way to succeed this is the efficient use of supply chain management that has started to get shaped by the needs of customers and the environment.
Keywords: cycle time, logistics, outsourcing, production, supply chainProcedia PDF Downloads 424
7306 Executive Stock Options, Business Ethics and Financial Reporting Quality
Authors: Philemon Rakoto
Abstract:This paper tests the improvement of financial reporting quality when firms award stock options to their executives. The originality of this study is that we introduce the moderating effect of business ethics in the model. The sample is made up of 116 Canadian high-technology firms with available data for the fiscal year ending in 2012. We define the quality of financial reporting as the value relevance of accounting information as developed by Ohlson. Our results show that executive stock option award alone does not improve the quality of financial reporting. Rather, the quality improves when a firm awards stock options to its executives and investors perceive that the level of business ethics in that firm is high.
Keywords: business ethics, Canada, high-tech firms, stock options, value relevanceProcedia PDF Downloads 423
7305 Financial Assessment of the Hard Coal Mining in the Chosen Region in the Czech Republic: Real Options Methodology Application
Authors: Miroslav Čulík, Petr Gurný
Abstract:This paper is aimed at the financial assessment of the hard coal mining in a given region by real option methodology application. Hard coal mining in this mine makes net loss for the owner during the last years due to the long-term unfavourable mining conditions and significant drop in the coal prices during the last years. Management is going to shut down the operation and abandon the project to reduce the loss of the company. The goal is to assess whether the shutting down the operation is the only and correct solution of the problem. Due to the uncertainty in the future hard coal price evolution, the production might be again restarted if the price raises enough to cover the cost of the production. For the assessment, real option methodology is applied, which captures two important aspect of the financial decision-making: risk and flexibility. The paper is structured as follows: first, current state is described and problem is analysed. Next, methodology of real options is described. At last, project is evaluated by applying real option methodology. The results are commented and recommendations are provided.
Keywords: real option, investment, option to abandon, option to shut down and restart, risk, flexibilityProcedia PDF Downloads 415
7304 Testing a Flexible Manufacturing System Facility Production Capacity through Discrete Event Simulation: Automotive Case Study
Authors: Justyna Rybicka, Ashutosh Tiwari, Shane Enticott
Abstract:In the age of automation and computation aiding manufacturing, it is clear that manufacturing systems have become more complex than ever before. Although technological advances provide the capability to gain more value with fewer resources, sometimes utilisation of the manufacturing capabilities available to organisations is difficult to achieve. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) provide a unique capability to manufacturing organisations where there is a need for product range diversification by providing line efficiency through production flexibility. This is very valuable in trend driven production set-ups or niche volume production requirements. Although FMS provides flexible and efficient facilities, its optimal set-up is key in achieving production performance. As many variables are interlinked due to the flexibility provided by the FMS, analytical calculations are not always sufficient to predict the FMS’ performance. Simulation modelling is capable of capturing the complexity and constraints associated with FMS. This paper demonstrates how discrete event simulation (DES) can address complexity in an FMS to optimise the production line performance. A case study of an automotive FMS is presented. The DES model demonstrates different configuration options depending on prioritising objectives: utilisation and throughput. Additionally, this paper provides insight into understanding the impact of system set-up constraints on the FMS performance and demonstrates the exploration into the optimal production set-up.
