Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich

40 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin

Abstract:

The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: cyclic loadings, material structure changing, acoustic emission, fractal dimension

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39 Application of Argumentation for Improving the Classification Accuracy in Inductive Concept Formation

Authors: Vadim Vagin, Marina Fomina, Oleg Morosin

Abstract:

This paper contains the description of argumentation approach for the problem of inductive concept formation. It is proposed to use argumentation, based on defeasible reasoning with justification degrees, to improve the quality of classification models, obtained by generalization algorithms. The experiment’s results on both clear and noisy data are also presented.

Keywords: argumentation, justification degrees, inductive concept formation, noise, generalization

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38 The Modeling of Viscous Microenvironment for the Coupled Enzyme System of Bioluminescence Bacteria

Authors: Irina E. Sukovataya, Oleg S. Sutormin, Valentina A. Kratasyuk

Abstract:

Effect of viscosity of media on kinetic parameters of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase was investigated with addition of organic solvents (glycerol and sucrose), because bioluminescent enzyme systems based on bacterial luciferases offer a unique and general tool for analysis of the many analytes and enzymes in the environment, research, and clinical laboratories and other fields. The possibility of stabilization and increase of activity of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase activity in vicious aqueous-organic mixtures have been shown.

Keywords: coupled enzyme system of bioluminescence bacteria NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase, glycerol, stabilization of enzymes, sucrose

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37 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov

Abstract:

The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: analytical regularization method, electromagnetic theory evolutionary equations of time-domain, TM Field

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36 Magnetic Fluctuations in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath

Authors: Alexandre Gurchumelia, Luca Sorriso-Valvo, David Burgess, Khatuna Elbakidze, Oleg Kharshiladze, Diana Kvaratskhelia

Abstract:

The terrestrial magnetosheath is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of magnetic1field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These often include an inertial range where a2magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade is observed. The multifractal properties of the turbulent3cascade, strictly related to intermittency, are observed here during the transition from quasi-parallel to4quasi-perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the bow-shock normal. The different multifractal5behavior in the two regions is analyzed. A standard coarse-graining technique has been used6to evaluate the generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal spectrumf(α). A7p-model fit provided a quantitative measure of multifractality and intermittency, to be compared with8standard indicators: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling9exponent. Results show a clear transition and sharp differences in the intermittency properties for the two regions.

Keywords: magnetos heath, turbulence, multifractal, instabilities

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35 Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids

Authors: William Anderson, Kyle Kobold, Oleg Yakimenko

Abstract:

Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.

Keywords: microgrid, renewable energy, complex systems, optimization, predictive modeling, neural networks

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34 Dynamic Model of Heterogeneous Markets with Imperfect Information for the Optimization of Company's Long-Time Strategy

Authors: Oleg Oborin

Abstract:

This paper is dedicated to the development of the model, which can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of long-term corporate strategies and identify the best strategies. The theoretical model of the relatively homogenous product market (such as iron and steel industry, mobile services or road transport) has been developed. In the model, the market consists of a large number of companies with different internal characteristics and objectives. The companies can perform mergers and acquisitions in order to increase their market share. The model allows the simulation of long-time dynamics of the market (for a period longer than 20 years). Therefore, a large number of simulations on random input data was conducted in the framework of the model. After that, the results of the model were compared with the dynamics of real markets, such as the US steel industry from the beginning of the XX century to the present day, and the market of mobile services in Germany for the period between 1990 and 2015.

Keywords: Economic Modelling, Long-Time Strategy, Mergers and Acquisitions, Simulation

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33 Integrative System of GDP, Emissions, Health Services and Population Health in Vietnam: Dynamic Panel Data Estimation

Authors: Ha Hai Duong, Amnon Levy Livermore, Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, Oleg Yerokhin

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The issues of economic development, the environment and human health have been investigated since 1990s. Previous researchers have found different empirical evidences of the relationship between income and environmental pollution, health as determinant of economic growth, and the effects of income and environmental pollution on health in various regions of the world. This paper concentrates on integrative relationship analysis of GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, and health services and population health in context of Vietnam. We applied the dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation on datasets of Vietnam’s sixty-three provinces for the years 2000-2010. Our results show the significant positive effect of GDP on emissions and the dependence of population health on emissions and health services. We find the significant relationship between population health and GDP. Additionally, health services are significantly affected by population health and GDP. Finally, the population size too is other important determinant of both emissions and GDP.

