Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 378

Search results for: buried interfaces

378 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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377 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur

Abstract:

We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
376 Investigation of Al/Si, Au/Si and Au/GaAs Interfaces by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

Authors: Abdulnasser S. Saleh

Abstract:

The importance of metal-semiconductor interfaces comes from the fact that most electronic devices are interconnected using metallic wiring that forms metal–semiconductor contacts. The properties of these contacts can vary considerably depending on the nature of the interface with the semiconductor. Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to study interfaces in Al/Si, Au/Si, and Au/GaAs structures. A computational modeling by ROYPROF program is used to analyze Doppler broadening results in order to determine kinds of regions that positrons are likely to sample. In all fittings, the interfaces are found 1 nm thick and act as an absorbing sink for positrons diffusing towards them and may be regarded as highly defective. Internal electric fields were found to influence positrons diffusing to the interfaces and unable to force them cross to the other side. The materials positron affinities are considered in understanding such motion. The results of these theoretical fittings have clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of interfaces in any fitting attempts of analyzing positron spectroscopy data and gave valuable information about metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Keywords: interfaces, semiconductor, positron, defects

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375 Identification of Paleogeomorphology at Kedulan Temple, Sleman, Yogyakarta

Authors: Virgina Claudia Latengke, Muhaammad Nur Arifin, Vanny Septia Sundari

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Kedulan Temple is located in Dusun Kedulan, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia at coordinates S 07o 44’ 57’, E 110o 28’ 17’. Kedulan Temple is a trace of the relics of life in the 3 century AD. The Kedulan Temple including exhumed landforms, which the primordial landform is first surface topography, then buried under cover mass and exposed or re-inscribed. Recognized by the existence of ancient soil (paleosoil) and ancient objects. Seen from the type of soil that closes the temple, there are 13 layers of lava type, so it is estimated that the lava that buried the temple came from 13 times the eruption of Mount Merapi. The material that buries the base of this temple is the pyroclastic surge deposits in 3 layers, each of which is limited by a thin layer of paleosol, the sediments are 1445+/-50 yBP, 1175+/-50 yBP, and 1060+/-40 yBP. This temple is buried and dug again at 940+/-100 yBP. Furthermore, the temple affected by earthquake, so the floor and foundation becomes bumpy and most of the temple stone are thrown. The temple is left alone, until exposed to hot clouds at 1285 M (740+/-50yBP). Next, repeatedly buried lava in 4 periods, in 1587 M (360+/-50 yBP, 240+/-50 yBP, 200+/-50 yBP and unknown date). From studying this temple, can be known paleogeomorphology process that occurred in Yogyakarta, especially related to the volcanic activity of Mount Merapi. Until now, the water is still flowing around the temple so there is a fluvial process that began to take a role in the temple.

Keywords: Kedulan temple, paleogeomorphology, buried, mount Merapi, Yogyakarta

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374 Making a ‘Once-upon-a-Time’ Mythology in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Buried Giant

Authors: Masami Usui

Abstract:

Kazuo Ishiguro’s challenging novel, The Buried Giant, embodies how contemporary writers and readers have to discover the voices buried in our history. By avoiding setting or connecting the modern and contemporary historical incidents such as World War II this time, Ishiguro ventures into retelling myth, transfiguring historical facts, and revealing what has been forgotten in a process of establishing history and creating mythology. As generally known, modernist writers in the twentieth century employed materials from authorized classical mythologies, especially Greek mythology. As an heir of this tradition, Ishiguro imposes his mission of criticizing the repeatedly occurring yet easily-forgotten history of dictatorship and a slaughter on mythology based on King Arthur and its related heroes and myths in Britain. On an open ground, Ishiguro can start his own mythical story and space.