Keywords: discrete event simulation, flexible manufacturing system, capacity performance, automotiveProcedia PDF Downloads 250
7303 Mitigation of Indoor Human Exposure to Traffic-Related Fine Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅)
Authors: Ruchi Sharma, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
Abstract:Motor vehicles emit a number of air pollutants, among which fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) is of major concern in cities with high population density due to its negative impacts on air quality and human health. Typically, people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Consequently, human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ in indoor environments has received considerable attention. Most of the public residential buildings in tropical countries are designed for natural ventilation where indoor air quality tends to be strongly affected by the migration of air pollutants of outdoor origin. However, most of the previously reported traffic-related PM₂.₅ exposure assessment studies relied on ambient PM₂.₅ concentrations and thus, the health impact of traffic-related PM₂.₅ on occupants in naturally ventilated buildings remains largely unknown. Therefore, a systematic field study was conducted to assess indoor human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ with and without mitigation measures in a typical naturally ventilated residential apartment situated near a road carrying a large volume of traffic. Three PM₂.₅ exposure scenarios were simulated in this study, i.e., Case 1: keeping all windows open with a ceiling fan on as per the usual practice, Case 2: keeping all windows fully closed as a mitigation measure, and Case 3: keeping all windows fully closed with the operation of a portable indoor air cleaner as an additional mitigation measure. The indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios for PM₂.₅ mass concentrations were assessed and the effectiveness of using the indoor air cleaner was quantified. Additionally, potential human health risk based on the bioavailable fraction of toxic trace elements was also estimated for the three cases in order to identify a suitable mitigation measure for reducing PM₂.₅ exposure indoors. Traffic-related PM₂.₅ levels indoors exceeded the air quality guidelines (12 µg/m³) in Case 1, i.e., under natural ventilation conditions due to advective flow of outdoor air into the indoor environment. However, while using the indoor air cleaner, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the PM₂.₅ exposure levels was noticed indoors. Specifically, the effectiveness of the air cleaner in terms of reducing indoor PM₂.₅ exposure was estimated to be about 74%. Moreover, potential human health risk assessment also indicated a substantial reduction in potential health risk while using the air cleaner. This is the first study of its kind that evaluated the indoor human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ and identified a suitable exposure mitigation measure that can be implemented in densely populated cities to realize health benefits.
Keywords: fine particulate matter, indoor air cleaner, potential human health risk, vehicular emissionsProcedia PDF Downloads 66
7302 Planning and Management Options for Pastoral Resource: Case of Mecheria Region, Algeria
Authors: Driss Haddouche
Abstract:Pastoral crisis in Algeria has its origins in rangeland degradation which are the main factor in any activity in the steppe zones. Indeed, faced with the increasing human and animal population on a living space smaller and smaller, there is an overuse of what remains of the steppe range lands, consequently the not sustainability of biomass production. Knowing the amount of biomass available, the practice of grazing options, taking into account the use of "Use Factor" factor remains an essential method for managing pastoral resources. This factor has three options: at 40% Conservative pasture; at 60 % the beginning of overgrazing; at 80% destructive grazing. Accessibility on the pasture is based on our field observations of a type any flock along a grazing cycle. The main purpose of these observations is to highlight the speed of herd grazing situation. Several individuals from the herd were timed to arrive at an average duration of about 5 seconds to move between two tufts of grass, separated by a distance of one meter. This gives a rate of 5 s/m (0.72 km/h) flat. This speed varies depending on the angle of the slope. Knowing the speed and slope of each pixel of the study area, given by the digital elevation model of Spot Image (MNE) and whose pitch is 15 meters, a map of pasture according to the distances is generated. Knowing the stocking and biomass available, the examination of the common Mécheria at regular distances (8.64 km or 12 hours of grazing, 17.28 km or 24 hours of grazing and 25.92 Km or 36 hours of grazing), offers three different options (conservation grazing resource: utilization at 40%; overgrazing statements for use at 60% and grazing destructive for use by more than 80%) for each distance traveled by sheep from the starting point is the town of Mécheria.
Keywords: pastoral crisis, biomass, animal charge, use factor, AlgeriaProcedia PDF Downloads 466
7301 Mine Project Evaluations in the Rising of Uncertainty: Real Options Analysis
Authors: I. Inthanongsone, C. Drebenstedt, J. C. Bongaerts, P. Sontamino
Abstract:The major concern in evaluating the value of mining projects related to the deficiency of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method. This method does not take uncertainties into account and, hence it does not allow for an economic assessment of managerial flexibility and operational adaptability, which are increasingly determining long-term corporate success. Such an assessment can be performed with the real options valuation (ROV) approach, since it allows for a comparative evaluation of unforeseen uncertainties in a project life cycle. This paper presents an economic evaluation model for open pit mining projects based on real options valuation approach. Uncertainties in the model are caused by metal prices and cost uncertainties and the system dynamics (SD) modeling method is used to structure and solve the real options model. The model is applied to a case study. It can be shown that that managerial flexibility reacting to uncertainties may create additional value to a mining project in comparison to the outcomes of a DCF method. One important insight for management dealing with uncertainty is seen in choosing the optimal time to exercise strategic options.