Keywords: economic development, emissions, environmental pollution, health

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32 In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics

Authors: Maxim Panov, Evgenia Khairullina, Sergey Ermakov, Oleg Gundobin, Vladimir Kochemirovsky

Abstract:

The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

Keywords: laser-induced deposition, electrochemical electrodes, non-enzymatic sensors, copper

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31 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov

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The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: lidar, ozone distribution, atmosphere, DIAL

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30 Vibration Mitigation in Partially Liquid-Filled Vessel Using Passive Energy Absorbers

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

The following study deals with fluid vibration of a liquid in a partially filled vessel under periodic ground excitation. This external excitation might lead to hidraulic impact applied on the vessel inner walls. In order to model these sloshing dynamic regimes, several equivalent mechanical models were suggested in the literature, such as series of pendula or mass-spring systems that are able to impact the inner tank walls. In the following study, we use the latter methodology, use parameter values documented in literature corresponding to cylindrical tanks and consider structural elasticity of the tank. The hydraulic impulses are modeled by the high-exponent potential function. Additional system parameters are found with the help of Finite-Element (FE) analysis. Model-driven stress assessment method is developed. Finally, vibration mitigation performances of both tuned mass damper (TMD) and nonlinear energy sink (NES) are examined.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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29 Re-Analyzing Energy-Conscious Design

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky

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An energy-conscious design for a classroom in a hot-humid climate is reanalyzed. The hypothesis of this study is that use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in building operation energy consumption will lead to re-analysis of the energy-conscious design. Therefore, the objective of this study is to reanalyze the energy-conscious design by evaluating the environmental impact of operational energy with PV electrical generation. Using the hierarchical design structure of Eco-indicator 99, the alternatives for energy-conscious variables are statistically evaluated by applying a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA. The recommendations for the preferred solutions for application of glazing types, wall insulation, roof insulation, window size, roof mass, and window shading design alternatives were changed (for example, glazing type recommendations were changed from low-emissivity glazing, green, and double- glazed windows to low-emissivity glazing only), whereas the applications for the lighting control system and infiltration are not changed. Such analysis of operational energy can be defined as environment-conscious analysis.

Keywords: ANOVA, Eco-Indicator 99, energy-conscious design, hot–humid climate, photovoltaic

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28 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

Abstract:

We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: biochar, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction, fixed bed, fluidized bed

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27 Effects of Different Climate Zones, Building Types, and Primary Fuel Sources for Energy Production on Environmental Damage from Four External Wall Technologies for Residential Buildings in Israel

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky

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The goal of the present study is to evaluate environmental damage from four wall technologies under the following conditions: four climate zones in Israel, two building (conventional vs. low-energy) types, and two types of fuel source [natural gas vs. photovoltaic (PV)]. The hierarchical ReCiPe method with a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA test is applied. It was revealed that in a hot climate in Israel in a conventional building fueled by natural gas, OE is dominant (90 %) over the P&C stage (10 %); in a mild climate in Israel in a low-energy building with PV, the P&C stage is dominant (85 %) over the OE stage (15 %). It is concluded that if PV is used in the building sector in Israel, (i) the P&C stage becomes a significant factor that influences the environment, (ii) autoclaved aerated block is the best external wall technology, and (iii) a two-stage nested mixed ANOVA can be used to evaluate environmental damage via ReCiPe when wall technologies are compared.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), photovoltaic, ReCiPe method, residential buildings

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26 Increasing the Forecasting Fidelity of Current Collection System Operating Capability by Means of Contact Pressure Simulation Modelling

Authors: Anton Golubkov, Gleb Ermachkov, Aleksandr Smerdin, Oleg Sidorov, Victor Philippov

Abstract:

Current collection quality is one of the limiting factors when increasing trains movement speed in the rail sector. With the movement speed growth, the impact forces on the current collector from the rolling stock and the aerodynamic influence increase, which leads to the spread in the contact pressure values, separation of the current collector head from the contact wire, contact arcing and excessive wear of the contact elements. The upcoming trend in resolving this issue is the use of the automatic control systems providing stabilization of the contact pressure value. The present paper considers the features of the contemporary automatic control systems of the current collector’s pressure; their major disadvantages have been stated. A scheme of current collector pressure automatic control has been proposed, distinguished by a proactive influence on undesirable effects. A mathematical model of contact strips wearing has been presented, obtained in accordance with the provisions of the central composition rotatable design program. The analysis of the obtained dependencies has been carried out. The procedures for determining the optimal current collector pressure on the contact wire and the pressure control principle in the pneumatic drive have been described.