Keywords: English literature, fantasy, globalism, history

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373 A Finite Elements Model for the Study of Buried Pipelines Affected by Strike-Slip Fault

Authors: Reza Akbari, Jalal MontazeriFashtali, PeymanMomeni Taromsari

Abstract:

Pipeline systems, play an important role as a vital element in reducing or increasing the risk of earthquake damage and vulnerability. Pipelines are suitable, cheap, fast, and safe routes for transporting oil, gas, water, sewage, etc. The sepipelines must pass from a wide geographical area; hence they will structurally face different environmental and underground factors of earthquake forces’ effect. Therefore, structural engineering analysis and design for this type of lines requires the understanding of relevant parameters behavior and lack of familiarity with them can cause irreparable damages and risks to design and execution, especially in the face of earthquakes. Today, buried pipelines play an important role in human life cycle, thus, studying the vulnerability of pipeline systems is of particular importance. This study examines the behavior of buried pipelines affected by strike-slip fault. Studied fault is perpendicular to the tube axis and causes stress and deformation in the tube by sliding horizontally. In this study, the pipe-soil interaction is accurately simulated, so that one can examine the large displacements and strains, nonlinear material behavior and contact and friction conditions of soil and pipe. The results can be used for designing buried pipes and determining the amount of fault displacement that causes the failure of the buried pipes.

Keywords: pipe lines , earthquake , fault , soil-fault interaction

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372 Scale Prototype to Estimate the Resistance to Lateral Displacement Buried Pipes and submerged in non-Cohesive Soils

Authors: Enrique Castañeda, Tomas Hernadez, Mario Ulloa

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Recent studies related to submarine pipelines under high pressure, temperature and buried, forces us to make bibliographical and documentary research to make us of references applicable to our problem. This paper presents an experimental methodology to the implementation of results obtained in a scale model, bibliography soil mechanics and finite element simulation. The model consists of a tank of 0.60 x 0.90 x 0.60 basis equipped high side windows, tires and digital hardware devices for measuring different variables to be applied to the model, where the mechanical properties of the soil are determined, simulation of drag a pipeline buried in a non-cohesive seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico, estimate the failure surface and application of each of the variables for the determination of mechanical elements.

Keywords: static friction coefficient, maximum passive force resistant soil, normal, tangential stress

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371 Study of the Effect of Soil Compaction and Height on Pipe Ovality for Buried Steel Pipe

Authors: Ali Ghodsbin Jahromi, Ehsan Moradi

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In this paper, the numerical study of buried steel pipe in soil is investigated. Buried pipeline under soil weight, after embankment on the pipe leads to ovality of pipe. In this paper also it is considered the percentage of soil compaction, the soil height on the steel pipe and the external load of a mechanical excavator on the steel pipe and finally, the effect of these on the rate of pipe ovality investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the pipes’ thickness on ovality has been investigated. The results show that increasing the percentage of soil compaction has more effect on reducing percentage of ovality, and if the percentage of soil compaction increases, we can use the pipe with less thickness. Finally, ovality rate of the pipe and acceptance criteria of pipe diameter up to yield stress is investigated.

Keywords: pipe ovality, soil compaction, finite element, pipe thickness

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370 Stress Analysis of Buried Pipes from Soil and Traffic Loads

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Hamalawi, M. Frost, A. Connell

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Often design standards do not provide guidance or formulae for the calculation of stresses on buried pipelines caused by external loads. Frequently engineers rely on other methods and published sources of information to calculate such imposed stresses and a variety of methods can be used. This paper reviews three current approaches to soil pipeline interaction modelling to predict stresses on buried pipelines subjected to soil overburden and traffic loading. The traditional approach to use empirical stress formulas to calculate circumferential bending stresses on pipelines. The alternative approaches considered are the use of a finite element package to compute an estimate of circumferential bending stress and a proprietary stress analysis system (SURFLOAD) to estimate the circumferential bending stress. The results from analysis using the methods are presented and compared to experimental results in terms of predicted and measured circumferential stresses. This study shows that the approach used to assess externally generated stress is important and can lead to an over-conservative analysis. Using FE analysis either through SURFLOAD or a general FE package to predict circumferential stress is the most accurate way to undertake stress analysis due to traffic and soil loads. Although conservative, classical empirical methods will continue to be applied to the analysis of buried pipelines, an opportunity exists, therefore, in many circumstances, to use applied numerical techniques, made possible by advances in finite element analysis.