Keywords: DCF methods, ROV approach, system dynamics modeling methods, uncertaintyProcedia PDF Downloads 433
7300 Economic and Environmental Assessment of Heat Recovery in Beer and Spirit Production
Authors: Isabel Schestak, Jan Spriet, David Styles, Prysor Williams
Abstract:Breweries and distilleries are well-known for their high water usage. The water consumption in a UK brewery to produce one litre of beer reportedly ranges from 3-9 L and in a distillery from 7-45 L to produce a litre of spirit. This includes product water such as mashing water, but also water for wort and distillate cooling and for cleaning of tanks, casks, and kegs. When cooling towers are used, cooling water can be the dominating water consumption in a brewery or distillery. Interlinked to the high water use is a substantial heating requirement for mashing, wort boiling, or distillation, typically met by fossil fuel combustion such as gasoil. Many water and waste water streams are leaving the processes hot, such as the returning cooling water or the pot ales. Therefore, several options exist to optimise water and energy efficiency of spirit production through heat recovery. Although these options are known in the sector, they are often not applied in practice due to planning efforts or financial obstacles. In this study, different possibilities and design options for heat recovery systems are explored in four breweries/distilleries in the UK and assessed from an economic but also environmental point of view. The eco-efficiency methodology, according to ISO 14045, is applied to combine both assessment criteria to determine the optimum solution for heat recovery application in practice. The economic evaluation is based on the total value added (TVA) while the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is applied to account for the environmental impacts through the installations required for heat recovery. The four case study businesses differ in a) production scale with mashing volumes ranging from 2500 to 40,000 L, in b) terms of heating and cooling technology used, and in c) the extent to which heat recovery is/is not applied. This enables the evaluation of different cases for heat recovery based on empirical data. The analysis provides guidelines for practitioners in the brewing and distilling sector in and outside the UK for the realisation of heat recovery measures. Financial and environmental payback times are showcased for heat recovery systems in the four distilleries which are operating at different production scales. The results are expected to encourage the application of heat recovery where environmentally and economically beneficial and ultimately contribute to a reduction of the water and energy footprint in brewing and distilling businesses.
Keywords: brewery, distillery, eco-efficiency, heat recovery from process and waste water, life cycle assessmentProcedia PDF Downloads 66
7299 Enhancing Wheat Productivity for Small-Scale Farmers in the Northern State of Sudan through Developing a Local Made Seed Cleaner and Different Seeding Methods
Authors: Yasir Hassan Satti Mohammed
Abstract:The wheat cleaner was designed, manufactured, and tested in the workshop of the department of agricultural engineering, faculty of agricultural sciences, university of Dongola, the northern state of Sudan, for the purpose of enhancing productivity for small-scale-farmers who used to plant their saved wheat seeds every season with all risk of weed infestation and low viability. A one-season field experiment was then conducted according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experimental design in the demonstration farm of Dongola research station using clean seeds and unclean seeds of a local wheat variety (Imam); two different planting methods were also adopted in the experiment. One is the traditional seed drilling within the recommended seed rate (50 kg.feddan⁻¹), whereas the other was the precision seeding method using half of the recommended seed rate (25 kg.feddan⁻¹). The effect of seed type and planting method on field parameters were investigated, and the data was then analyzed using a computer application SAS system version 9.3. The results revealed significant (P ≥ 0.05) and highly significant (P ≥ 0.01) differences between treatments. The precision seeding method with clean seeds increased the number of kernels per spike (KS), tillers per plant (TPP), one thousand kernels mass (TKM), the biomass of wheat (BWT), and total yield (TOY), whereas weeds per area (WSM), the biomass of weeds (BWD) and weight of weed seeds were apparently decreased compared to seed drilling with unclean seed. Wheat seed cleaner could be of great benefit for small-scale wheat farmers in Sudan who cannot afford the cleaned seeds commercially provided by the local government.
Keywords: wheat cleaner, precision seeding, seed drilling method, small-scale farmersProcedia PDF Downloads 39