Keywords: contact strip, current collector, high-speed running, program control, wear

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25 Intensity-Enhanced Super-Resolution Amplitude Apodization Effect on the Non-Spherical Near-Field Particle-Lenses

Authors: Liyang Yue, Bing Yan, James N. Monks, Rakesh Dhama, Zengbo Wang, Oleg V. Minin, Igor V. Minin

Abstract:

A particle can function as a refractive lens to focus a plane wave, generating a narrow, high intensive, weak-diverging beam within a sub-wavelength volume, known as the ‘photonic jet’. Refractive index contrast (particle to background media) and scaling effect of the dielectric particle (relative-to-wavelength size) play key roles in photonic jet formation, rather than the shape of particle-lens. Waist (full width of half maximum, FWHM) of a photonic jet could be beyond the diffraction limit and smaller than the Airy disk, which defines the minimum distance between two objects to be imaged as two instead of one. Many important applications for imaging and sensing have been afforded based upon the super-resolution characteristic of the photonic jet. It is known that apodization method, in the form of an amplitude pupil-mask centrally situated on a particle-lens, can further reduce the waist of a photonic nanojet, however, usually lower its intensity at the focus due to blocking of the incident light. In this paper, the anomalously intensity-enhanced apodization effect was discovered in the near-field via numerical simulation. It was also experimentally verified by a scale model using a copper-masked Teflon cuboid solid immersion lens (SIL) with 22 mm side length under radiation of a plane wave with 8 mm wavelength. Peak intensity enhancement and the lateral resolution of the produced photonic jet increased by about 36.0 % and 36.4 % in this approach, respectively. This phenomenon may possess the scale effect and would be valid in multiple frequency bands.

Keywords: apodization, particle-lens, scattering, near-field optics

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24 Large Core Silica Few-Mode Optical Fibers with Reduced Differential Mode Delay and Enhanced Mode Effective Area over 'C'-Band

Authors: Anton V. Bourdine, Vladimir A. Burdin, Oleg R. Delmukhametov

Abstract:

This work presents a fast and simple method for the design of large core silica optical fibers with differential mode delay (DMD) management. Some results are reported concerned with refractive index profile optimization for 42 µm core 16-LP-mode optical fiber for next-generation optical networks. Here special refractive index profile form provides total DMD reducing over all mode staff under desired enhanced mode effective area. Method for the simulation of 'real manufactured' few-mode optical fiber (FMF) core geometry differing from the desired optimized structure by core non-symmetrical ellipticity and refractive index profile deviation including local fluctuations is proposed. Results of the following analysis of optimized FMF with inserted geometry distortions performed by earlier on developed modification of rigorous mixed finite-element method showed strong DMD degradation that requires additional higher-order mode management. In addition, this work also presents a method for design mode division multiplexer channel precision spatial positioning scheme at FMF core end that provides one of the potentiality solutions of described DMD degradation problem concerned with 'distorted' core geometry due to features of optical fiber manufacturing techniques.

Keywords: differential mode delay, few-mode optical fibers, nonlinear Shannon limit, optical fiber non-circularity, ‘real manufactured’ optical fiber core geometry simulation, refractive index profile optimization

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23 Current Trends in the Arabic Linguistics Development: Between National Tradition and Global Tendencies

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

Abstract:

Globalization is a process of worldwide economic, political and cultural integration. Obviously, this phenomenon has both positive and negative issues. This article analyzes the impact of the modern process of globalization on the national traditions of language teaching and research. In this context, the problem of the ratio of local to global can be viewed from several sides. Firstly, since English is the language of over 80 percent of scientific and technical research worldwide, what should be the language of science in certain region? Secondly, language 'globality' is not always associated with English, because intercultural communications may have their regional peculiarities. For example, in the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabic can also be regarded as 'global' phenomenon, since the mother-tongue languages of the population are local Arabic dialects. In addition, the correlation 'local' versus 'global' is manifested not only in the linguistic sphere but also in the methodology used in language acquisition and research. Thus, the major principles of the Arabic philological tradition, which goes back to the 7th century, are still spread in the modern Arab world. At the same time, the terminology and methods of language research that are peculiar to this tradition are quite far from the issues of general linguistics that underlies the description of all the languages of the world. The present research relies on a comparative analysis of sources in Arabic linguistics, including original works in Arabic dating back to the 12th-13th centuries. As a case study, interaction of local and global is also considered on the example of the Arabic teaching and research in Russia. Speaking about the correlation between local and global it is possible to forecast development of two parallel tendencies: the spread of the phenomena of globalization on one hand, and local implementation of a language policy aimed at preserving native languages, including Arabic, on the other.