Keywords: buried pipelines, circumferential bending stress, finite element analysis, soil overburden, soil pipeline interaction analysis (SPIA), traffic loadings

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369 Study the Effect of Liquefaction on Buried Pipelines during Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Hababalahi, Morteza Bastami

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Buried pipeline damage correlations are critical part of loss estimation procedures applied to lifelines for future earthquakes. The vulnerability of buried pipelines against earthquake and liquefaction has been observed during some of previous earthquakes and there are a lot of comprehensive reports about this event. One of the main reasons for impairment of buried pipelines during earthquake is liquefaction. Necessary conditions for this phenomenon are loose sandy soil, saturation of soil layer and earthquake intensity. Because of this fact that pipelines structure are very different from other structures (being long and having light mass) by paying attention to the results of previous earthquakes and compare them with other structures, it is obvious that the danger of liquefaction for buried pipelines is not high risked, unless effective parameters like earthquake intensity and non-dense soil and other factors be high. Recent liquefaction researches for buried pipeline include experimental and theoretical ones as well as damage investigations during actual earthquakes. The damage investigations have revealed that a damage ratio of pipelines (Number/km ) has much larger values in liquefied grounds compared with one in shaking grounds without liquefaction according to damage statistics during past severe earthquakes, and that damages of joints and pipelines connected with manholes were remarkable. The purpose of this research is numerical study of buried pipelines under the effect of liquefaction by case study of the 2013 Dashti (Iran) earthquake. Water supply and electrical distribution systems of this township interrupted during earthquake and water transmission pipelines were damaged severely due to occurrence of liquefaction. The model consists of a polyethylene pipeline with 100 meters length and 0.8 meter diameter which is covered by light sandy soil and the depth of burial is 2.5 meters from surface. Since finite element method is used relatively successfully in order to solve geotechnical problems, we used this method for numerical analysis. For evaluating this case, some information like geotechnical information, classification of earthquakes levels, determining the effective parameters in probability of liquefaction, three dimensional numerical finite element modeling of interaction between soil and pipelines are necessary. The results of this study on buried pipelines indicate that the effect of liquefaction is function of pipe diameter, type of soil, and peak ground acceleration. There is a clear increase in percentage of damage with increasing the liquefaction severity. The results indicate that although in this form of the analysis, the damage is always associated to a certain pipe material, but the nominally defined “failures” include by failures of particular components (joints, connections, fire hydrant details, crossovers, laterals) rather than material failures. At the end, there are some retrofit suggestions in order to decrease the risk of liquefaction on buried pipelines.

Keywords: liquefaction, buried pipelines, lifelines, earthquake, finite element method

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368 Toward a Measure of Appropriateness of User Interfaces Adaptations Solutions

Authors: Abderrahim Siam, Ramdane Maamri, Zaidi Sahnoun

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The development of adaptive user interfaces (UI) presents for a long time an important research area in which researcher attempt to call upon the full resources and skills of several disciplines. The adaptive UI community holds a thorough knowledge regarding the adaptation of UIs with users and with contexts of use. Several solutions, models, formalisms, techniques, and mechanisms were proposed to develop adaptive UI. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the fuzzy set theory for modeling the concept of the appropriateness of different solutions of UI adaptation with different situations for which interactive systems have to adapt their UIs.

Keywords: adaptive user interfaces, adaptation solution’s appropriateness, fuzzy sets

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367 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur

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In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: corrosion, pit depth, sensitivity analysis, exposure period

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366 Nanostructure and Adhesion of Cement/Polymer Fiber Interfaces

Authors: Faezeh Shalchy

Abstract:

Concrete is the most used materials in the world. It is also one of the most versatile while complex materials which human have used for construction. However, concrete is weak in tension, over the past thirty years many studies were accomplished to improve the tensile properties of concrete (cement-based materials) using a variety of methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymeric fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. Understanding the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete requires the knowledge of the fiber/matrix interfaces at the small scale. In this study, a combination of numerical simulations and experimental techniques have been used to study the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is proposed based on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and 2 different polymeric fibers (polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene) was numerically studied at the atomistic level since adhesion is one of the key factors in the design of fiber reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces are also studied and discussed.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced concrete, adhesion, molecular modeling