Keywords: Arabic, global, language, local, tradition

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22 Study and Acquisition of the Duality of the Arabic Language

Authors: Oleg Redkin, Olga Bernikova

Abstract:

It is commonly accepted that every language is both pure linguistic phenomenon as well as socially significant communicative system, which exists on the basis of certain society - its collective 'native speaker'. Therefore the language evolution and features besides its own linguistic rules and regulations are also defined by the influence of a number of extra-linguistic factors. The above mentioned statement may be illustrated by the example of the Arabic language which may be characterized by the following peculiarities: - the inner logic of the Arabic language - the 'algebraicity' of its morphological paradigms and grammar rules; - association of the Arabic language with the sacred texts of Islam, its close ties with the pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural heritage - the pre-Islamic poetry and Islamic literature and science; - territorial distribution, which in recent years went far beyond the boundaries of its traditional realm due to the development of new technologies and the spread of mass media, and what is more important, migration processes; - association of the Arabic language with the so called 'Renaissance of Islam'. These peculiarities should be remembered while considering the status of the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language or the Classical Arabic (CA) language as well as the Modern Arabic (MA) dialects in synchrony or from the diachronic point of view. Continuity of any system in diachrony on the one hand depends on the level of its ability to adapt itself to changing environment and by its internal ties on the other. Structural durability of language is characterized by its inner logic, hierarchy of paradigms and its grammar rules, as well as continuity of their implementation in acts of everyday communication. Since the Arabic language is both linguistic and social phenomenon the process of the Arabic language acquisition and study should not be focused only on the knowledge about linguistic features or development of communicative skills alone, but must be supplied with the information related to culture, history and religion of peoples of certain region that will expand and enrich competences of the target audience.

Keywords: Arabic, culture, Islam, language

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21 Investigation of Free Vibrations of Opened Shells from Alloy D19: Assistance of the Associated Mass System

Authors: Oleg Ye Sysoyev, Artem Yu Dobryshkin, Nyein Sitt Naing

Abstract:

Cylindrical shells are widely used in the construction of buildings and structures, as well as in the air structure. Thin-walled casings made of aluminum alloys are an effective substitute for reinforced concrete and steel structures in construction. The correspondence of theoretical calculations and the actual behavior of aluminum alloy structures is to ensure their trouble-free operation. In the laboratory of our university, "Building Constructions" conducted an experimental study to determine the effect of the system of attached masses on the natural oscillations of shallow cylindrical shells of aluminum alloys, the results of which were compared with theoretical calculations. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the free oscillations of an open, sloping cylindrical shell for various variations of the attached masses. Oscillations of an open, slender, thin-walled cylindrical shell, rectangular in plan, were measured using induction accelerometers. The theoretical calculation of the shell was carried out on the basis of the equations of motion of the theory of shallow shells, using the Bubnov-Galerkin method. A significant splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum is found, influenced not only by the systems of attached маsses but also by the values of the wave formation parameters, which depend on the relative geometric dimensions of the shell. The correspondence of analytical and experimental data is found, using the example of an open shell of alloy D19, which allows us to speak about the high quality of the study. A qualitative new analytical solution of the problem of determining the value of the oscillation frequency of the shell, carrying a system of attached masses is shown.

Keywords: open hollow shell, nonlinear oscillations, associated mass, frequency

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20 Adult Child Labour Migration and Elderly Parent Health: Recent Evidence from Indonesian Panel Data