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365 Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Soil Surrounding Buried Pipeline Using Multi-Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Won Mog Choi, Seong Kyeong Hong, Seok Young Jeong

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The stress on the buried pipeline under pavement is significantly affected by vehicle loads and elastic modulus of the soil surrounding the pipeline. The correct elastic modulus of soil has to be applied to the finite element model to investigate the effect of the vehicle loads on the buried pipeline using finite element analysis. The purpose of this study is to establish the approach to calculating the correct elastic modulus of soil using the optimization process. The optimal elastic modulus of soil, which minimizes the difference between the strain measured from vehicle driving test at the velocity of 35km/h and the strain calculated from finite element analyses, was calculated through the optimization process using multi-response surface methodology. Three elastic moduli of soil (road layer, original soil, dense sand) surrounding the pipeline were defined as the variables for the optimization. Further analyses with the optimal elastic modulus at the velocities of 4.27km/h, 15.47km/h, 24.18km/h were performed and compared to the test results to verify the applicability of multi-response surface methodology. The results indicated that the strain of the buried pipeline was mostly affected by the elastic modulus of original soil, followed by the dense sand and the load layer, as well as the results of further analyses with optimal elastic modulus of soil show good agreement with the test.

Keywords: pipeline, optimization, elastic modulus of soil, response surface methodology

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364 Standardized Description and Modeling Methods of Semiconductor IP Interfaces

Authors: Seongsoo Lee

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IP reuse is an effective design methodology for modern SoC design to reduce effort and time. However, description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are different due to different IP designers. In this paper, standardized description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are proposed. It consists of 11 items such as IP information, model provision, data type, description level, interface information, port information, signal information, protocol information, modeling level, modeling information, and source file. The proposed description and modeling methods enables easy understanding, simulation, verification, and modification in IP reuse.

Keywords: interface, standardization, description, modeling, semiconductor IP

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363 Multiple Pen and Touch Interaction on Interactive LCDs

Authors: Andreas Kunz, Ali Alavi

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In this paper, we present a simple active stylus for interactive IR-based tabletop systems. Such tables offer a set of tags for realizing tangible user interfaces, which can only be applied to objects having a relatively big contacting area with the interactive surface. The stylus has a unique address and thus can be clearly distinguished from other styli, objects or finger touches that might simultaneously occur on the interactive surface.

Keywords: interactive screens, pen, tangibles, user interfaces

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362 Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Julio C. P. Ribeiro, Iorran M. de Castro, Luan C. F. Rodrigues, Sandro R. L. Silva, Diego M. Quesada

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The work aims to develop a robot in the form of autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform. Hardware prototyping very similar to C / C ++ language that facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface independently of direct human action, in order to automate the process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic induction. The induction comes from coils that sends the signal to the Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in intensity and the treatment of the information, then this determines actions to electrical components such as relays and motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the necessary information. The robot was developed by electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application. The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot (autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried pipelines plates.

Keywords: robotic, metal detector, embedded system, pipeline inspection

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361 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar

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The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture

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360 Bowing of a Pipeline from Longitudinal Compressive Stress Induced by Ground Movement

Authors: Gennaro Marino

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This paper concerns a case of a 10.75 inch diameter buried gas transmission line which was exposed to mine subsidence ground movements. The pipeline was buried about 4ft. below the surface with maximum operating pressure of 1440 psi. The mine subsidence movement was the result of long walling ore at a depth of approximately 1600 ft. As ore extraction progressed, the stress in the monitored pipeline worsened and was approaching unacceptable levels. The excessive pipe compression resulted when it was exposed to the compression zone of subsidence basin created by mining. The pipe stress reached a significant compressive level due to the extensive length of the pipe exposed to frictional ground-pipe slip resistance. The backfill ground movement slip resistance depends on normal stress around the pipe, the rate of slip, and the backfill characteristics. Normal stress depends on the burial depth of the backfill density and the lateral subsidence induced stress. The backfill in this site has a soil dry density of approximately 90 PCF. A suite of direct shear tests was conducted a residual friction angle of 36 was determined for the ambient backfill. These tests showed that the residual shearing resistance was reached within a fraction of an inch. The pipe was coated with fusion-bonded epoxy, so friction reduce factory of 0.6 can be considered. To relieve ground movement induced compressive stress, the line was uncovered. As more of the pipeline was exposed, the pipe abruptly bowed in the excavation. An analysis of this pipe formation which was performed is provided in this paper. Also discussed in this paper are ways to mitigate this pipe deformation or upheaval buckling from occurring. Keywords: Pipe Upheaval, Pipe Buckling, Ground subsidence, Buried Pipeline, Pipe Stress Mitigation.