Authors: Alfiah Hasanah, Silvia Mendolia, Oleg Yerokhin

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This paper explores the impacts of adult child migration on the health of elderly parents left behind. The maternal and children health are a priority of health-related policy in most low and middle-income country, and so there is lack of evidence on the health of older population particularly in Indonesia. With increasing life expectancy and limited access to social security and social services for the elderly in this country, the consequences of increasing number of out-migration of adult children to parent health are important to investigate. This study use Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), the only large-scale continuing longitudinal socioeconomic and health survey that based on a sample of households representing about 83 percent of the Indonesian population in its first wave. Using four waves of IFLS including the recent wave of 2014, several indicators of the self-rated health status, interviewer-rated health status and days of illness are used to estimate the impact of labour out-migration of adult children on parent health status. Incorporate both individual fixed effects to control for unobservable factors in migrant and non-migrant households and the ordered response of self-rated health, this study apply the ordered logit of “Blow-up and Cluster” (BUC ) estimator. The result shows that labour out-migration of adult children significantly improves the self-rated health status of the elderly parent left behind. Findings of this study are consistent with the view that migration increases family resources and contribute to better health care and nutrition of the family left behind.

Keywords: aging, migration, panel data, self-rated health

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19 Receptor-Independent Effects of Endocannabinoid Anandamide on Contractility and Electrophysiological Properties of Rat Ventricular Myocytes

Authors: Lina T. Al Kury, Oleg I. Voitychuk, Ramiz M. Ali, Sehamuddin Galadari, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Murat Oz

Abstract:

A role for anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide; AEA), a major endocannabinoid, in the cardiovascular system in various pathological conditions has been reported in earlier studies. In the present work, we have hypothesized that the antiarrhythmic effects reported for AEA are due to its negative inotropic effect and altered action potential (AP) characteristics. Therefore, we tested the effects of AEA on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured in cells loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of AEA on the characteristics of APs. AEA (1 μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of electrically-evoked myocyte shortening and Ca2+ transients and significantly decreased the duration of AP. The effect of AEA on myocyte shortening and AP characteristics was not altered in the presence of pertussis toxin (PTX, 2 µg/ml for 4 h), AM251 and SR141716 (cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists) or AM630 and SR 144528 (cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonists). Furthermore, AEA inhibited voltage-activated inward Na+ (INa) and Ca2+ (IL,Ca) currents; major ionic currents shaping the APs in ventricular myocytes, in a voltage and PTX-independent manner. Collectively, the results suggest that AEA depresses ventricular myocyte contractility, by decreasing the action potential duration (APD), and inhibits the function of voltage-dependent Na+ and L-type Ca2+ channels in a manner independent of cannabinoid receptors. This mechanism may be importantly involved in the antiarrhythmic effects of anandamide.

Keywords: action potential, anandamide, cannabinoid receptor, endocannabinoid, ventricular myocytes

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18 Linguistics and Islamic Studies in Historical Perspective: The Case of Interdisciplinary Communication

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

Abstract:

Islamic Studies and the Arabic language are indivisible from each other starting from the appearance of Islam and formation of the Classical language. The present paper demonstrates correlation among linguistics and religion in historical perspective with regard to peculiarities of the Arabic language which distinguish it from the other prophetic languages. Islamic Studies and Linguistics are indivisible from each other starting from the invent of Islam and formation of the Classical language. In historical perspective, the Arabic language has been and remains a tool for the expression of Islamic rhetoric being a prophetic language. No other language in the world has preserved its stability for more than 14 centuries. Islam is considered to be one of the most important factors which secure this stability. The analysis and study of the text of Qurʾān are of special importance for those who study Islamic civilization, its role in the destinies of the mankind, its values and virtues. Without understanding of the polyphony of this sacred text, indivisible unity of its form and content it is impossible to understand social developments both in the present and the past. Since the first years of Islam Qurʾān had been in the center of attention of Muslim scholars, and in the center of attention of theologians, historians, philologists, jurists, mathematicians. Only quite recently it has become an object of analysis of the specialists of computer technologies. In Arabic and Islamic studies mediaeval texts i.e. textual documents are considered the main source of information. Hence the analysis of the multiplicity of various texts and finding of interconnections between them help to set scattered fragments of the riddle into a common and eloquent picture of the past, which reflects the state of the society on certain stages of its development. The text of the Qurʾān like any other phenomenon is a multifaceted object that should be studied from different points of view. As a result, this complex study will allow obtaining a three-dimensional image rather than a flat picture alone.