Keywords: pipe upheaval, pipe buckling, ground subsidence, buried pipeline, pipe stress mitigation

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359 Graphic User Interface Design Principles for Designing Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Afshan Ejaz, Syed Asim Ali

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The reality is a combination of perception, reconstruction, and interaction. Augmented Reality is the advancement that layer over consistent everyday existence which includes content based interface, voice-based interfaces, voice-based interface and guide based or gesture-based interfaces, so designing augmented reality application interfaces is a difficult task for the maker. Designing a user interface which is not only easy to use and easy to learn but its more interactive and self-explanatory which have high perceived affordability, perceived usefulness, consistency and high discoverability so that the user could easily recognized and understand the design. For this purpose, a lot of interface design principles such as learnability, Affordance, Simplicity, Memorability, Feedback, Visibility, Flexibly and others are introduced but there no such principles which explain the most appropriate interface design principles for designing an Augmented Reality application interfaces. Therefore, the basic goal of introducing design principles for Augmented Reality application interfaces is to match the user efforts and the computer display (‘plot user input onto computer output’) using an appropriate interface action symbol (‘metaphors’) or to make that application easy to use, easy to understand and easy to discover. In this study by observing Augmented reality system and interfaces, few of well-known design principle related to GUI (‘user-centered design’) are identify and through them, few issues are shown which can be determined through the design principles. With the help of multiple studies, our study suggests different interface design principles which makes designing Augmented Reality application interface more easier and more helpful for the maker as these principles make the interface more interactive, learnable and more usable. To accomplish and test our finding, Pokémon Go an Augmented Reality game was selected and all the suggested principles are implement and test on its interface. From the results, our study concludes that our identified principles are most important principles while developing and testing any Augmented Reality application interface.

Keywords: GUI, augmented reality, metaphors, affordance, perception, satisfaction, cognitive burden

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358 Seismic Impact and Design on Buried Pipelines

Authors: T. Schmitt, J. Rosin, C. Butenweg

Abstract:

Seismic design of buried pipeline systems for energy and water supply is not only important for plant and operational safety, but in particular for the maintenance of supply infrastructure after an earthquake. Past earthquakes have shown the vulnerability of pipeline systems. After the Kobe earthquake in Japan in 1995 for instance, in some regions the water supply was interrupted for almost two months. The present paper shows special issues of the seismic wave impacts on buried pipelines, describes calculation methods, proposes approaches and gives calculation examples. Buried pipelines are exposed to different effects of seismic impacts. This paper regards the effects of transient displacement differences and resulting tensions within the pipeline due to the wave propagation of the earthquake. Other effects are permanent displacements due to fault rupture displacements at the surface, soil liquefaction, landslides and seismic soil compaction. The presented model can also be used to calculate fault rupture induced displacements. Based on a three-dimensional Finite Element Model parameter studies are performed to show the influence of several parameters such as incoming wave angle, wave velocity, soil depth and selected displacement time histories. In the computer model, the interaction between the pipeline and the surrounding soil is modeled with non-linear soil springs. A propagating wave is simulated affecting the pipeline punctually independently in time and space. The resulting stresses mainly are caused by displacement differences of neighboring pipeline segments and by soil-structure interaction. The calculation examples focus on pipeline bends as the most critical parts. Special attention is given to the calculation of long-distance heat pipeline systems. Here, in regular distances expansion bends are arranged to ensure movements of the pipeline due to high temperature. Such expansion bends are usually designed with small bending radii, which in the event of an earthquake lead to high bending stresses at the cross-section of the pipeline. Therefore, Karman's elasticity factors, as well as the stress intensity factors for curved pipe sections, must be taken into account. The seismic verification of the pipeline for wave propagation in the soil can be achieved by observing normative strain criteria. Finally, an interpretation of the results and recommendations are given taking into account the most critical parameters.