Keywords: Arabic, Islamic studies, linguistics, religion

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17 Linguistic Misinterpretation and the Dialogue of Civilizations

Authors: Oleg Redkin, Olga Bernikova

Abstract:

Globalization and migrations have made cross-cultural contacts more frequent and intensive. Sometimes, these contacts may lead to misunderstanding between partners of communication and misinterpretations of the verbal messages that some researchers tend to consider as the 'clash of civilizations'. In most cases, reasons for that may be found in cultural and linguistic differences and hence misinterpretations of intentions and behavior. The current research examines factors of verbal and non-verbal communication that should be taken into consideration in verbal and non-verbal contacts. Language is one of the most important manifestations of the cultural code, and it is often considered as one of the special features of a civilization. The Arabic language, in particular, is commonly associated with Islam and the language and the Arab-Muslim civilization. It is one of the most important markers of self-identification for more than 200 million of native speakers. Arabic is the language of the Quran and hence the symbol of religious affiliation for more than one billion Muslims around the globe. Adequate interpretation of Arabic texts requires profound knowledge of its grammar, semantics of its vocabulary. Communicating sides who belong to different cultural groups are guided by different models of behavior and hierarchy of values, besides that the vocabulary each of them uses in the dialogue may convey different semantic realities and vary in connotations. In this context direct, literal translation in most cases cannot adequately convey the original meaning of the original message. Besides that peculiarities and diversities of the extralinguistic information, such as the body language, communicative etiquette, cultural background and religious affiliations may make the dialogue even more difficult. It is very likely that the so called 'clash of civilizations' in most cases is due to misinterpretation of counterpart's means of discourse such as language, cultural codes, and models of behavior rather than lies in basic contradictions between partners of communication. In the process of communication, one has to rely on universal values rather than focus on cultural or religious peculiarities, to take into account current linguistic and extralinguistic context.

Keywords: Arabic, civilization, discourse, language, linguistic

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16 The Efficacy of Box Lesion+ Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Two-Year Follow-up Results

Authors: Oleg Sapelnikov, Ruslan Latypov, Darina Ardus, Samvel Aivazian, Andrey Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: MAZE procedure is one of the most effective surgical methods in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Nowadays we are all aware of its modifications. In our study we conducted clinical analysis of “Box lesion+” approach during MAZE procedure in two-year follow-up. METHODS: We studied the results of the open-heart on-pump procedures performed in our hospital from 2017 to 2018 years. Thirty-two (32) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were included in this study. Fifteen (15) patients had concomitant coronary bypass grafting and seventeen (17) patients had mitral valve repair. Mean age was 62.3±8.7 years; prevalence of men was admitted (56.1%). Mean duration of AF was 4.75±5.44 and 7.07±8.14 years. In all cases, we performed endocardial Cryo-MAZE procedure with one-time myocardium revascularization or mitral-valve surgery. All patients of this study underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and ablation of mitral isthmus with additional isolation of LA posterior wall (Box-lesion+ procedure). Mean follow-up was 2 years. RESULTS: All cases were performed without any complications. Additional isolation of posterior wall did not prolong the operative time and artificial circulation significantly. Cryo-MAZE procedure directly lasted 20±2.1 min, the whole operation time was 192±24 min and artificial circulation time was 103±12 min. According to design of the study, we performed clinical investigation of the patients in 12 months and in 2 years from the initial procedure. In 12 months, the number of AF free patients 81.8% and 75.8% in two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Isolation of the left atrial posterior wall and perimitral area may considerably improve the efficacy of surgical treatment, which was demonstrated in significant decrease of AF recurrences during the whole period of follow-up.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cryoablation, left atrium isolation, open heart procedure

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15 Nanoprofiling of GaAs Surface in a Combined Low-Temperature Plasma for Microwave Devices

Authors: Victor S. Klimin, Alexey A. Rezvan, Maxim S. Solodovnik, Oleg A. Ageev

Abstract:

In this paper, the problems of existing methods of profiling and surface modification of nanoscale arsenide-gallium structures are analyzed. The use of a combination of methods of local anodic oxidation and plasma chemical etching to solve this problem is considered. The main features that make this technology one of the promising areas of modification and profiling of near-surface layers of solids are demonstrated. In this paper, we studied the effect of formation stress and etching time on the geometrical parameters of the etched layer and the roughness of the etched surface. Experimental dependences of the thickness of the etched layer on the time and stress of formation were obtained. The surface analysis was carried out using atomic force microscopy methods, the corresponding profilograms were constructed from the obtained images, and the roughness of the etched surface was studied accordingly. It was shown that at high formation voltage, the depth of the etched surface increased, this is due to an increase in the number of active particles (oxygen ions and hydroxyl groups) formed as a result of the decomposition of water molecules in an electric field, during the formation of oxide nanostructures on the surface of gallium arsenide. Oxide layers were used as negative masks for subsequent plasma chemical etching by the STE ICPe68 unit. BCl₃ was chosen as the chlorine-containing gas, which differs from analogs in some parameters for the effect of etching of nanostructures based on gallium arsenide in the low-temperature plasma. The gas mixture of reaction chamber consisted of a buffer gas NAr = 100 cm³/min and a chlorine-containing gas NBCl₃ = 15 cm³/min at a pressure P = 2 Pa. The influence of these methods modes, which are formation voltage and etching time, on the roughness and geometric parameters, and corresponding dependences are demonstrated. Probe nanotechnology was used for surface analysis.