Keywords: buried pipeline, earthquake, seismic impact, transient displacement

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357 An Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Lubricants in Reducing the Sidewall Friction

Authors: Jian Zheng, Li Li, Maxime Daviault

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In several cases, one needs apply lubrication materials in laboratory tests to reduce the friction (shear strength) along the interfaces between a tested soil and the side walls of container. Several types of lubricants are available. Their effectiveness had been tested mostly through direct shear tests. These testing conditions are quite different than those when the tested soil is placed in the container. Thus, the shear strengths measured from direct shear tests may not be totally representative of those of interfaces between the tested soil and the sidewalls of container. In this paper, the effectiveness of different lubricants used to reduce the friction (shear strength) of soil-structure interfaces has been studied. Results show that the selected lubricants do not significantly reduce the sidewall friction (shear strength). Rather, the application of wax, graphite, grease or lubricant oil has effect to increase the sidewall shear strength due probably to the high viscosity of such materials. Subsequently, the application of lubricants between tested soil and sidewall and neglecting the friction (shear strength) along the sidewalls may lead to inaccurate test results.

Keywords: arching, friction, laboratory tests, lubricants

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
356 Study of Heat Conduction in Multicore Chips

Authors: K. N. Seetharamu, Naveen Teggi, Kiranakumar Dhavalagi, Narayana Kamath

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A method of temperature calculations is developed to study the conditions leading to hot spot occurrence on multicore chips. A physical model which has salient features of multicore chips is incorporated for the analysis. The model consists of active and background cell laid out in a checkered pattern, and this pattern repeats itself in each fine grain active cells. The die has three layers i) body ii) buried oxide layer iii) wiring layer, stacked one above the other with heat source placed at the interface between wiring and buried oxide layer. With this model we propose analytical method to calculate the target hotspot temperature, heat flow to top and bottom layers of the die and thermal resistance components at each granularity level, assuming appropriate values of die dimensions and parameters. Finally we attempt to find an easier method for the calculation of the target hotspot temperature using graph.

Keywords: checkered pattern, granularity level, heat conduction, multicore chips, target hotspot temperature

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355 Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Surfactant Concentrations on the Dynamics of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji

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Theoretically, there exist two mathematical interfaces (fluid-solid and fluid-fluid) when a liquid film is present on solid surfaces. These interfaces overlap if the mineral surface is oil-wet or mixed wet, and therefore, the effects of disjoining pressure are significant on both boundaries. Hence, dewetting is a necessary process that could detach oil from the mineral surface. However, if the thickness of the thin water film directly in contact with the surface is large enough, disjoining pressure can be thought to be zero at the liquid-liquid interface. Recent studies show that the integration of fluid-fluid interactions with fluid-rock interactions is an important step towards a holistic approach to understanding smart water effects. Experiments have shown that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at oil-water interfaces, and these ion-specific interactions lead to oil emulsion formation. The natural emulsifiers present in crude oil behave as polyelectrolytes when the oil interfaces with low salinity water. Wettability alteration caused by low salinity waterflooding during Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process results from the activities of divalent ions. However, polyelectrolytes are said to lose their viscoelastic property with increasing cation concentrations. In this work, the influence of cation concentrations on the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid-liquid interfaces is numerically investigated. The resultant ion concentrations at the crude oil/brine interfaces were estimated using a surface complexation model. Subsequently, the ion concentration parameter is integrated into a mathematical model to describe its effects on the dynamics of a viscoelastic interfacial thin film. The film growth, stability, and rupture were measured after different time steps for three types of fluids (Newtonian, purely elastic and viscoelastic fluids). The interfacial films respond to exposure time in a similar manner with an increasing growth rate, which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Increased surfactant accumulation at the interface results in a higher film growth rate which leads to instability and subsequent formation of more satellite droplets. Purely elastic and viscoelastic properties limit film growth rate and consequent film stability compared to the Newtonian fluid. Therefore, low salinity and reduced concentration of the potential determining ions in injection water will lead to improved interfacial viscoelasticity.

Keywords: liquid-liquid interfaces, surfactant concentrations, potential determining ions, residual oil mobilization

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354 Characterization of Mg/Sc System for X-Ray Spectroscopy in the Water Window Range

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Mohammed H. Modi, Rajnish Dhawan, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

Periodic multilayer mirrors have potential application as optical components in X-ray microscopy, particularly working in the water window region. The water window range, located between the absorption edges of carbon (285 eV) and oxygen (530eV), along with the presence of nitrogen K absorption edge (395 eV), makes it a powerful method for imaging biological samples due to the natural optical contrast between water and carbon. We characterized bilayer, trilayer, quadrilayer, and multilayer systems of Mg/Sc with ZrC thin layers introduced as a barrier layer and capping layer prepared by ion beam sputtering. The introduction of ZrC as a barrier layer is expected to improve the structure of the Mg/Sc system. The ZrC capping layer also prevents the stack from oxidation. The structural analysis of the Mg/Sc systems was carried out by using grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXRR) to obtain non-destructively a first description of the structural parameters, thickness, roughness, and density of the layers. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity measurements in the vicinity of Sc L-absorption edge were performed to investigate and quantify the atomic distribution of deposited layers. Near absorption edge, the atomic scattering factor of an element changes sharply depending on its chemical environment inside the structure.

Keywords: buried interfaces, resonant soft X-ray reflectivity, X-ray optics, X-ray reflectivity

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353 Patient Satisfaction Measurement Using Face-Q for Non-Incisional Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty with Modified Single-Knot Continuous Buried Suture Technique

Authors: Kwei Huan Liw, Sashi B. Darshan

Abstract:

Background: Double eyelid surgery has become one of the most sought-after aesthetic procedures among Asians. Many surgeons perform surgical blepharoplasty and various other methods of non-incisional blepharoplasty. Face-Q is a validated method of measuring patient satisfaction for facial aesthetic procedures. Here we have analyzed the overall eye satisfaction score, the upper eyelid appraisal score and the adverse effect on eyes score Methods: 274 patients (548 eyes), aged between 18 to 40 years old, were recruited from 2015-2018. Each patient underwent a non-incisional double-eyelid blepharoplasty using a single-knotted continuous buried suture. 3 – 5 stab incisions were made depending on the upper eyelid size. A needle loaded with 7-0 nylon is passed from the lateral most wound through the dermis and the conjunctiva in an alternate fashion into the remaining stab wounds. The suture is then tunneled back laterally in the deeper dermis and knotted securely with the suture end. The knot is then buried within the orbicularis oculi muscle. Each patient was required to fill the Face-Q questionnaire before the procedure and 2 weeks post procedure. The results are described based on the percentage of the maximum achievable score. Patients were reviewed after 12 to 18 months to assess the long-term outcome. Results: The overall eye satisfaction score demonstrated a high level of post-operative satisfaction (97.85%), compared to 27.32% pre-operatively. The appraisal of upper eyelid scores showed drastic improvement in perception post-operatively (95.31%) compared to 21.44% pre-operatively. Adverse effect on eyes score showed a very low post-operative complication rate (0.4%) The long-term follow-up showed 6 cases that had developed asymmetrical folds. Only 1 patient agreed for revision surgery. The other 5 patients were still satisfied with the outcome and were not keen for revision surgery. None of the cases had loosening of knots. Conclusion: Modified single-knot continuous buried suture technique is a simple and non-invasive method to create aesthetically pleasing non-surgical double-eyelids, which has long-term effects. Proper patient selection is crucial and good surgical technique is required to achieve a desirable outcome.