Keywords: nanostructures, GaAs, plasma chemical etching, modification structures

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14 Response Regimes and Vibration Mitigation in Equivalent Mechanical Model of Strongly Nonlinear Liquid Sloshing

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in partially-filled cylindrical vessel is treated in the cases of free oscillations and of horizontal base excitation. The model is designed to cover both the linear and essentially nonlinear sloshing regimes. The latter fluid behaviour might involve hydraulic impacts interacting with the inner walls of the tank. These impulsive interactions are often modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. For the sake of analytical description, we use the traditional approach by modeling the impacts with velocity-dependent restitution coefficient. This modelling is similar to vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES) which was recently explored for its vibration mitigation performances and nonlinear response regimes. Steady-state periodic regimes and chaotic strongly modulated responses (CSMR) are detected. Those dynamical regimes were described by the system's slow motion on the slow invariant manifold (SIM). There is a good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. Subsequently, Finite-Element (FE) method is used to determine and verify the model parameters and to identify dominant dynamical regimes, natural modes and frequencies. The tank failure modes are identified and critical locations are identified. Mathematical relation is found between degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) motion and the mechanical stress applied in the tank critical section. This is the prior attempt to take under consideration large-amplitude nonlinear sloshing and tank structure elasticity effects for design, regulation definition and resistance analysis purposes. Both linear (tuned mass damper, TMD) and nonlinear (nonlinear energy sink, NES) passive energy absorbers contribution to the overall system mitigation is firstly examined, in terms of both stress reduction and time for vibration decay.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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13 3-D Strain Imaging of Nanostructures Synthesized via CVD

Authors: Sohini Manna, Jong Woo Kim, Oleg Shpyrko, Eric E. Fullerton

Abstract:

CVD techniques have emerged as a promising approach in the formation of a broad range of nanostructured materials. The realization of many practical applications will require efficient and economical synthesis techniques that preferably avoid the need for templates or costly single-crystal substrates and also afford process adaptability. Towards this end, we have developed a single-step route for the reduction-type synthesis of nanostructured Ni materials using a thermal CVD method. By tuning the CVD growth parameters, we can synthesize morphologically dissimilar nanostructures including single-crystal cubes and Au nanostructures which form atop untreated amorphous SiO2||Si substrates. An understanding of the new properties that emerge in these nanostructures materials and their relationship to function will lead to for a broad range of magnetostrictive devices as well as other catalysis, fuel cell, sensor, and battery applications based on high-surface-area transition-metal nanostructures. We use coherent X-ray diffraction imaging technique to obtain 3-D image and strain maps of individual nanocrystals. Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) is a technique that provides the overall shape of a nanostructure and the lattice distortion based on the combination of highly brilliant coherent x-ray sources and phase retrieval algorithm. We observe a fine interplay of reduction of surface energy vs internal stress, which plays an important role in the morphology of nano-crystals. The strain distribution is influenced by the metal-substrate interface and metal-air interface, which arise due to differences in their thermal expansion. We find the lattice strain at the surface of the octahedral gold nanocrystal agrees well with the predictions of the Young-Laplace equation quantitatively, but exhibits a discrepancy near the nanocrystal-substrate interface resulting from the interface. The strain in the bottom side of the Ni nanocube, which is contacted on the substrate surface is compressive. This is caused by dissimilar thermal expansion coefficients between Ni nanocube and Si substrate. Research at UCSD support by NSF DMR Award # 1411335.