Keywords: blepharoplasty, double-eyelid, face-Q, non-incisional

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352 “Friction Surfaces” of Airport Emergency Plan

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

Abstract:

This article focuses on the issue of airport emergency plans, which are documents describing reactions to events with impact on aviation safety or aviation security. The article specifically focuses on the use and creation of emergency plans, where could be found a number of disagreements between different stakeholders, for which the airport emergency plan applies. Those are the friction surfaces of interfaces, which is necessary to identify and ensure them smooth process to avoid dangerous situations or delay.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system, friction surfaces of airport emergency plan, interfaces of processes

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351 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan

Abstract:

Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

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350 Measurement of Fatty Acid Changes in Post-Mortem Belowground Carcass (Sus-scrofa) Decomposition: A Semi-Quantitative Methodology for Determining the Post-Mortem Interval

Authors: Nada R. Abuknesha, John P. Morgan, Andrew J. Searle

Abstract:

Information regarding post-mortem interval (PMI) in criminal investigations is vital to establish a time frame when reconstructing events. PMI is defined as the time period that has elapsed between the occurrence of death and the discovery of the corpse. Adipocere, commonly referred to as ‘grave-wax’, is formed when post-mortem adipose tissue is converted into a solid material that is heavily comprised of fatty acids. Adipocere is of interest to forensic anthropologists, as its formation is able to slow down the decomposition process. Therefore, analysing the changes in the patterns of fatty acids during the early decomposition process may be able to estimate the period of burial, and hence the PMI. The current study concerned the investigation of the fatty acid composition and patterns in buried pig fat tissue. This was in an attempt to determine whether particular patterns of fatty acid composition can be shown to be associated with the duration of the burial, and hence may be used to estimate PMI. The use of adipose tissue from the abdominal region of domestic pigs (Sus-scrofa), was used to model the human decomposition process. 17 x 20cm piece of pork belly was buried in a shallow artificial grave, and weekly samples (n=3) from the buried pig fat tissue were collected over an 11-week period. Marker fatty acids: palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1n-9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acid were extracted from the buried pig fat tissue and analysed as fatty acid methyl esters using the gas chromatography system. Levels of the marker fatty acids were quantified from their respective standards. The concentrations of C16:0 (69.2 mg/mL) and C18:1n-9 (44.3 mg/mL) from time zero exhibited significant fluctuations during the burial period. Levels rose (116 and 60.2 mg/mL, respectively) and fell starting from the second week to reach 19.3 and 18.3 mg/mL, respectively at week 6. Levels showed another increase at week 9 (66.3 and 44.1 mg/mL, respectively) followed by gradual decrease at week 10 (20.4 and 18.5 mg/mL, respectively). A sharp increase was observed in the final week (131.2 and 61.1 mg/mL, respectively). Conversely, the levels of C18:2n-6 remained more or less constant throughout the study. In addition to fluctuations in the concentrations, several new fatty acids appeared in the latter weeks. Other fatty acids which were detectable in the time zero sample, were lost in the latter weeks. There are several probable opportunities to utilise fatty acid analysis as a basic technique for approximating PMI: the quantification of marker fatty acids and the detection of selected fatty acids that either disappear or appear during the burial period. This pilot study indicates that this may be a potential semi-quantitative methodology for determining the PMI. Ideally, the analysis of particular fatty acid patterns in the early stages of decomposition could be an additional tool to the already available techniques or methods in improving the overall processes in estimating PMI of a corpse.

Keywords: adipocere, fatty acids, gas chromatography, post-mortem interval

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349 Numerical Investigation on Performance of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Block in Protecting Buried Lifeline Structures

Authors: M. Abdollahi, S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi

Abstract:

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is often used in below ground applications in geotechnical engineering. A most recent configuration system implemented in roadways to protect lifelines such as buried pipes, electrical cables and culvert systems could be consisted of two EPS geofoam blocks, “posts” placed on each side of the structure, an EPS block capping, “beam” put atop two posts, and soil cover on the beam. In this configuration, a rectangular void space will be built atop the lifeline. EPS blocks will stand all the imposed vertical forces due to their strength and deformability, thus the lifeline will experience no vertical stress. The present paper describes the results of a numerical study on the post and beam configuration subjected to the static loading. Three-dimensional finite element analysis using ABAQUS software is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters such as beam thickness, soil thickness over the beam, post height to width ratio, EPS density, and free span between two posts, on the stress distribution and the deflection of the beam. The results show favorable performance of EPS geofoam for protecting sensitive infrastructures.

Keywords: beam, EPS block, numerical analysis, post, stress distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 147