Keywords: CVD, nanostructures, strain, CXRD

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12 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of the Success of the First Crusade in Modern Arab and Western Historiography

Authors: Oleg Sokolov

Abstract:

Despite the fact that the epoch of the Crusades ended more than 700 years ago, its legacy still remains relevant both in the Middle East and in the West. There was made a comparison of the positions of the most prominent Western and Arab medievalists of XX-XXI centuries, using the example of their interpretations of the success of the First Crusade. The analyzed corpus consists of 70 works. In the modern Arab Historiography, it is often pointed out that the Seljuks' struggle against the crusaders of the First Crusade was seriously hampered by the raids of the Arab Bedouin tribes of Jazira. At the same time, it is emphasized that the Arab rulers of Northern Syria were ‘pleased’ with the defeats of the Turks and made peace with the Crusaders, refusing to fight them. At the same time it is usually underlined that the Fatimid aggression against the Turks led both the first and the second to defeat from the Crusaders and became one of the main reasons for the success of the First Crusade and the Muslims' loss of Jerusalem in 1099. The position of Western historians about the reasons for the success of the First Crusade differs significantly. First of all, in the Western Historiography, it is noted that the deaths of the Fatimid and Abbasid Caliphs and the Seljuk Sultan between 1092 and 1094 years created political vacuum just before the crusaders appeared in the Middle East political arena. In 1097-1099, when the Crusaders advanced through Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine to Jerusalem, there was an active internecine struggle between the parts of the Seljuq state that had broken up by that time, and the crusaders were not perceived as a general threat of all Muslims of this region at that time. It is also pointed out that the main goals of the Crusaders - Antioch, Edessa, and Jerusalem - were at that time periphery since the main struggle for power in the Middle East was at this time in Iran. Thus, Arab historians see the lack of support from Arabs of Syria and Jazira and the aggression from Egypt as a crucial factors preventing the Seljuks from defeating the Crusaders, while their Western counterparts consider the internal power struggle between the Seljuks as a more important reason for the success of the First Crusade. The reason for this divergence in the treatment of the events of the First Crusade is probably the prevailing in much of Arab historiography, the idea of the Franks as an enemy of all peoples and religions of the Middle East. At the same time, in contemporary Western Historiography, the crusaders are described only as one of the many military and political forces that operated in this region at the end of the eleventh century.

Keywords: Arabs, Crusades, historiography, Turks

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11 Numerical Investigation of Plasma-Fuel System (PFS) for Coal Ignition and Combustion

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

To enhance the efficiency of solid fuels’ use, to decrease the fuel oil rate in the thermal power plants fuel balance and to minimize harmful emissions, a plasma technology of coal ignition, gasification and incineration is successfully applied. This technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of fuel for burning (PTCPF). In the framework of this concept, some portion of pulverized solid fuel (PF) is separated from the main PF flow and undergone the activation by arc plasma in a specific chamber with plasma torch – PFS. The air plasma flame is a source of heat and additional oxidation, it provides a high-temperature medium enriched with radicals, where the fuel mixture is heated, volatile components of coal are extracted, and carbon is partially gasified. This active blended fuel can ignite the main PF flow supplied into the furnace. This technology provides the boiler start-up and stabilization of PF flame and eliminates the necessity for addition of highly reactive fuel. In the report, a model of PTCPF, implemented as a program PlasmaKinTherm for the PFS calculation is described. The model combines thermodynamic and kinetic methods for describing the process of PTCPF in PFS. The numerical investigation of operational parameters of PFS depending on the electric power of the plasma generator and steam coal ash content revealed the temperature and velocity of gas and coal particles, and concentrations of PTCPF products dependences on the PFS length. Main mechanisms of PTCPF were disclosed. It was found that in the range of electric power of plasma generator from 40 to 100 kW high ash bituminous coal, having consumption 1667 kg/h is ignited stably. High level of temperature (1740 K) and concentration of combustible components (44%) at the PFS exit is a confirmation of it. Augmentation in power of plasma generator results displacement maxima temperatures and speeds of PTCPF products upstream (in the direction of the plasma source). The maximum temperature and velocity vary in a narrow range of values and practically do not depend on the power of the plasma torch. The numerical study of indicators of the process of PTCPF depending on the ash content in the range of its values 20-70% demonstrated that at the exit of PFS concentration of combustible components decreases with an increase in coal ash, the temperature of the gaseous products is increasing, and coal carbon conversion rate is increased to a maximum value when the ash content of 60%, dramatically decreasing with further increase in the ash content.

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma generator, plasma-fuel system

Procedia PDF Downloads 203